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I MINAM MIN AMAANPEN CHIN MAW, LAIMI MAW, ZOMI ? Dr J Suan Za Dong MB,BS. DO.

 I  MINAM  MIN  AMAANPEN  CHIN MAW, LAIMI  MAW, ZOMI ? 
  Dr J Suan Za Dong MB,BS. DO.        
Sydney, AUSTRALIA


” Kuki-Chin akici minam khempeuh “Zo” (Dzo) ahi uh hi “Col.TH Lewin, Lushai Expedition 1971-72

”Chin cih ong pian khiatna Kawl pau ahih lam thei keng. Kei ngaihsutna ah Zomite’n tua bang kammal nei kei-in amau leh amau Zo kici uh hi”…  Capt. FM Rundall 1891.

”Khuangcawi/Lawngtuk pawi ciangin “ Kawl Gam’ ah hauhna na piak bangin ‘ko Zo Gam’ zong ong pia-in” ci-in phuisamin ngen uh hi. ….innsungdawi athoih uh ciangin a gam uh Zo Ram ci uh ahih teh amau zong Zomi mah a kicih ding uh hi”.... F K Lehman, Chin National Journal p 95

“Amau Kuki/Chin/ Lushai ci-in kisam ngei lo uh hi. Kawlte leh ei piak min ong sang lo uh hi; Amau leh amau Zo ( Zhou) kici uh hi”…. Sir James George Scott ( 1911-32) 

“Chin i cih Kuki minamte avekpi un aki sapna uh Zo (Yo)  ahi hi”….B S Currey & H N Tuck 1932

“Ka neulai un ‘Zotlang pan i piang hi’ ong ki ci hi. Tua ahih ciangin Zo pen i minam min amaan ahi hi. Lai, i minam min hi lo hi”. ….Rev Sang Lin of Haka..1952

“ Ka thukim hi. Zo pen I minam min ahi hi; kei mahmah zong Zokhua aa thuhilh siapa ka hihi.”….Rev Sang Fen of Zokhua 1952

Kumpite-in Chin ci aa ong minvawh hangin i minam min taktak hi lo ci-in i lungkim zo lo hi. Kumpi minvawh khempeuh maan kim lo ahih manin, Chin  zong  ‘kumpi min vawh khialh’ khat ahi hi. I pu i pate-in zong na saang lo uh hi. A hih hangin  The Chin Hills Regulations, 1896 kum aa kipan tuni dong kum 120 sung i minam min taktak selin i zang lai hi.

Gamkeek Mangkangte-in ong dong lo, ong thei sak beek lopi-in Chin ong ci ngiau uh hi. Tua ahih manin, a maan niman min neih ding ki pulaak zel napi ki thukim zo nai lo-in kum tampi bei khin ta hi. I kithukim lohna ahang kikan lo-in ki ngaihsun kha beek lo hi.  I lampi ong khakpi pen, thudang hi lo-in,  mipite-in CHIN, LAI leh ZO tangthu limtak itheih loh man bek ahi hi. I tangthu sung ah kician silselin i minam min a-om hi.

Taanglai pek pan ei leh ei i kisapna leh ‘mi khat’ i hihna thei lehang tua min i saang thei ding hi. Mualtung i tun khit aa i min, Ciimnuaimi, Laimi-te-in ong huai zo lo hi. I bulpi, Tibet pan, Kawl gam itun dong, mipilte ong ciapteh sak, i tangthute i siksan kul ding hi. Kuki/Lushai/Chin a kicih ciangin Bangalite, Asamte leh Kawlte-in ei, Zomite ong cihna uh ahi hi. Maj Snodgrass-in “Hih Lushai/Kuki/Chin-te minam ‘nation’ khat ahi uh hi” ci hi.  1827 The Burmese War.. ISoCI p5. 

1.CHIN : Chin cih min ong piankhiatna nam nihin ki khen thei hi. Khanglui thu upna leh apua lam pan ong kisapna pan ong piang ahi hi. 

(a) Khanglui upna: Mizo gam aa om Ralte khanglui upna ah, “ Leitung bup khimzingin, tua khit ciangin mihingte lei gilsung pan ‘ Chinlung’ kici suang tumpi, kuahawm ah ong pusuak uh hi” J Shakespear 1912. ISoCI p5). Khanglui upna ahih mah bangin tuni dong Chinlung koi lai ah om cih ki thei lo-in atuamtuamin, Pu Gin Za Tuangin Tibet gam hi dingin um aa (1973.7), Pu Zawla in Sengam sung (1976,2)  leh Pu Gangte in Chindwin sung dingin ummawh hi. (1993,14)  In Search of Chin Identity p 5, 9.

(b)  A pualam pan ong kipia min: (i) Prof. Gordon Luce genna ah “ Kawl kumpite-in, agal Manipur leh Tripura-te a dal dingin mual mite a gam uah om sak uh hi. Tua ahih manin, ‘lawm’/‘zawl’ - ‘thu-nge-chin’ ci-in na sam uh hi”. “Tua pan Chin ong piang” ci hi. Lehman, Chin National Journal p 93. 

