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ZOGAM AH SINGKUNG SUAN KIKNA [Reforestation in Chin State]. A gelh - Pa Khup Khan Thang

ZOGAM AH SINGKUNG SUAN KIKNA
[Reforestation in Chin State]
gelh -  Pa Khup Khan Thang
Photo Credit : Cinpu Zomi
I.              Project min (Name of project)
Hih project in Zogamah singkung suan kikna (Reforestation in Chin State) ahi hi.

II.            Project Thu Nunglam Tangthu (Project background history)
AD 1400 kum kiim pawla kipanin Kalay-Kabaw valley panin i pu i pate’n tu laitaka i ten’na Khamtung gam na zuan tota uh hi kici hi.  Tua huna kipan i Zo lokhawh (slash and burn shifting cultivation) na kizangta hi.  I Khamtung gam leilup keen lua ahih manin i lokhawhna leihoih (humus/ top soil) teng guahtui in tai pahpah a, kum 3, kum 4 bang teh lothak zuat kul den hi. Mihing kitam semsem a, kum hong sawt semsem ciangin, i singkung lopa teng hong bei cialcial hi.  Tuma kum 30 lai pawlin “Singgai” zon nadingin i singkung tampi i phukmang zo hi.  Tua banah tu-in singkung sangdawn-a om palpi paak nam khat, Sen gamah kizuak thei cih thu i theih ciangin sum zon nadingin singkung sang teng phukin palpi paak i kaikhawm leuleu hi.  Tu in gammang tulak (virgin forest) i cih ding, Khamtung gamah a om nawnlo hi mai hi.

Singkung lopa om nawn lo ahih maningamlak ganhing, vasa teng beimang hi. Leitung Galpi Nih ma bangin Phatzang (Stockade III) kimah Sahang (tiger) a tam dan, Nelson Tonu’ “Rough Roads, Good Life” cih a laibu gelh sungah, “Immediately we began a steep climbing 1200 ft in 6 miles to an altitude of 3900 ft.  Later we learned this particular 6 miles stretch held a large number of tigers.”  Palpi paak a tam dan “Orchids covered the mountain wall and trees along the path.  Calla     lilies bloomed and flourished at Fort White, a cold spot, where we spent the next night” ci-in na ciamteh hi.  Khamtung gam a hoihdan, (Lord Mountbatten enjoyed his trip and noted that “the scenery is incredibly beautiful and although it takes an average 10 solid hour of driving to get from Imphal to Tiddim every moment of it was really thrilling”) ci’n Kelly’s Burma Campaign sungah na kiciamteh hi.

I pu i pate’n singkung suan’ na hahkat uh hiam? cih ciaptehna i neih loh hangin, Guite in Theikung, Haikung, Paangkun suan’ na hahkat uh hi cih, 1st Chin State Council Chairman a sem Pu Kap Cung Nung (Lt Col Retd) in gen belin nei hi kici hi.  Sakollam veng tu-a Pu Suan Do (Lt Col Retd) innmuna po Paangpi (Late 50s kima kiphuk hi-in um ing) bang, Tuimui khua-a teng Pu Mang Cin Pau’ pi’ suan hi kici hi.  Sangmangte le Mangkang Vuandokte’n Mangtaak kung hong suan uh a, bang kum hiam khat lai-in Kawlte’n Mangtaak kung a luang, a biak uh milim pasian bawl nangin hoih mahmah ahih manin deih mahmah uh a, pi khat a sau bang Ks 10,000/- bangin lei hi cih zuauthu hong ging a, Sangmang huang sung a teng le Vuandok inn (quarter) mai-a a kung golpi pen kiphuk mang pah hi.

1960 kiim pawlin Lawibual veng khangnote’n Lawibual Primary School sak lamdungah Eucalyphus kung suan phei diudeu uh a, Sum (mortar) a suih theih ding ciacia pha ta hi mah leh, 1990 kiim pawl ciangin tua mun tengah Sipintaya-te’n Ye (bazaar) lam ding ci-in kiphuk mang leuleu hi.

1967 kumin Zangkong Zomi Siamsin Taangsum (Rangoon University) kipawlna makaite leh Zangkong pan hong ciah pak Pu Khup Za Cin’ hanciamna tawh, Tedim khua khangno teng hong hansuahin lamdung tengah Phuitong kung kisuan zihziah hi.  Pu Khup Za Cin in vok tuk 4 gual khat go-in, voksa tangciim tawh vak hi.  Tua Phuitongte lak-ah Laito Zum lui (old post office) kianga tegel a kiphuk nunung pen hi kha ding hi.

