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CHILD DEVELOPMENT. Agelh - T. Sawm Lian

CHILD DEVELOPMENT
Agelh - T. Sawm Lian


“Zing khuavak  in sun hun ding a lah mah bangin,
naupan laia i nuntakzia in i picin hun ding lak hi”
– Milton

I.    Naupang :
Indian Majority Act, 1875The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child 1989; leh The Juvenile Justice (Care & Protection) Amendment Act, 2006 in kum 18 nuailam, a pumpi ci le sa a picin hangin ‘naupang’ hi, ciin gen/sang hi.

India kumpi in November 14 (Nehru suahni) pen Naupangte Niin kum simin zang den hi. Leitungbup in naupangte thupingaihsut mahmah ahih manin United Nation Childrens Emergency Fund(UNICEF) kici kipawlna December 11, 1946 in UN General Assembly in bawl hi.

Naupangte nuntakzia (Erik H. Erikson) :
1)  Infancy (pianni – kum 2) : Dop kisam mahmah. A kisin ciil ahih manin sinsakdan hoih kisam (lam pai dan, ann nek dan, pau dan). Hehpah or lungkim pah. Mi muang vs. muang lo (Trust vs. Mistrust).
2)  Early Childhood (2 – 4) : Gamta thei, pau sin thei ta. Amau thu deih. Mi muangngam lo thei. Ngaihsutna hoih lo zong nei thei ta. Za pan ding, tuibuk la ding khawnga zatloh ding. Keimah, eite, nang, note cih lungsim nei ta. Control luat ahih kei leh khahzau luatloh ding. Encik ding – pau, huaiham, zuau gen thei. Amau thu deih (Autonomy)  vs. maizum, zakta (shame) or kimuanglah, um zo lo (doubt).
3)  Play age  (5 – 7) : Kimawl nuam sa uh, a pumpi khan lai pen hun uh, kidemna in thalawpsak, a deih khat uah lungsim pia gawp, gualzawh sawmna lungsim nei. Siatna kipan thei ta uh. A kipatna / ahih ding pankhia (initiative) vs. sepkhialhna nei thei (guilt)
4)  School age (6 – 12) : Amau sep theih ciangah na thak bawlkhiat nopna nei, thalawp. Gual elna nei. Sepnopna lungsim neiin, a sepkhial vanglak uh leh kimuanlahna nei thei uh. Thanuamna (industry)  vs. cing kisaklohna/kiniam ngaihsutna (inferiority).
5)  Adolescence (13 – 19) : Amau hihna tak khatveivei thei, khatveivei amau hihlohna pi ahi danin kithei. Mi muang lo, pawlpi leh biakna khawng dau ngaihsut thei. Hih bang hun pen makai hoih leh hat, amau a makaih siam a kisap mahmah hun laitak uh hi. Meltheih bawl nuamsa uh a, ahih hangin amau kituamkoih nuam pian uh hi (identity vs. in-identity) / (intimacy vs. isolation)


II.   Siamsinna-ah naupangte dikna : Naupang khantoh nadingin siamsinna kisam mahmah hi. Tua ahih manin siamsinna a naupangte dikna leh ngah ding thu pawlkhat gen dih ni :
1)  International Declaration of Human Rights – Article 26 leh,International Covenant on Economic, Social & Cultural Rights – Article 13 & 14 ah naupangte adingin Rights to Education kician takin kigelh.
2) Kum 2009 a India Parliament in a passed The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act or Right to Education Act (RTE) pen April 1, 2010 pana kizang a, hih dan nuaiah India gam sunga naupang kum 6 – 14 kikal khempeuh a khawnkhonga sang kahsak teitei ding (free & compulsory education). India Constitution: Art. 21A.
3)  86th Amendment Act, 2002 – Art. 45 in kum 6 nuai siah in laisimna hoih tak a neih nadingin kumpi in panla ding hi (eg. Aganwadi)
4)  Right to Education Act nuaiah naupang kum 6 – 14 khempeuh sang kah ding uh hi a, nu leh pate in a phal kei leh daan kipia thei hi.
                
