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Non - Communicable Diseases. (Cidamna) Dr. PiangtA MBBS

Non - Communicable Diseases

Dr. PiangtA MBBS

Natna(Diseases) te khendan(classify) tampi om a, NCD(Non-Communicable Diseases) leh CD(Commmuinacable Diseases) cih pen khendan namkhat ahi hi. Communicable Disease(CD) a cih te pen natna nei khat tungpan adangte tung aki lawhthei natna te ahi hi. Hih natna te pen natna piangsak thei lungno-micro-organisms gtn..bacteria, fungus, parasite, virus cihte hang a, apiang hi pen hi.  

Non-Communicable Diseases (NCD) a cih te pen aki lawhthei lo natna (mikhat kiangpan dang te tung ) te hi a, Chronic diseases (a kumlui natna) cih inzong kisam hi. Nidang lai in CD te hang asi mi tam mahmah a, tuhun ciang NCD hang asi pen hongkhang semsem a, hong tamzaw (CD hang a si sang) phialta hi. Tua in banghang hiam cih leh mite nuntakdan, gamtatdan, neek le dawn te a kikhelna,zatuilam pilnate akhangtohna te hang ahi hi. Hih natna bulpi namnih lak ah NCD natna  te thu ahuam in thu pawlkhat hongkum nuam ingh.

NCD natna te pianzia(Characteristics) te in 
- Uncertain aetiology (tua hang piang cihtheih lian om lo) 
- Multiple risk factors or multifactorial caustion of disease (natna piang naang athapia thu tampi om) 
- Long latent period( hun sawtpi khit ciang piang pan) 
- Prolonged course of illness ( dam loh or nat hun sawt mahmah) -Non-contagious origin (ki lawh thei lo) 
- Some type of functional impairement or disability (pumpi gamtat, luhek nate nawngkai, siasak thei) 
- Rarely achieve curability ( damsiang nading hamsa) cih teng hi. 
Hih thute hang in, NCD natna te in i nuntakna ah haksat gentheihna tampi hong tun thei hi. 

Zatui zaha leina te hang(hun saupi sung) sum le paai tampi tak beina,ahun lopi a sihbaih na, pumpi zawngkhalna,innkuan sung haksatna, nasep zawhlohna, nuntak haksatna cihbang a tuamtuam in natna neite nuntakna ah nawngkai sakthei hi. 

Kawlgam ah ahi munpen(common ) NCD natna te in: 
1. Cardio-vascular disease -CVD( gtn: sikhang natna,lungtang natna) 
2. Diabetes Mellitus –D.M (sikhum,zunkhum natna) 
3. Cancer natna 
4. Obesity (thauluatna)
5. Accidents (tuahsiatna) etc.
- Tuhun ciang obesity (thauluatna) pen natna khat in kiciamteh a, treatment a la mi tampi omta hi.(Cardio-lungtang, Vascular-sigui)
- Hih atung a natna te lak pan
1. CVD natna(sikhang natna, lungtang natna),
2. D.M(sikhum, zunkum natna,
3. Cancer natna te thu hong at khia ingh. 

Epidemiologists (Natna te’ thu akantel te) te in NCD natna (a kilawh theilo natna) te a pianna leh hih natna te hang sihna pen anuai a thu guk (six key sets of risk factors ) te tung ah ki nga pii pen hi ci in na um, na sang uh hi.Tua te in; 
(1) Cigarrette use of smoking (Zatep na )
(2) Alcohol abuse ( Zu dawnna) 
(3) Failure or inability to obtain preventive health services ( natna thudon lohna,zato or clinic ah   hoihtak kilak lohna) 
(4) Lifestyle changes ( nuntakzia-neek-ledawn, pumpi gamtangna) 
(5) Environmental risk factors (kiim-le-pam huzaapna-nasepna pan, huih sianglo, tui sianglo te pan cihbang.. ) 
(6) Stress factors ( lunggim, Lung patauh luatna te ) 

Hih thu guk te siksan in NCD natna te thu (kidop ding, kidal ding) pawlkhat kong gen nuam hi.. 