1971 kiim pawlin Lawibual khangnote hanciamna tawh, Maymyo khua pan, Silver Oak, Eucalyptus, Seinpanpya/ Seinpanni, Mangtaak cihte singkung hoih nono tampi la-in lamdung teng ah kisuan leuleu hi.  Zato luikawi Dr Kam Cin Dal’ inn mai-a Silver Oak bek, a kiphuk nai kei leh a suakta lai hi ding hi.  Tua khita kipan mipi hanciamna tawh singno suan cih a om pha nawn lo hi.

III.           Singkung a thupitna thu
Mihingte’n i sa’nkhiat huu (carbon dioxide), mawtaw, set tuamtuamte’n a sankhiat meikhu teng (carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide) singkung in anhuan nadingin na zang a, mihingte’n i nuntak nanga i diik Oxygen-in hong piangsak kik hi.  Cina gim mahmah a si dektakte Oxygen kidik sak hi.  Mihing khat in kha khat sunga a sankhiat huu (CO2) teng i diik kik ding Oxygen a suaksak kik dingin, singkung gol 4 kisam hi.  Singkung om loin mihing ganhingte kinungta thei lo hi.  Mimal khat ciat in i Nauluai dinga kipan i Hankuang bawl nading ciang singkung kisam hi.

Tu-in i Ciktuite, lui neute kang zo ta hi.  I Meitei gunpi nangawn a kang dekdek phial hi ta hi.  Bang hang aitam?  Singkung lopate’n a om ngei nai lo ciktui phul sak thei sam lo hi.  Ahih hang guah hong zuk ciangin tha khatin hawktui a, a luan loh nadingin na khaam a, guahtui in lei sungah tampi na tum man hi.  Singzungte, lopa zungte’n guahtui na khol a, dam damin khahkhiakik ahih manin a kang ngei lo ciktui (perennial spring) piangsak hi.

Singkung ankung, anteh theipuam a piangsak leihoih teng (humus/ top soil), hawktui in taimang ta, Kawlzang lam puak suk mang ta, Khamtungah an kikham nawn lo, Singkung lopa om nawn lo ahih manin guah a zuk ciangin tha khatin hawkin (as surface runoff) luanga leihoih teng taimang pah hi.  Huih nangawn in mut mang ta hi. The early 1970s ciang ciang, Akluai taam sung mawtaw lam phungte bang enle’ng 8" pan 12" bang leihoih a vom (humus) lukhu khu bangin khu neunau hi.  A Taampi sung bang i khe tawh i sikna mun a kiim, pi khat patle (radius 1 ft perimeter) bang ling nuahnuah zawzen hi.  Tu’n tua humus-te a omlai hiam?  Rangoon Unicef, Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation ah Project Assistance ka sep sung, Tonzang Township, Cikha khua pan Thantlang Township Mawngtlang khua ciang, khua tampi ka zin kawikawina sungah pupa ngeina logam singhalh hawidan/ kepdan Sihzang kual etteh huai pen ka sa hi.

IV.          Project tupna le ngimna (Project aim & object)
Leitung khuahun sat luatna khaam nading, Gamlak ganhing, vasate le singkung lopate kepcing nading.  (To control Global Warming, To preserve wild life and forest).

Global Warming hanga a piang lauhuainate:
Carbon Dioxide level Rise:
Tuma kum 140 lai-a kipan leitung gammang tulakte kiphuk/ hahin fossil fuel kikang sak/ hal den ahih manin, tu-in leimai tuam huih lakah Carbon Dioxide (CO2) seh awnkhat lakah seh zakhat (100 part per million) ciang phato ta hi.  Leitung bup satna (temperature) in tuma kum 100 lai sangin 1°F sa zaw hi.  Khuadam deuhna mun tampite ah, a satna a khang 1°F sang tamzaw lai hi.  1950 kuma kipan, huih lakah carbon dioxide le lei maitang satna hong khangvat phadeuh hi.

Oceans Warm, precipitation increase:
Tuipi tui satna khang ahih manin, Bangladesh gamah zavat natna (cholera) khangsak hi.  Guah tamluatna in buhlote tui in tumcip a, mihingte puksih natna (malnutrition) khangsak hi.  A lauhuai mahmah huihpi (hurricane) piangsak hi.