(ii)  Carey leh Tuck in ”Sente’n mi a cihna ‘jin’/‘jen’ pen Kawl pau-in ‘Chin’hi ding hi” ci hi. ISoCI p 3.
Amaan lopi aa tangthu kheelna: I tangthu aki-atna khempeuh ah ei leh ei Zo (Asho. Cho, Khumi, Mizo), Lai leh Batu i kici hi. Chin a deih Dr LH Sakhong in ” Chin kici kammal pen atungapatin Chin mite bek hi lo-in i veng, Kachin, Shan leh Kawlte’n zong zang uh hi” ci hi. In Search of Chin Identity” p 3.  Midangte’n zang mah hi. I pu i pate-in Chin zang lo hi. Zadah lai uh hi. 

Ei leh ei Khlang ( Chin) kici ngei lo :  Pagan mualsuang 1084-1113: Kumpi Kyanzittha-in aphuh suang tung ah ‘Khlang’ kici  Chin pen “Chin i hihna lak hi” ci-in adeihkaih pawl khat om hi. Chin ikicihna hi lo hi. Kawl kumpite-in tua hun pekin ong sapna hi lel hi. Kumpi in Chin min ong piak zawh tu-in kum 120 pha khin napi tu ciang dong khuaneute ah Chin bang hiam cih kithei lo hi. 

Sakhong in, ” Atuung a patin amau leh amau Chin kici uh hi” acih leh anuai aa mipil tampite ciaptehna om sate ki lehbulh - ‘kikelki’  liinlian hi. 

Ei leh ei Chin kici ngei lo, Zo kici: Anuai aa mipilte-in “  Mualtungmite amau leh amau Chin kici lo uh hi. Zo kici uh hi” ciciat uh hi. 

(Hih anuai a mipilte-in Chin i hih lohna lah gen, Zo i hihna lah gen, kumpi gam i neihna lah gen uh ahih manin  thulu tawh kizui-in amin uh leh agen thute uh ong kigen kikkik ding hi.Na ngaidam un.) 

Sir James George Scott in : “A mau le amau, Chin/Kuki/Lushai kici ngei lo uh hi. Tua min saang lo uh aa Chin kicih zong zadah uh hi. Amau leh amau Zo (Zhou) kici uh hi.” Burma, A Handbook of Practical Information 1911 p104 and Burma and Beyong 1932 p187

Dr G A Grierson in: “Chin kici min amau zang lo uh hi. Zo, Jo, Yo kici uh hi”. Linguistic Survey of India 1904 Vol Lll Part 3 p2

Betram S Carey and HN Tuck: “Chin i cihte-in tua min saang lo uh aa, amau leh amau Zo kici uh hi.” 1932.

Soppit, Asst. Comissioner of Burma, in,”Tampi in i sap teh ong dawn saam uh hangin, i piak Kuki/Chin cih peuhmah zangh ngei lo uh hi”. 1.Lushai-Kuki Study by Soppit 1893:2. In Search  of Chin Identity p4.    
                                                     
U Thein Pe Myint : Tangthu siam Sia pa-in “ Chin kici mite-in ong nial vanvan khol loh uh hangin amau min maan taktak pen Zomi/Mizo ahi hi” ci-in na cimteh hi. WithiTa Taing Thamaing Asa 1967 p 172

U Ba Than : Tangthu kiva Siapi pa-in “ A pualam mite-in Chin acih uh hangin ataktakin amau Zomi ahi uh hi.” Kyaung thung Myanmar Yazawan.

Atung aa ‘jury’ thukhenna, 7-1, in ” atuung pekin amau leh amau Chin kici uh hi” cih pen thumaan hi lo, bawltawm thu ahihna siangtakin amaa lang ah 7 in teci pangin thu khentat khin uh hi. Hih pen tangthu amaan lopi aa bawltawmna hi aa lai sim mite lamlah khialhna thusiapi khat ahi hi. 

CHIN ONG KICI KHIAL : Mangkang kumpi mahmahin Chin min ong piak “Ki khial hi” cih aphawk kik uh ciangin hih bangin gen khia kik uh hi,” Tua hun lai-in, Chin pen Kawl gam, East Pakistan (Bangladesh) leh Assam kikal aa ateeng mite akisapna uh amaanpen ahi Zo min tawh kilaih khin hi zen leh thu teng siang khin mah ding hi ven” ci uh hi.  CHIN HILLS GAZETTEE p297.

2. LAIMI : Mi tawm khat bek: Khanglui thu upna pan ong piang khia min ahi hi. Laimi ong pian khiatna bulpi mun thum ki mu thei hi. Nih pen Falam gam pan hi aa, khat pen Haka khua pan ahi hi. 

1. Haka Laimi, tawm khat bek : Haka khua sung mite bek kicihna: Haka mi Rev Sang Ling, genna ah ”Lai  cih pen nidangin Haka khua mite-in zang masapen uh hi. ‘Ei khuapih’ , ‘eiteng’ cihna hi aa apualam kihel lo hi” ci hi. (Constitution Drafting C’tee, Falam 1952.) Haka Lai ong pianna ahi hi.