Risk Factors in NCD (Natna piangnang a thapia or a khangsak thu te) 
1.Cigarrette use or smoking ( Zatepna) 

“Some people commit suicide by drowning , but many by smoking”ci hi. Za i tep leh ei leh ei aki thatthat hi hang. 

(i) CVD(Cardiovascular Diseases gtn. sikhang natna, lungtang natna) 
- Zatepna in ischaemic heart disease ( lungtang siitawm natna) natna apiang sakthei thu bulpi ahi hi. ( major risk factor) 
- Za tawnkhat sung ah constituents (gtn. Carcinogen, metals, irritants,nicotine etc) tampi om a, tua te in pumpi sungah siatna tampi piangsak hi. 
- Za atep tuaktuak , tawntam atep te, hunsau veipi atep te in natna piang or neih nang manlang zaw hi. IHD natna nei khin te in zaphiat zo leh a natna uh nuam tuam mah mah ci hi. 

(ii)D.M(Diabetes Mellitus-sikhum zunkhum natna) 

(iii)Cancer natna -Gam khangto (developed conutries) te ah cancer natna hang asi lakah 30% pen zatepna (tobacco use) hang a piang hi pi pen hi ci hi. Zatepna hang in lung cancer (tuap), mouth(kam), laryn x, pharynx, oesophagus(gong le dang), bladder(zumbu), pancreas(sinkha), kidney(kal) cancer te piangthei hi. Zakhu lutsukna, tunna munte hi pen hi. 

2.Alcohol abuse (Zu dawnluatna) CVD. 
-Zu tamdawn (nikhat 75g or a tam zaw ) te Coronary Heart Disease(lungtang siigui natna), Hypertension(siikhang natna) leh adang cardiovascular disease (lungtang natna tuamtuam te) natna te apiang nading thapia mahmah hi. 

D.M 
- Zu tam dawnluat na in sin(liver ) le pancreas(sinkha) siasak a, pumpi thau tuam (obese) sak in , sikhum, zunkhum natna piangsak thei hi. 

Cancer 
- Zu (alcohol ) dawnluatna in oesophagus(dang) cancer, sin (liver) cancer piangsak thei hi. Beer dawndawn na pan in rectal(gilzang) cancer piangthei hi. Cancer hanga asi 3% pen zu dawnna hang ahi hi.

3. Failure or inability to obtain preventive health services (natna thudon lohna, zato or clinic ah hoihtak kilak lohna) 
- Hih NCD natna te pen adam nang haksa ci in, bangmah hih loh in i koihkhong ding hi lo hi. Siavuan te kiang ki lak in , hong lamlakna bang i bawl,i zuihding hoihpen hi. Tua bang hi kei leh hih natna te i complication(a nua ah nawngkai sakna) te hong lut ding a i thuak loh ding pi ki thuak beh thei hi. Gtn, Sikhang natna nei te in BP (Blood Pressure) control hoihtak aneih ding ki sam hi. Banghang hiam cih leh BP control hoih kei leh a complication te ahi stroke( pum zaw thei), Heart Failure(lungtang siathei), Renal failure(Kal siathei), Retinopathy (mit sukha thei) cih bang piang thei hi. Tua ahih man in NCD natna te I neih khit teh hoihtak don in ,i kikep mahmah kul hi.

4. Lifestyle Changes (neek-le-dawn , pumpi gamtangna or exercise) 

CVD 
-Neek-le-dawn tawh ki sai in a zollua( high in saturated fat ), akhum lua ( high in sugar ), a-al lua(high salt), mehteh mehgah tawmnek luatna(low in fruits, vegetables)te in  IHD(luntang natna..) te piang tuamsak mahmah hi. Ci(salt) tam nekluatna , a zollua (fat ) neekna, dietary fibre(mehteh mehgah pawlkhat ah ki hel) tawmnekna te in sikhang natna zong piangsak thei hi. -Sedentary lifestyles ( tut tamluatna or pumpi activity tawmluatna ) in hih natna te piang nang thapia mahmah hi. 

D.M 
- A tung a neekle-dawn(dietary pattern) zia te leh sedentary lifestyle in sikhum, zunkhum (DM) natna zong piang sak thei hi. 