Glaciers Melt & Sea level rises:
Tuikhal gunpite tui-in tuipite ah hong luangsuk a, tuipi tui mahmah a satna khang ahih manin hong pawm/ gol (expand) a, tuipi maitang sanna (sea level) zong hong khangto hi.  Tuipi maitang sanga pi 8 (8 feet) a sangzaw Maldives gam adingin patauh huai ta hi.  Tuipi maitang sanna letmat 4 (4 inches) bek khang leh leitaw lam tuipi sunga om tuikulh tampite tui in a tup ding patuah huai hi.

Ice melting, Permafrost thaws and Wildfire increase:
Leilu lama om Arctic tuipi a tuamcip tuikulhte in 1979 kuma kipan kum 10 lom sialin 9% kiam den hi.

Lakes Shrink, Mountain streams run dry, droughts linger:
Africa continent sungah guahzu lo den ahih manin, Africa continent sunga bual lian pen Chad in 1960 kuma a phak cia sangin 10% neuzaw ta hi.  I Rihli zong neu semsem ta hi.  1999 kuma kipan tu (2004) ciang kum 5 sung khua keu, guahzu lo ahih manin, US gam Leitaw lam Nitumna a teng mi awn tampite tui le hydroelectricity a pia, Colorado gam tuibeem (Colorado River Reservoir) a lang bek dimlai (half full) hi.

Spring arrives earlier and Autumn comes later, shorter Winter:
Kum zalom 19na (19th century) sungin bual tampite Nahkiat hun (Autumn/ Fall) sungin tui khalhak zaw a, Singteh Non hun (Spring) in a tuikhalte tui baih zaw hi.  USA gama om Mendota bualpi pen 1860 kumin ni 119 sung tui khal a, 2004 kumin ni 80 sung bek khal hi.  Finland gama om Kallavesi bualpi pen 1838 kumin ni 178 sung tui khal a, 1992 kumin ni 167 bek tui khal hi.  Russia gama om Baikal bualpi zong 1873 kumin ni 128 sung tui khal a, 1992 kumin ni 105 bek khal hi.

Plant flower sooner, plants shift:
Thuamluak kiat hun tomzaw (fewer days of fros) ahih manin, Switzerland gam Leitaw lam mualdawna om singkung lopate (plants) mualdawn lam zuanin kinto to a, a om ngei lo lengla singkung lopate (exotic plants) zong hong uilut (invade) uh hi.

Migration times vary, birds nest earlier:
1980 kumin Africa gam pan Netherlands gamah bu tom dinga a lal lunggam no tawh kivak vasa namte, April kha 25 ni kiimin vaitung bu tomin, lunggam note keuh hun ahi June kha ni 3 ni kiimin vasa no keuh hi.  2000 kum ciangin vasa honte April kha 25 ni kiim mahin vaitung butom uh hi mahleh, lunggam note May kha 15 ni, June kha ni 3 sangin nipi 2 (2 week) bang malepin hong keuh sam hang, vasa no keuh hun le a kivak na’ng lunggamnote keuh hun kituak nawn lo ahih manin vasanote puksi hi.

Gender gap:
Sumkuang tuite (Turtles’ eggs) a op hun (incubation) sung khuahun satna hong khan’na hangin a pa (male) sangin a nute (female) tam keuh zaw hi cih sawtpi lai pekin scientists-te’n mukhia khin zo hi.

(National Geographic, September 2004) Weather turning wild:
2004 kum, September kha sung bekbekin Atlantic tuipi Nitumna lama om gam pawl khat le America gam Nisuahna lama om gamke pawl khat, huihpi guahpi (hurricane) in thumvei bang nawk a, mi tamsim a sih banah, inn le lo, setzung kisia tam mahmah a, supna baina tampi om hi. 2005 kum August kha 29 ni-in Hurricane Katrina in America gam Gulf Coast nawk a, New Orleans khuapi tui in tum hi.  Hih bang dana nidang tawh a kibang nawn lo, i Zogamah zong tampi om khin ding hi.  Sia Dim Lam Thang in ka neulai-in Kawlpi pai ding zingsang khuavak ma-in Tedim pan ka din’ uh leh Lawibual bual zang ka tun’ uh teh lingmin kung nuai pan Kamkei khat hong taikhia ci hi.  Tu hunin i Zogamah Kamkei (leopard) a om lai diam?  Khamtung gamah nidangin i zak ngei khol loh thu, tu kum 2005 kum khuakhal sungin mihing 3 gam in kanglum hi.  Khamtungah khuahun man nawn lo, guahzu leh lah tamlua, nisa leh lah uang sat lua,.  2005 kumin Tedim khua-ah guah tamlua ahih manin Tedim khua laizang mun khat kicim dingin pi khat (1 foot) bang kikekin inn 5 bang ki-om/ teng ngam nawn lo hi.