Rev Sang Fen ( Sia Hre Kio pa) in zong “ Ka thukimpih hi (Maan hi)” ci hi. ibid  Hih pastor tegelin tel mahmah uh hi. Adiakin Rev Sang Fen, Zokhua mi ahih manin amah akihel loh zong tel mahmah hi. Mikim huam lo ahih manin, “ LAIMI, I MINAM MIN HI LO HI” na ci ngiat uh hi. ibid. 

2.  Falam Laimi, tawm khat bek: (a) Lailun kuahawm pan piang: Khanglui upna hi aa, “Falam kiang, Lailun  kuahawmpi khat sung panin mi piang khia-in Laimi kici hi” ci uh hi. Hih pen Laimi  pianna bulpi ahi hi.

1983 kumin Parliament hun lai aa MP ahi ngei Pu No Zamin “ Laimi kici taktak, Lailun pan aa piang akicite tua Lailun kuahawm kiim teng aa khua tawm no khatte bek ahi uh hi” ci hi.
1953 kum aa Haka aa pastor nihte gen leh tua zawh kum 30 khit, 1983 in Falam aa MP lui pa genna ki bang aa, Laimi cih ciangin Haka khuasung leh Falam Lailun kiim teng bek cihna ahi hi. Atamzawte Laimi hi lo hi. A kicingzawin anuai ah, ....LAIMI HI LO cihna ah  kimu thei hi.

 (b) – Rua Van gei, suangpi pan piang:  Dr East in,” Ruavan khua ah pasal masapen leh numei masapen ong piankhiatna mualpi khat ka mu hi. A maan loh hangin nupa kop masapen “Lai Mi” ong pianna tangthu khat hi” ci-in gen uh hi. Suangtum pi khat ah ong paipih uh aa, hi pan nupa masapen ong piankhiatna mun ci-in ong lak uh hi”. (Dr East Burma Manuscripts p 168-169.)  

Falam leh Hakami tampi LAIMI HI LO: 1967 kumin Suntla khua hausa Pu Pak Ling in a thupi mahmah tangthu khat Falam Sangpi panin Science Sangnaupang Excursion Team-te tung ah hih tangthu gen hi.” Kawl a Sawbwa  asih ciangin a tate gamh kituhin a ta upate thum kopin a nautum nih tawh ki do uh aa, a nautum gelin azawh uh ciangin, a u-te thum Khamtung lam ah gal ong tai to uh hi. A suan a khakte, tu aa Suntla, Tlaisun, Zammual, Congheng, Zangiatmite, Zahau mi, Mangkheng leh Haka mite ahi uh hi” ci-in gen khia hi. 

Tua ban ah, Dr Bawi Hu, Township Education Officer (pensen) in” Pu Song Za in Kawl zaang panin mi pawlkhat Locom lam ah makaih aa a suan akhakte Falam leh Haka mite a hi uh hi” ci hi.

Hih tangthute-in, “Haka khua sung teng bek Laimi kici uh” (Pu sang Ling leh Pu Sang Fen) cih leh “Lailun kua gei aa teng bek Laimi hi” ( Pu No Zam) acih kip sak hi. Tua lo Kawl zaang pan ong pai uh ahi hi.

Dr Bawi Hu kihel mi muanhuai tingteng kigawm nga, Rev Sang Ling, Rev Sang Fen, Pu No Zam, Pu Pak Ling leh amah, tengin Laimi kici pen tawmno khat bek ahihna kipsak uh hi.

Cih nopnateng gen kikna: CHIN leh LAIMI
CHIN : 
(a) Khanglui thu upna: Taanglai mite upna ahi lei gil sung pan ‘Chinlung’ suang hawmpi ah ong piang kici ‘Chin’  pen Pasian um mite’ minam min aa zat ding hi lo hi.
(b) Midangte ong sapna :  Kawl kumpi Kyanzittha (1084-1113)in Pagan suang tung aa a-at ‘Chin’ laimal in, Kawlte’n tua hun pekin Chin ong ci khin uh cih ong thei sak hi bek aa, ei Chin ikicihna hi lo hi. Ei mualmi sung ah amau leh amau Chin kici minam om ngei lo hi.
(c) Mangkang uk sung leh uk khit aa mipil lai at khempeuhin ”Tua mualmite, amau Chin kici lo-in, diksa lo uh hi” ci ciat uh hi. Bang hangin ei aa ahi lo, midangte phuah, Chin, zat sak nuam i hi hiam?
(d) Chin pen ong ki pia khial hi ci-in a muh uh ciangin kumpite-in,“ Atuung pekin amin taktak Zo akici mualmite  Chin ci lo-in Zo in kheek hi leng thu siang khin mah ding hi ven” ci ngeeungeeu uh hi.

LAIMI :  
(a) Haka Laimi : Rev Sang Ling leh Rev Sang Fen-te-in”Lai cih pen Haka khua sung mite zat hi bek aa, ‘ei khua pih teng, ei sung teng bek’ cihna hi-in midang kihel lo hi” ci-in genkhia uh hi. Tua ahih manin, Haka Laimi sung ah, Thantlang, Zotung, Zophei, Senthang, Lautu, Mara-te nangawn kihel kha lo asuak hi. Tua ahih manin, Sia Sang Ling leh Sang Fente-in “ LAI PEN I MINAM MIN HI LO HI” naci liuliau uh  hi. 