CANCER 
- Dietary factor (neek-le-dawn) in cancer natna piangsak thei thubulpi nihna (second leading cause of cancer) ahi hi. 
- Dietary fibre tawmnekna pan in colorectal(ngoi,kal,gilzang)cancer piangthei hi. 
- Ganthaau(high animal dietary fat) tamnekna in colon(gilzang) cancer, breast (nawi) cancer cih te piangsak thei hi. 
- Meh al-lua nekna (increased salty food intake), ci tawh sawtpi aki diah an or meh (pickled food), a siatloh nang aki bawltawm an (preserved food) te in CA stomach (Gilpi cancer) piangsak thei hi.
- A ki em an tamnekna(gtn smoked fish ) hang in stomach (gilpi) cancer piangthei hi.
- A sa lua neek-le-dawn(very hot drinks and food) te in oral(kam) cancer, pharynx, oesophagus(dang or gong) cancer te piangsak thei hi. 

5.Environmental Factors ( kiim-le-paam huzapna- nasepna pan(occupational hazard),air and water pollution) 

CVD 
- Pawlkhat in zatep lo napii, zatepna hang a, apiang thei natna ngahthei mawk hi. Tua in a kiim apam a zakhu( huih sianglo) te adiik khakna hang ahi hi. Nasep pawlkhat (tut atam) te in hih natna te piangnang thapia mahmah hi. 

D.M 
- Viral infections pawlkhat (eg. rubella, mumps, coxsackie& virus B4 ..) te in pumpi sung a beta-cells te siasak thei a,sikhum zunkhum piangsak thei hi. 
-Chemical agents pawl khat (eg. Alloxan,streptozotocin etc.) te in betacells mah siasak a, sikhum, zunkhum piangsak thei hi.  

CANCER 
- Nasepna pan a a kisukha(occupational exposure) chemical pawlkhat (eg. Benzene, arsenic, Abestos, Chromium etc) te in cancer natna  piangsak thei hi. Tua ban ah Bပိုး C ပိုး pan in liver(sin) cancer, HIV pan in Kaposi’s sarcoma, EBV (Epstein –Barr virus) hang in nasopharyngeal(huih diikna..) cancer le Burkitt’s lymphoma, hPV (Human Papilloma virus) hang in cancer of cervix(naubu) cih te piang thei  hi. 
-Ki teenbaih luatna (Early marriage) in Ca cervix (naubu cancer)  piang nang khangsak mahmah hi.

6.Stress Factors 
- Type A personality (Mi a demdem, alung patautau, lung himaawh den, a lungtom,a lungkim theilo mite) te ah hihbang natna te piangzaw ki ci hi. 

: Hih thu bulpi guk te pen risk factors vive hi a, hih risk factors tuamtuam a nei te ah NCD natna te a piang nang khangsak(tam) mahmah hi. Hih thuguk teng pen a bulpi teng hi aa, adang hih natna te apiangsak thei ahang anengneng om lai hi. 

Tua leh hihnatna ( NCD ) te koi ci ki dal ding ? (Prevention)                        
Hih natna te pan i ki daltheih nang in i gensa risk factors te tengmah in i ki dal theihna hi pen hi. Ahuam in gen ni ci leng, zu dawn lo ding,zatep lo ding, neek-le-dawn kidawm ding (akhum, a-al, azol lua te khiam ding), pumpi gamtang sak ding (gtn. exercise bawl or lamsiau) i kim i pam a huih siangtholo, ahoih lo chemicals te pan ki hemkhia ding, i lungsim kemcing ding cihteng hipah hi. NCD natna te i neih khit leh zong siavuan, siamah te tung manman kilak in ,i natna tawh ki sai kikum khawm in , amau lamlakna bang i zuih ding hoih pen hi.

Source : 
Ciimnuai Vontawi SiamSin Kipawlna - Magway 
Kum “10” Cin magazine 2013

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Item Reviewed: Non - Communicable Diseases. (Cidamna) Dr. PiangtA MBBS Description: Rating: 5 Reviewed By: Cinpu Zomi
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