III. Naupangte thuneihna(Child Rights) : Khangto dingin suakta taka om kisam hi. Eima dikna leh ngah ding ngah lo a, ukcipna leh maan lo taka ki-ukna leh vaihawmna tawh khantoh haksa ahih manin naupangte in a ngah ding uh leh hamphatna pawlkhat gen kik ni.
1)  India Constitution Art. 39(e) – Naupangte kum leh hatna tawh kituak loin zawhthawh thu tawh a gimhuai semsak lo ding.
2)  Art. 39 (f) – Lungnuam leh cidam taka a om theih nadingun vaihawmsak ding. Suahtakna pia ding, simmawhna-pampaihna pan kembit ding pen state kumpi mawhpuakna hi.
3)  Art. 24 – Factory, industry ah kum 14 nuai siah nasem thei lo ding. A semsak a om leh kum 1 pan kum 3 dong thong kiat leh, Rs. 10,000 – 20,000 kiliausak thei.
4)  Art. 15 (3) – Naupangte leh numeite adingin state kumpi in a tuamin hamphatna bawlsak ding (Child Welfare Committee, Juvenile Justice Board)
5)  India Penal Court (IPC), 1860, Sec. 82 – Kum 7 nuai siah in mawhna a bawl leh thusia in kisimsak thei lo.
6)  IPC, 1860, Sec. 317 – Naupang kum 12 nuaisiah a nu leh pate in a kep/vaak nop kei leh a pate kum 7 thong kiatsak theih hi a, sum zong kiliausak thei hi.
7)  The Mizoram Juvenile Justice (Care & Protection of Children) Rules, 2010 bangin State kumpi nuaiah naupangte ading a tuamin committee leh board om hi.
8)  Criminal Procedure Code 1973, Sec. 160 (1) – Teci dingin Police officer in kum 15 nuailam ama omna munah sam thei lo ding a, a kul leh zuan zaw ding hi.
9)  Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986 in kum 14 nuaisiah a lauhuai – za (tobacco) bawlna, suanglakna, mining, cement industry etc. ah nasep kham hi. Hih bang muna a semsakte kha thum sanga tawmzaw lo leh kum khat ciang thong kikiasak thei a, sum zong Rs. 10,000/- sanga tawmzaw lo leh Rs. 20,000/- ciang kiliausak thei.
10) Naupang mawhna bawl leh numei-buan (rape) pen thucin-thutangbu (newspaper) ah kisuaksak lo ding. A suaksak a om leh daan kipia thei.

IV. Nu le pa mawhna bawl (sex) leh numei-buan (rape) :
1)  Kum 2001 – 2007 sungin Mizoram CID Crime Record bangin kumcing lo numei naupang a kibuan (rape) 267 om hi.
2)  A beisa kum 5 leh kha 4 (64 months) sungin numei kibuan 452 kiregistered a, kha simin mi 7 val deuh a kibuan tawh kibang hi. Tua laka 260 (57.52%) pen naupang ahi uh hi. Hih mawhna hangin mi 450 palikte in man uh hi.
3)  Kum 2011 sungin rape 77 om a, tua lakah naupang 49 (63.63%) ahi uh hi.
4)  Kum 2012 January – April sungin rape 40 om a, tua lakah 32 (80%) pen naupang ahi a, adang 8 pen picing (adults) ahi hi. Ni thum sungin rape case khat ta om cihna hi.
·        Registered / case filed-loh tampi om ding cih theih ding.

Rape a hoihlohna :
1)  Pumpi ah : Lampai leh tut haksa thei. Zahmawh na leh thak om thei. A buante tung panin natna hoih lo ngah thei (HiV/AIDS, Syphilis, Gonorrhea, Dadu etc). Zun paina hoih lo thei (zun suak thithe), Naupai thei. Sineihna-ah haksatna om thei.
2)  Lungsim ah : Nidanga a thalawp ngeina uh lawp nawn lo. A nuntakzia uh kilaih gawp. Lungmuan takin om hithiat thei lo. Uk (control) haksa. kineumuh uh (inferiority complex). Midang tawh kizopnaah haksatna om.

Tua bang thu hong hilh uh ciangin.. :
1) Tua bang hunah nuapangte in nu leh pate, ahih kei leh a mi muan khatpeuh kiangah genkhia thei uh hi. Tua banga a gen hun uh ciangin hehlua a tot gawm, taii gawp pah ding hi lo hi. A gennop uh kician taka gensak a, a haksatna uh hong pulakkhiat uh hoih taka ngaihkhiat sak phot ding. Tua ahih kei leh a haksatna uh a behlap kisuak thei hi.
2) A thugen uh um ding (hih lam pen zuau phuak lo ding uh hi). Mudah pah lo ding, hehpihna tawh panpih nopna lungsim neiin, a thugen uh hoih tak ngaihkhiatsak ding.
3) Migi lo tuak kha ahihna thu kamnem tak tawh hilh phot ding. Tawldam sak ding. Ama muh lai-in a khoihpa tawng gawp lo ding.
4) Midical exam nei dingin paipih ding. Medical exam ma-in pumpi silsiang lo ding.
5) A report nading mun police station nai penah report pah ding. Amah paipih kisam nawn lo.
6) Hih lama siamna a nei counselor-te kiangah paipih ding. 