(b) Falam Laimi : Lailun kuahawm pan aa piang mi cihna Laimi ahi hi. A taktakin, tua kuahawm gei aa ateengte cihna bek ahih ciangin ei adang teng khempeuh gen loh, Falam gam nangawn ah mi atamzaw Laimi sung ah, logically-in, kihel lo hi.

(c) Atung aa, Falam leh Haka-mi tampite LAIMI HI LO (p3) sung aa kigen bangin, Pu Pak Ling leh Dr Bawi Hu-in Falam gam aa atamzaw ahi Zanniat, Suntla, Tlaisun, Congheng, Zahau, Zammual, Mangkheng leh Hakate’ pute Kawl gampan ong pai to hi ci ahih uh ciangin Lailun pan aa piang Laimi ahih lohna uh kip sak uh hi. Tua ahih teh hih minamte logically-in Laimi hi lo uh hi.          
           
(e) Tua ahihteh Laimi-in i vekpi-in ong huam lo bek lo-in, Falam leh Haka sung nangawn ah tawm khat bek Laimi ahihna, Pu Sang Ling, Pu Sang Fen, Pu No Zam, Pu Pak Ling leh Dr Bawi Hute-in teci pang khin uh hi. Laimi-in ong huam khin zo lo ahih ciangin i minam min in ki la thei lo hi.

(f) Lailun Kuahawm hitaleh, Rua Van suangpi hitaleh i pu i pate Kawl zaang pan Khamtung a tai uh, 1400 AD kiim pawl bek hipan aa tangthu tawh i et ciangin zandiak mahmah hun hi lel aa abulpi hi lo hi.. Tua maa aa i tangthu tampi a-omte baan kha lo hi.

(g) Laimi ong pian khiatna dinmun i et ciangin, atuamtuamin kigen hi. “Lailun kuahawm pan mi piang a Laimi kici hi” cih leh, “Rua Van khua gei aa suangpi pan mihing masa nupate ong piang hi”ci-in kibang lo hi. Laimi’  pian khiatna koi zaw cih kithei tel lo hi.

(h) Bangbang hitaleh Laimi pianna pen khanglui upna hi aa thumaan hi lo hi.  Hih thu a nak kan mahmah Dr East in hih bangin gen hi, “ Zaknop huai saam napi ‘ maan lo’ ahih ciangin thutak aa saan dingin haksa kasa hi”na ci hi. Burma Manuscripts. p 169. . Laimi i minam min dingin hi thei lo hi.

ZOMI :  Zo pen mipil tampite-in atuamtuamin Jo, Yo, Zhou, Dzo, Sho, Cho, Khumi, Zaw cih bangin tangthu laibute sung ah azat uh hangin tangthu siamte-in, Zo (Zomi) cihna hi ci-in thukim khin uh hi. 862 AD kumin Sen gam Tang Kumpi ambassador pa-in “ Chindwin gun kuam ah Zo(Jo) kici kumpi gam neu khat om hi ” ci-in na ciamteh hi. Hih pen 1084-1113 AD kum Pagan mualsuang tung ah Chin a ki-at maa kum 250 hun lai pek ahi hi. 

‘Zomi’ akizatna ei ciaptehna: Tangtawng pekin Zomi i kicih hangin lai i neih loh manin kikan kik zo lo hi. Leitung galpi WW 1, 1917-18 in Tedim gam pan France ( Piancit) apai mi 1000 val-te’ nasepna kipakta mahmah ahih manin makai 10te Kumpipa George V in mu nuamin Buckingham Palace ah March 11, 1918 ni-in sam hi. Pu Thawng Za Kai( Col. Khen Za Moong’ pa) zong kihel aa, Kumpipa tung ah “Zomi ka hi uh hi” ci-in kigen uh hi. Mundang ah zong a ki dot ciangin , “Zomi ka hi uh hi” mah ci uh aa, inn lam tawh lai a kikhak uh ciangin zong Zomi mah ci-in, Paucinhau Lai tawh kikhak uh hi” ci-in Piancit pai akhangmoipen Capt. Pu Pau Za Gin ciaptehna om hi.  

Zomi Baptist Convention, ZBC: Zomite i tangthu sung ah ki thukim diamin a li veina ZBC min nuai ah i om khawm hi. A masapen- Sen gam ah Zo Dynasty, anihveina- Kawlgam laizang ah kum 800 val sung Zo kingdom, sung ah i om hi.  A thumveina, 1948 February kha 20 ni-in Falam ah, democracy  tawh  pai ding mi 5,000 thukimin ilak khia aa tua zawh kum nih ciangin i Zomi Nam Ni ong suak hi. 