V.            Project hun (Project Period):
Kum 2005 pan 2010 ciang (1st phase)

VI.          Project sep nading mun (Project Area)
Tedim, Tonzang, Cikha Township (1st phase), Chin State buppi (2nd phase)

VII.         Sum sii dingte (Funding Agency)
A vei, a uuk, a deihsak Zomi mimal khat ciat le NGO pawl khat:  Tuipi galkai sumzonga om Zomi mimal khat ciat in i thalawh zah tung pan, 1% ciat beek (or) i lawh sumlepaaite itsitlo-a i phal zahzah, kha sim maw? (or) kha 3 sim maw? a lem bangbang pia ding/ khia ding.  I omna gam ciatah NGO kipawlna khat pepeuh zong zawn/ huhna ngen ding.  I omna gam ciat le khua (Yangon, Mandalay, Kalaymyo, cbg....) sum ngen kawikawi ding.  A kisap leh fund raising committee zong phuan ding. Zomi mimal khat ciat in hanciamin sum khia ding.

VIII.        A vaan dingte (Executing Committee)
A kiseh/ kiteel committee-te le a kisai kumpi department lamte.  “Hih executing committee pen a kisap kei leh phiat thei hi.”  (i)  Committee pi (Main Committee) (a) Pawl lutang (b) Thuvanpi (c) Township Committee pan executive officio member khat ta (ii) Township Level Committee (a) Pawl lutang (Township forest officer) (b) Sangpi pan a kiteel siate (iii) Village Tracks/ Village level committee (a) Khua Hausa (b) Khua sung siapipa/ sangsia khat pepeuh (c) Biakna pawlpi tuamtuam pan taangmi khat ta.

IX.          A sem dingte (Implementing Agency)
Zomi mimal khat ciat. Social mobilization.  Veina, uukna le deisakna tawh, a thagui a thatang, a sum a paai le a hun a piakhia ngam Zomi mimal khat ciat in volunteer-in sem ding hi. A kisambang bangin tangtha kuana sem ding hi.

X.            Nasep danding (Procedure of implementation)
A masa penin kum masa nasep nading mun, sehkholhna le kiginkholhna (project preparation and mobilization) neih masak ding kisam hi.  Nasepna khempeuh lai tawh, man (photograph) tawh, video tawh record neihden ding kisam hi.  Project kipatma le kipatkhita kilamdan’na nasep zawh zah zaksakna (progress report) cihte, mipi tungah pulak den ding.  Sum ngahna zatna peuhmah mipi in a ettheih ding/dottheih dingin selsim om loin pulaak den ding.  Kum kipat sialin, project phuala omte in, kum khat sung sepding gelkholhna (gtn. Plan of action for 2006) bawl dinga, a hun lapin mipi tungah hong zasak ding hi.  (i) Zomi mimal khat ciat in, Singkung a thupitzia le na sepdan ding a telsiam theih nadingin, college sangnaupangte, vakkawn thuhilh siate, committee-te, hause upate, cbg... te’n hilhcianna (awareness camp) bawl ding hi. (ii) Khuahun (climate), a sanna (altitude), zui-in a kisuan ding singkungte ciin’na (nursery) Khaikam/ Tulsuk, Taingen, Valung (Bamboo camp), Thuklai, Taakkhawl, Tedim, Vialcian, Tonzang, Cikha khuate-ah bawl masa ding.  (iii) A nam hoihpen singkungte ciing ding. {gtn. Taaksing bang a namhoih ahi Singgial taang lamate atang (seed) pawi ding.} (iv) Khuahun (climate leh a sanna (altitude) zuiin, a pothei ding, paaknei singkung nam (gtn: Ngeisok, phuitong, Vau, Suangkua, Phihtu, Seinpanni & pya, cbg...) le a gah kinethei singkung nam (Hai, Thei, Tuankum, Bil, Singpi/manawi (jack fruit), Thawhbat (avocado), Meitei tuamtuam, cbg...) lamsak lamkhang pi 100 ciangah suan ding.  (v) Ansing dinga kizang thei a khangbaih singkungte leh Innlam nadinga kizang thei singkung namte, nambat (iv) na i suante zom panin gam sung hih zawh zahzah ciang dong suan ding.  Kham le zaang ci’in le Meitei gunpaang tengah a manpha singkungte (Dol, Cilan, Inn, Ngaingaw cbg...) suan ding. (vi). Khamtung gamah khuadam ahih manin kha 6 sung bang mei-awi kul hi. A dang kha 6 sung meiawi kul lo hi.  Tua ahih ciangin mei-awi kul lo kha 6 sung, an huan na’ng sing tam kisamlo tap, (fuel safe smokeless stove) te zat ding, mipi hanthawn ding. (vii) Inn ganhing khawi khuaneute-ah, gan-ek (Bawng, Vok) pan gas thohna dan (mini bio gas plant) bawlsak, bawldan hilh ding. (viii) Gamsa, vasa, baak, khuai, kau, cbg... te kuama’n a thah mawkmawk loh nading khaam ding.  Bang hang hiam? cih leh singkung pawlkhat a pokik nading leh a gah nadingin hih ganhingte a kisam om hi. (ix) Singkung lopate kisusia lo a, lo vat kul lo a, a kisuan thei, sumsuak lokhawhna dan, {Kaphi, niangteh, aigiacil cbg... (cash crop: Coffee, tea, Cardamom cbg...)} mipi tungah hilh ding. (x) Sloping Agricultural Land Technology (SALT) lokhoh dan, mipi tungah hilhin, zangsak ding.  (xi) Sing taanga kizang thei ding (fire wood substitute) electric, gas, solar energy, wind energy cbg... hanciamin zang ding. (xii). Nang omna gam state/khua a om a gah kine thei singkung namte a tang (seed), pak khaicite (Flowers’ seed) te i Zogamah khak ding.