Numei-buante daan a kipiak theihna :
1)  India Penal Court, Section 376 (1) – Kum 7 sanga tawm zaw lo, ahih kei leh damsung a thongah koih theih.
2)  IPC Sec. 366A – Mi khatin bang van hiam zanga kum 18 nuailam a khoisiat sawm hiam, kum 18 nuailam peuhmah ama utna thu tawh sex zatpih hangin rape mah hi veve a, kum 10 ciang thongkiat leh sum kiliausak thei.
3) IPC Sec. 372 & 373 – Kum cing lo naupang kizuak ding a zuakte leh factory/industry a sema zangte pen kum 10 ciang thong kiatsak leh liausak theih.
4)  IPC Sec. 293 – Kum 20 nuailam tungah zahmawh lam tawh kisai zuak leh piak pen kum 3 ciang thong kiatsak leh Rs. 2000 liausak theih hi a, a hih kik uh leh kum 7 ciang leh Rs. 5000/- ciang liausak theih hi.

·   Mizoramah a masa pen dingin rape hanga damsung thong kia dinga thukhenna a thuak masa pen Lalthuthlungliana (31) s/o Challiana, Thingsai khua, nihvei tak naupang a rape ahi hi.(Evening Post - July 21, 2007).

April 30, 2012 in India kumpi leh Mizoram kumpi in Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) khat, naupangte phattuam nading leh bit nading signed uh hi. Tua pen Integrated Child Protection Scheme (ICPS) kici a, Champhaiah zong Pu Lalnunmawia Inn, Vengthang North ah office nei uh hi. (Protection officer – 2, Probation officer – 3 & staff 4).  Vengthar P/S naupangte tawh kisai a nasepna uh thupi mahmah.
           
V.  Naupangte makaihzia ding – P3 :
1)  Provision : Naupangte in nuntakzia, cidamna, siamsinna, kimawlna ding hoih a neih ding uh ahi hi. Amau adingin kipiak zawh ding. Thu genpih theih, a maingap uh hih ding thupi hi. Kizopna hoih tak nei a, thusia thupha, a mau tunga lawhcinna leh haksatnate khempeuh hoih taka hong genpih ngam nading uh nu leh pate mawhpuakna hi. A haksatna uh theihsiampih ding, a muanngam dingun nuntak ding.
2)  Protection : Naupang pen kep ding, hut ding ahi hi. Nu le pa mawhpuakna taktak thei lo a, naupang kep le don ding a ngaihsun lote hangin tuhunah innkuan sung buaina tam mahmah hi. Amau a siasak thei ding – migi lo, lawm hoih lo, vanzat hoih lo, laibu sim ding hoih lo, film et ding hoih lo pan kep ding ahi hi.
3)  Participation : A mau nuntakna pen bucing nai lo, na khatpeuh ahoihna leh hoihlohna theician nai lo uh hi. Ahih hangin midangte kiangah kihel theih nading thuneihna nei uh a, tua manin kithuahpih tam hoih hi. Thuneihna nei cih hangin khahzau lua, amau ut bangbanga na gamtatsak a, na muh batlohna munah a tam om luat uh leh siatna tawh kinai mahmah ding uh hi. A tam thei bang pen amau tawh hun zangkhawm ding.

VI. Lai Siangtho sungah naupangte a kigendan :
1)  Naupangte pen Pasian in a bawl (Pian. 4:25; 33:5), ama lim le meel sunin (Pian. 26-27)
2)  Israel mite tungah a tate kepzia ding uh Pasian in hilh (Gam. 4:9-10; 6:4-9; 11:18 - 21)
3)  Pasian in naupangte zang (Samuel, Joseph, David, Timoti)
4)  Naaman a dam nadingin a nasem naupangno in hilh(2Kum. 5: 1-3).
5)  Jesu in mipi 5000 a vakna a poimawh mahmah pen naupang ahi hi.
6)  Picingte in naupangte nuntakna panin a hoih thu mu uh(Mat.18:1-3
7)  Pasian in naupangte it hi (Mark 10:13; Mat. 19:13; Luk. 18:15)