1952 kum ciangin Rev ST Hau Go-in Khamtung gam Pasian thu-um mi khempeuh kipawl khop ding ong makaih hi. “I min ding Zomi maanpen hi” ci-in thu sung hi. Haka pan Rev Sang Ling in : “ Ka neu lai un Zotlang pan i piang hi ong kici aa Zo pen i min amaan ahi hi.” ci hi. Rev Sang Fen ( Rev Hre Kio’ pa) in zong  ” Ka thukim hi. Zo pen I minam min ahi hi.” ci-in thukim pih hi. Mi 3,000 val ki thutuak diamin, Zomi Baptist Convention (ZBC) min March, 5-7, 1953 in  kikip sak hi. Capt Sing Khua Khai, Zo people and their culture p 69. Rev E  Sowards in Pasian kiang ah  apna neih sak hi. (Burma Baptist Chronicle p 135.)  ZBC in kum 60 sung, a li veina, ong gawm khawm hi. 

Rev Sang Lingin “ Zotlang ah i piang hi” acih pen, India aa Pu Khup Za Go-in “ Zothang ( Sho-thang/ Jo-thang) pen Tibet aa Zomite pian khiatna mun, ahi hi. Kum tampi khit ciangin Zo-thang panin, Zotlang in kilo ahi hi” ci hi. (Zo Chronicles, Khup Za Go p192.)  Zo pen Tibet gam pan ong piang ahi hi.

ZOMI I HIHNA  : Tangthu na kan leh,” Kuki/Chin kicite Zomi hi” cih muh loh phamawh hi. 
Fan Cho,  862 AD  Sen gam,Tang kumpi hun aa ambasador  pa-in” Chindwin gun kuam ah Kumpi uk gam khat om aa a kumpi leh a-ukte Zo (Jo) kici uh hi” ci hi.

Sir Henry Yule, 1508 : “Irrawaddy leh Chindwin kikal, Doab sunglam, Chindwin gun taw – nitumna lam ah Zo (Yo) gam, (country), om hi” ci-in na ciamteh hi. Zo gam a-om leh a mite Zomi hi pah hi.      
                   
Sir J George Scott in India Kumpi tung ah ” Zomi ( Yo/ Jo)te amau leh amau  Chin cih bangin ki sam lo in nial uh hi.” Burma: A handbool of practical Information 1011 p 104. Burma and Beyond 1932 p 187. 

G A Grierson 1894 : “ Chin cih pen amau zang het kei uh in, Zo, Yo/Jo ki ci uh hi.” ci-in ciamteh hi.  Linguistic Survey of India 1894-1928 Vol Lii, Pary 3, p2. 

Col. TH Lewin in “ Tua Kuki/Chin-te’ ii a vekpi minam min, Zo (Dzo) ahi hi.” ci-in ciamteh hi. Lushai Expedition 1871-72.

Rev, Howard Melcolm in a atna ah : “ Zo-te, Ava khangdeuh Chindwin gun taw lam ah teeng uh aa a gam khawkpi uh Zo (Yo) kici hi.”

Baiyue :  “Zo (Zhou) mite Northern Tibeto-Burman-te suan ahi uh hi”             
                 
Bertram S Carey leh H N Tuck : “Tua Kuki minam Chin i cihte-in tua min saang lo-in, amau leh amau Zo (Yo) kici uh aa, Zo pen Chin khempeuh kilawhna min ahi hi.” Carey &Tuck.

U Thein Pe Myint, Kawl tangthu kiva siapipa in : ” Chin kici mite-in ong nial tantan kholloh uh hangin, atatak amin uh Zomi/Mizo ahi hi” ci hi. Withita Taing Tamaig Asa. 1967, p172 

F K Lehman 1980 :  “ Chin pen Kawl kam hi aa, Zo kam hi lo hi.Tua mite avekpi phial un amau leh amau kicihna atuam khat nei aa, Zo ( Yo, Seu),  ahi hi!” ci hi.

Dr Forchhammer, Maung Thet Pyo, Arthur Phayre: “Zo(Jo,Yaw) mite-in Assam leh Irrawaddy gun kikalmun teng ah teeng uh hi.” na ci  hi.

U Ba Than: in “ A pua mite-in Chin ci uh hi. A tatakin, amau Zomi ahi uh hi.” Kyaung thung Myanmar Yazawon,  Author of School Text Book of Burmese History.

Daw Khin Myo Chit, mipil Sia-nu-in: “ Zaw, Lushai, Thado, Naga, Kuki, Chins kicite avekpi un Zomi ahi khin uh hi.”

Election Commission, Nyipytaw, 2012 : Zomi pen Gambup kumpi kipsakna May 31, 2012 ni-in Zomi Congress for Democracy Party leader Pu Cin Sian Thang tung ah pia khin uh hi.
Daw Aung San Su Kyi, Opposion Leader ahih lai, Australia gam ong pai lai-in, Melbourne khuapi aa Dandenong Basketball Stadium pi sung ah Chin community-te tung  December 1, 2013 ni-in thu agenna ah,:” Zomite pen haksatna ka thuak lai-in ong dinpihte ahi uh hi” ci-in gen hi.  

ZO - akhiatna : Dalai Lama  a 5-na in  Tibet gam aa i piankhiatna Zo-thang ii a khiatna hi bangin na gen hi. ‘Zo’ pen “Topa, lord “ cihna hi aa, ‘thang’ pen, “ kician, ahoih, perfect” cihna hi ci hi. Ei pau-in ‘zo’ cih ciangin ‘gualzo’, ‘conquer’, cihna zong ahi hi. I pu I pate gualzawhnate i ngaihsut ciangin “A Gualzo, Topa” “ Lord the Conqueror” ci leng zong kituak mahmah hi.