XI.          Khaam Ding. (Prohibited)
(1). Lui neute a kipan Meitei gunah kuamah in ngasa gu (poison) buak thei lo ding. 
(2). Lui neute a kipan Meitei gunah kuamah in, a puakkham thei bomb ahi zongin, Rifle tawh ahi zongin, ngasa kap thei lo ding.
(3). Lui neute a kipan Meitei gunah kuamah in, bicycle dynamo ahi zongin, generator khat pepeuh tawh ahi zongin, zangin electric shock na tawh ngasa man thei lo ding.
(4) Lui neute a kipan, Meitei gunah kuamahin, ngawi dawh thei lo ding. 
(5) Leitunga vak gamlak ganhingte khempeuh, kuamah in beng/ kap/ that thei lo ding. 
(6) Leitung a, a awmtal gamlak ganhingte khempeuh, kuamah in beng/ kap/ that thei lo ding. 
(7) Vana leeng vasate kuamah in beng/ kap/ that thei lo ding. ngaihsutna-ah tan sawm dongah sintoh dingin i lai, i late i sin tohtoh ding ka sunmang hi. 
(8) A gah kine thei gamlak singkungte, kuamah in phuk thei lo ding. 
(9) A paak nei gamlak singkungte, kuamah in phuk thei lo ding, a hiang (branch) golpi tawh satin la thei lo ding. 
(10) Gamlak paalpi (orchid) te, aituam phattuam nang’ zuaksum dingin, kuamah in la thei lo ding.  (11) Gam hal thei lo ding.

XII.         Phal thei Ding. (Licensed)
(a) Nga beng/man nuamte in, kipawlna tungah permit ngenin, a kisehzah sum tawh lei dinga, pupa ngeina, ngen (net), sikkawi (fishing hook, spoon) bek zangin, a kiphal hun (fishing season) sung bekin, beng/man thei bek ding hi. 
(b) Gamsa beng/vai nuamte in, kipawlna tungah permit ngenin, a sa nam tawh kizui a kisehzah sum tawh lei dinga, a kiphal hun sung bekin beng/vai thei ding hi.  Permit leina sum pen project fund-in kinei ding hi.


Khup Khan Thang
5104 Ladbrook Street
Norman. OK 73072, USA
Mobile Ph (405) 4090536 Res.
Ph: (405) 3216204
October 14,2004. Revised. October 30, 2005 * * *




Source :
ZOMI SIAMSIN MAGAZINE [ Vol 2, 2008 ]
Page 189-194.

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Item Reviewed: ZOGAM AH SINGKUNG SUAN KIKNA [Reforestation in Chin State]. A gelh - Pa Khup Khan Thang Description: Rating: 5 Reviewed By: Cinpu Zomi
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