VII.     Naupangte kisap / picingte mawhpuakna :
1)  Innkuan nuam : Innsung nuam a sak theih nading uh vaihawm. Kizopna hoih neih. Sepkhopna hoih neih. Naupang khem lo ding. Naupang a neu laiin lampi maan tawnsak in (Pau. 22:6). Naupangte nuntaknaah nu leh pate mawhpuakna lianpen. Zu dawn lo dingin a deih leh amah in dawn lo pah ding. Kikhawm dingin a deih leh sawl bek loin paipih ding. Mi minthangte a nute makaihna hoih tak panin  khangkhia uh hi (Mahatma Gandhi, Napoleon, D. L Moody)
2)  Sinsakna hoih : Gamtatzia maan. Kampau dan, mi hopih dan, dotna dawnzia. Muanhuaina sinsak ding. Kimuanngamna a neih theih nading un panpih ding. Ki-ukzawhna leh thuakzawhna a neih theih nadingun hilh ding. Uzawte zahtak siam ding sinsak ding. Ngaihsutna maan a manphatna hilh ding. A hoihna uh leh nasep hoihte uh phat siam ding, a hoihlohna uh hilh siam ding. Pantah ding, puah ding, panpih ding. Kam hilh nading leh taii hun ciangin kammal hoih lo zang lo ding (eg. Si suk in, na khut bui hen, a phei lamin hong ciah in etc..)
3)  Haksatna : Hong tung ding leitung ngeina, hangsan taka maingat ngam dingin hilh kisam. Haksatna leh kuhkalna pana khangkhiate mi zattak, mi muanhuai ahihna thu hilh ding. Baih taka lawhcinna lunggulh lo dingin hilh ding (Suangmanpha mu dingin lei thuukpi tawh kul)
4)  Sanginn : Sanginn environment hoih kisam. Kisimmawhna om thei a, tuate a om hiam cih kancian ding (mizawng vs. mihau, class/grades, a siam thei deuh vs. a siam thei lo deuh). Nu leh pate in sangsiate tawh kizopna hoih nei ding. Naupangte leh sangsiate kizopna or sepkhopna a hoih kisam. Extra culicular  activities. (Wellington in Battle of Waterloo kici kidona ah Napoleon a zawhna pen a sanginn Eton School hang hiin gen)
5)  Health : Nek le dawn hoih, tep le muan hoih lohna, cidamna manphatna sinsak, theihsak. A etteh dingun nungta pah ding.
6)  Social life : Moral, drugs, sex etc.

VIII.  Naupang pen…. :
1)  Gensiat denna munah a khankhiat leh a hoih lo mi elna lungsim nei ding hi.
2)  Kihauh, kitot denna inn pana khangkhia ahih leh thusia bawl nuamsa ding hi.
3)  Thupisimlohna inn pana khangkhia ahih leh a gi lo tuam hiin kithei ding hi.
4)  Lungduaina a nei innkuan pana khangkhia ahih leh thuak-zawhna nei ding hi.
5)  Thalawp theihna mun pana khangkhia ahih leh kimuan-ngamna nei ding hi.
6)  A nasep hoih a kiphat theihna inn sung pana khangkhia ahih leh mi pahtawidan siam ding hi.
7)  Muanhuaina mun pana khangkhia ahih leh thudik deih mi hi ding hi.
8)  Khamuanna nuaia khangkhia ahih leh upzawhna nei ding hi.
9)  Kitheihsiamna inn sung pana khangkhia ahih leh mi theisiam ding hi.

IX. Thukhupna
       Makaihna lo tawh naupangte in amau guakin kalsuan dingdan thei lo hi. Picing hi loin naupang hi uh ahih manin makaih mah kisam, kep mah kisam uh hi. Kikholhpih kisam a, itna tak tawh a mailam hun ding uh lampi ngaihsutsak a, haksatna tuamtuam a tuak uh cianga kingakna taak, a lungdamna uh leh haksatna uh zong a genpih theih ding uh hih kisam hi. Tua ahih manin : Amau ading kipiakhia ding (provision), siatna pan kem ding (protection), leh amau tawh hun zang khawm ding, a nuntakna sung uah kihel ding (participation).

(Hih thu pen Tg. T. Sawm Lian in Bethel Veng Child Development Center a Parents Meet ah Seminar paper a present ahi hi. CDC pen Compassion East India leh ZBC mabunkhopna project khat ahi hi. Kum 2011-12 sungin naupang 125 kem uh a, kum 2013 ciangin naupang kibehlap ding hi)

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