I pianna bulpi : Zomite pianna bulpi  Tibet gam Amdo kuam aa Zothang, (Sho-thang /Jo-thang ) ciang kikan kik thei hi. “ Mihingte cihna, ‘mi’  ahk ‘mui’ azang peuhmah, Tibet pan kipan hi”. Linguistic Survey of India.  Tuni ciangdong Pathian, Topa, khamtung, mi, sing cihbang I kampau tampitak kibang lai hi. The Story of Tibetan Nationality and Sino Relation. (.Courtesy : Pu Kham Go Pau, USA.) I khanglui upna, ngeina leh i thu-ciinte akibang tampi om ahih manin ipu i pate Tibet pan ahihna ong lak hi.

Kawl gam i tun tuung lam:  Tangthu kan pawlkhatte-in 100 AD, Anawratha Saw kumpi a suah, 1044 mapekin Pagan kiimteng ah Zomite na teng khin dingin um uh hi.         

Pagan, (Pu Gam): Kawl gam tangthu kiva U Ba Than-in, “ Pagan pen ‘Pu’ Gam ‘ hi aa, Kawl lai tawh hoihtak ki at thei lo-in ’ Pagan’ kici hi” ci hi. Kyaung Thung Myanmar Yazawon. Dr Neihsial Tual Cin, Ph D, India, in zong Pagan(Pu Gam) pen i pu i pate phuah ahi hi” ci hi. Guite kual aa lutna 1985.

Popa,( Pu-Pa) : Tangthu kan pawlkhatte-in Zomite’n “ Pu Pa “ acih uh Kawl lai tawh Popa-in ki-at hi” ci uh hi. Meter 737 asang suang kiciang  venvan pen i pu i pate-in, dawi mang khat teeng dingin um uh aa “ Pu leh Pa “ ci-in na bia uh hi ding hi. Hih min nih tegel Kawl pau-in om lo ahih ciangin,  Zomite phuah mah hi dingin up huai hi.

ZOMITE-IN KAWL GAM LAIZANG TENG UK NGEI :  800 -1550 AD SUNG : Zo Kumpi- gam (Zo kingdom), Zo Minam (Zo nation), Zo gam (Z0 country) leh Zo gam-khawkpi (Zo district).

I pu-I pate a khan lai un kum 800 val sung Kawl gam laizang teng khua leh tui-in na nei uh hi., 

1.Zo Kumpi Gam (Zo petty kingdom) : Kum 862 AD kumin Fan Cho kici Sen gam Tang kumpi ii taangmi, diplomat pa-in “Chindwin kuam sung ah Kumpi gam, petty kingdom, khat om aa akumpite leh a-ukte Zo ( Jo) kici hi.” ci-in ciamteh hi.

2.Julia Lowell in” Zo kumpi Gam ii leitaw nisuana lam ah, suangmanpha khuuk om aa, nisuahna lam ah Sen Gam om hi”. The great Wall p6. Dahpa tangthu sung ah, Dahpa-in suangthu ding aa ong puakte suang manpha na hi aa, hau uh hi. Akhuazang uh nisagih sung pawibawlin zu leh sa tawh vaak uh hi. Tua panin ni sagih ton ong piang hi kici hi. 

3.Zogam (Zo Country) : 1508 kumin, Sir Henry Yule-in ” Zo (Yo) gam, country, pen   Irrawaddy leh Chindwin kikal, Doab sung, Chindwin gun taw – nitumna lam ah om hi” ci-in ciamteh hi.

Pinle Bu gam sung ah Zomite tenna munte ki mu thei lai hi. Monywa khua gei aa Sibani khua pan tai 2 na mun khat ah tual biakna a bawlna uh, pi 13 a sang suangtumpi khat ding lai a atua kiim aate-in  “Chin pasian” ci uh hi. Falam Centenary Magazine p 232. Sagaing khupi sung ah zong ’ Chin suh Ywa’ kici Zo mite ki tuah zeelna veeng khat zong om lai hi. Zomite Takkhahna- J H Tun Thawng.       
                                 
4.Zo minam ( Zo Nation ) :  1783 kumin, Italian Fr Vincentius Sangermano in “ Chin mualdung nisuahna lam 20’30’ leh leilu 20’30 lat. ah minam, nation, khat om aa Zo (Jo,Shu) kici uh hi” ci-in ciamteh hi. Description of the Burmese Empire p 35.

5.Zo gam-khawkpi ( Zo District) : Rev Malcolm Howard in “ Zomi (Jo)te Ava khangdeuh Chindwin gun taw lam ah teeng uh aa agam khawkpi, district, uh Zo (Yo) kici hi.” ci-in  na ciamteh hi. Hih mi muanhuaite-in hunkhat lai-in tu aa Pagan, Nyaung U, Popa, Mandalay leh Sagaing  kiimteng  kum 800 sung i pu, Zomite gam ahihna kho takin na ciamteh uh hi. 

ZO KUMPI-GAM NIH OM : 
(a) Zo kumpi gam nuainung -- AD 800 maa pan 1400 AD dong: Pagan kiim pan suang manpha khuuk huamin nisuahna lam ah Sen tawh gamgi dong zai hi. A tung aa Zo kumpi gam, Zo dynasty omna ahi hi. Bayintnaung Kumpipa asih 1550 AD khit ciangin Hanthawaddy Pegu, Ayudiya leh Taungoo-te kigawmin nihvei ado uh ciangin zo uh aa Zo kumpigam bei hi. Thai history and documentary movie, The Kingdom of War. 

(b) Zo kumpi-gam tungnung :  Khampat ah1400 AD ciang teeng uh aa, Shan te’n notsuk-notto uh ahih ciangin mualtung lam ki zep mang uh hi. Bunglung, Yasakyu, kiim teng ah zong tual biakna mun leh khua lui kimu thei lai hi. Meiteite’n sim zeel uh ahih ciangin, Kawlpi ah tai sukin, ‘saaksih leh kenkiat’ tuak uh hi. Sawbwa Kyittaungnyo in a huang acre 234 kiim ah kulh ciang sakin bawlsia aa khutme asat tan lawh dim pha hi kici hi. Tua pan mualtung lam lal to uh hi. Hih hun ciangciang Tedim, Falam, Haka, Matupi, Mindat, Kanpelet leh Paletwa leh Laimi, Batumi cihte om nai lo-in, a kikhenkhia thei lo zah aa kipumkhat Zomi minam khat bek i om hi.  

1550 AD i Zo Dynasty a bei ciangin ki thehthangin, pawl khatte nitumna khanglam tuaksuk in Ashu (Zaang Zomi) suakin, pawlkhat nisuahna lam tai suakin, Cambodia, Laos lam tung uh aa, tuni dong i pau tampi kibang lai hi. Tampi mualtung lam tai uh hi. Mual leh guamin ong khen ahih manin min tuamtuam i kipia hi. Ahih hangin, Tedim lam leh Haka gam aa om, Zo miphunte-in tuni dong Zo nakemcing uh hi. I beh i phung pih zong tampi om uh hi. Tua hi kei zenzen leh tuni-in, tangthu laibu sung ah Zo Kumpi, Zo Minam cihte kuate ahi tam? ci-in emah ihih lam zong ikithei nawn kei ding hi.

A hih hangin, mun khempeuh ah Zo i hihna vangil ikepcingte kimu kawikawi thei lai hi; gtn. Falam gam ah Laizo, Haka gam ah Zo miphunte  Zo kici uh hi. Tua ciangin, Zo cihna mah ahi, Mindat leh Kanpelet-te Cho, Paletwa-te Khumi ci-in ahi zongin, Gangaw gam ah Zaw cihbangin iki lo lai hi. Tuate-in “I vekpi-in “ZOMI” i hihna ong lak hi.                                                                    
Haka Zo miphun : F K Lehman, Professor of Anthropology and Linguistics, University of Illinois USA, in, ”A taktakin Stevenson leh adang mikangte-in, athu dotte un amau leh amau ‘Zomi kici ung, ka gam uh Zo gam ka ci uh hi’ ci ngelngel ding napi uh tel zo het lo uh hi ding hi” ci ngiat hi. Chin National Journal p 94.                                                                                                                                                           
“KhuangCawi leh LawngTuk khuado ciangin, tap kiim ah pasal uhaam teng phuisam uh aa ‘Vai(Kawl)te hauhnate ko, ‘Zo ram’ zong ong pia-in’ ci-in innsung-dawi kiang ngen uh hi”   ibid. 

Tua ban ah ” A pau uh ciangin Laimi kici-in a gam uh Lai ram ci napi uh, tua bang ataang ngeina a bawl uhteh, a gam uh ‘Zo ram’ kici uh ahih teh, amau ‘Zo’ akicih ding uh ahi hi. ” ci lai hi. 

Khat leuleu : “ Zopheite gam ah Zo-Vai-lam-tlang kici mualdung ah Kawl zaang leh Zo gam kikal lampi om hi” ci hi. The Structure of Chin Society p 30. Taanglai pek aa ‘Zo leh Vai kikawmna’... ci uh ahihteh, taanglai hun pekin Zomi mah kici uh ahihna hihin zong ong lak hi.

Zo Miphun Calender:  Haka Zo tangthu kiva Pu Ngai Thangin-in 2009 kum Zo Miphun Calender bawlin Zotung, Zophei, Mara ,Senthang leh Lautu-te, “Zomi  ahihna “  ciantakin lak khia hi. 

Tel Semsem, Zomi Thahat Semsem: I pu i pate-in lai a neih loh latakin lai tawh hoihtak ong ciapteh sak, Sen mipil pa, Mangkang mipilte, Sangmangte, Mangkang galkap bute leh Kawl mipilte tung ah i lungdamna kigen zo lo ding hi.  A mau hangin tangthu kicingzaw anei ihi hi. I tangthu i kan tektek ciangin i muhna ong zai semsem aa, kua i hi hiam? cih zong i thei semsem hi. 

1972 kumin Lamka,Churachanpur, Manipur State, India ah,  Pu H Gou Gin makaihna tawh ‘ I min taktak Zomi hi’ ci-in kip sak khin uh hi.

Camphai khawmpi ci aa minthang First World Zomi Convention, May 19-20, 1988 ni-in Kawlgam, India gam leh Bangladesh pan taangmi 40 kipuakte tawh “Aki khen thaang minamte min ZO ahi hi” ci-in thukimna taangko khia uh hi.  Robin, Chin History, Culture and Identity:  p 111,

2013 October sungin Lamka ah Third World Zomi Convention kikhoppina ah, Zomi, Mizo leh Kuki-te-in,  “ Kuki, Lushai leh Chin khempeuh ii minam min Zomi/Mizo ahi hi “ ci-in thukimna nei khin zo uh hi. Zomi leh Mizo akibang hi aa, Zomi pen kambul hi-in Mizo pen la kammal ahi hi. Muhna saangzaw anei Chin a zang Paite zong tu-in Zomi kicih ding adeih khang semsem ta uh hi.

ZOMI MIN IIP-LAH HUAI: Tibet gam pan kipan, Sen gam ah Zo i hihna i gen khin zo hi. Kawl gam i tun ciang dong, mi nuai ah om lo-in, Kawl gam laizang teng i pu i pate-in Zo gam Zo lei na phut ngei uh hi. Tua hun dong  tu aa i min tuamtuamte om lo-in i vekin Zo/Zomi i hi khin hi.  Sen mipil leh mangkang mipilte leh Kawl mipilte-in hoihtak na ciamteh liinlian uh hi.  
Lusei/Kuki/Chin  pen, Bengalte, Asamte leh Kawlte ong min phuah uh ahi hi. Zo leh, Zo cihna mah ahi, Asho, Cho, Khumi cihte Tibet gam pekpan aa i ken, i minam min hi aa, kum tampi khit ciangin aw awsuah tawm kilamdang hi bek hi.  

I pu i pate Khamtung mual tung atun uh ciangin nuntak haksatna, launa leh dawi kihtaknate hangin “Khuul kuahawm pan apiang i hi hi  aci tawh, Lailun kuahawm pan i piang aa, ‘Laimi’ ih hi hi” ci-in min tuamtuam i kipia hi. Hihte pen khanglui upna, myth hi aa kuahawm pan mi piang ngei lo hi. 

Fan Cho khit ciangin Mangkangte’n ong uk sungin mipil tampite-in Zomite-in Kawl gam laizang ah (anihveina) Zo kumpi-gam nei ahihna  naciamteh sinsen uh hi. Tua khit ciangin, Kawl mipilte –in Kuki, Lushai, Chin, avekin Zomi hi ci-in na panghuan leuleu uh hi. Tua ahih maninin Zo pen i vekpi ii minam min ahi hi. I pu i pate avek un Zomi akicihna uh tangthu-in om aa akinial thei lo thu ahi hi. 

ZAK NADING BIL ANEI TENGIN NGAI DIH NI : Chin i kicih ciangin “ Mihingte lei gil sung pan (from the bowels of the earth) ’Chinlung’ suangpi pan i suak khia hi” acici i hi hi. Tua bang mahin, Laimi kici lehang “Lailun kuahawm  pan apiang i hi hi.”aci ihi ding hi. Pasianin Adam leh Eve pan mihingte Ama mel suun aa ong bawl hi aa, ‘kuahawm, lei sung, pan i piang hi’ kici lehang tua kan aa Pasian hehzawkna om lo hi. Pasian - a haza Pasian, a heh thei Pasian ahi hi. (Deu 6:15)  Thu-um Christian mite-in, Pasian HEHNA A SO SAK ding  min zat ngam ding hi lo hi.

Bangtanvei Chin i kicih manin Pasian i heh sak khin zo hiam? Bang tanvei ong thuak zo lai ding hiam? Hizah takin i tangthu-in ong gen siang khin ahih ciangin tangtawng pek pan aa i minam ‘Zomi’ i kicih mateng Pasian hehna i tung ah om den hi cih i phawk ding ngaihsun pha ciat ni. 

ZOMI PEN, AMAAN LO TAANGLAI UPNA HI LO HI. MIDANGTE ONG PHUAH MIN ZONG HI LO HI. ZOMI-IN MI PAWLKHAT BEK HUAM LO-IN MI KHEMPEUH HUAM KIM HI. I PU, I PATE-IN KUM ZA TAMPI SUNG KAWL GAM LAIZANG TENG ‘ZOM GAMI’ CI-IN NA UK UH HI. I MINAM MIN DINGIN ZOMI LOBUANG ONG GAWMTUAH DING MIN DANG OM LO HI
             
Source :
from:James Dong james.s.z.dong@gmail.com
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date:Sun, Jul 10, 2016 at 7:14 AM
subject:Re: [Zomi Daily] FIRST WORLD ZO CONVENTION (Chaerter of Agreement on Zo Re-unification) 1988. (Zolai leh Manglai tawh)

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Item Reviewed: I MINAM MIN AMAANPEN CHIN MAW, LAIMI MAW, ZOMI ? Dr J Suan Za Dong MB,BS. DO. Description: Rating: 5 Reviewed By: Cinpu Zomi
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