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US KUMPI 4NA 'JAMES MADISON’ TANGTHU’. Agelh - www.laibusaal.com

JAMES MADISON’ TANGTHU’
Agelh - www.laibusaal.com

TOM KIM-A ET PAKNA:
A pianna: Port Conway, Virginia; March 16, 1751
A sihna: Orange County (Montpelier),Virginia; June 28, 1836
US President let hun: 1809-1817
A minpi: James Madison Jr.
Sangkahna/degree ngahna: College of Jersey (tu-in Princeton University kici).
A minpha ngah: Upadi’ Pa (Father of the Constitution), US gam phuankhiapa (Founding Father)

A SUNGA THU OMTE:
·         THU PATNA
·         A NEULAI THU LEH POLITICS AH A LUTNA
·         US  A KILAIHGAWP HUN (REVOLUTIONARY TIMES)
·         UPADI’ PA
·         CONGRESSMAN A SEPNA LEH THUGENSIAM MI (STATESMAN)
·         AMERICA PRESIDENT A LETNA THU
·         A HUN BEI KUAN

THUPATNA: James Madison pen March 16, 1751 in Port Conway, Virginia ah piang a, federal government (phualpi kumpi pen state government leh local government in kikhen) hat ding deih mi ahi hi. US upadi (constitution) draft masa pen gelh ahih manin manin Upadi’ Pa kici a, Federalist Papers zong mi tawh kithuah in gelh a, Bill of Rights thukham gelh hi. US President thumna Jefferson tawh kipawlin Democrat-Republican Party phuankhia uh a, 1808 in Democrat-Republican Party president len hi. US President a li vei na len a, White House ah a zi Dolley Madison tawh na teng hi. President a let sungin Britishte tawh US na kidopih hi (1812-1815). June 28, 1836 in Orange County, Montpelier estate, Virginia ah si hi. James Madison (1751-1836) pen US phuankhiapa ci-in kingaihsun a, Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) tawh kipawl a phuatkhiat Democratic-Republican Party pen America adingin opposition political party masa pen ahi hi. Jefferson in US president thumna a let lai-in Madison in secretary of state len hi. White House ah president term nih a let khit nungin Virginia, Montpelier ah lo khawhna munah a zi Dolley (1768-1849) tawh teng hi.


A NEULAI THU LEH POLITICS AH A LUTNA: Madison a pian’na Orange County, Virginia ah khangkhia hi. Unau 12 panin a upa pen hi a, sagih bek dam kim uh hi. A pa min James Madison Sr. hi a, a nu min Nellie Conway Madison ahi hi. A pa pen lo kho mi leh lo khawhna lamsangah a lawhcing mahmah khat hi a, gam golpi acres 3,000 kiim leh sila tampi nei a neih banah gamvai-ah zong mite thudot mahmah khat ahi hi. 1762 kumin King and Queen County (Virginia) khua-a om Donald Robertson’ sanginn ah kah dingin a pa’n sawl hi. Kum nga a kah khit ciangin a pa’ gam Orange County, Virginia (Montpelier a kici) ah hong ciahkik a, a pa’n a dam theih lohna hangin inn ah omsak suak in, sangsia guai-in inn ah lai hilhsak hi. A dam sung dam lohna hangin haksatna leh gentheihna thuak den hi. Inn ah kum nih lai a sin khit 1769 kum in College of New Jersey (tu-in Princeton University a kici) ah kah hi. Hih munah Latin, Greek, science, philosophy leh a tuamtuam sin hi. 1771 in College of Jersey panin graduate buaih ngah a, tua khitin hih sanginn president Reverend John Witherspoon’ kiangah tawl khat om lai-in lai sin lai hi. A teenna khua Montpelier pen pa’ sat hi a, a pa’n sila za val nei hi.

Graduation hong man siang khit ciangin British ten siah a lakna hangin American colonyte tawh British kilem lohna leh kitanauna (relationships) thu hong uuk mahmah hi. Virginia state in Britishte ukna leh a siah don’na uh cimtak in kiphinna American Revolutionary War (1775-83) kici hong pat dingin Madison pen Orange County galdo dinga kipiakhia (militia) colonel zaa kipia hi. Mi tun tom leh dam thei lo hi napi in politics ah hong bual theihna dingin galkap bu in hong sem masa hi.  1776 in Britishte’ ukna panin state government bawlkhiat ding ngimna tawh a kibawl Virginia Constitution Convention khawmpi ah Orange County-te’ palai dingin kisawl hi. Virginia legislature ah a sep sungin a lawm hoih mahmah leh Declaration of America gelh Thomas Jefferson tawh hong kithei uh a, a dam sung lawm hoih mahmah hong suak uh hi. Madison pen politics lamsang uuk ahih manin mikim in biakna khat peuh zuih theihna ding suahtakna (religious freedom) mi kim in a neih ding nakpi takin tangkopih a, hih pen mi khempeuh in I pian’ a kipanin I neih suahtakna hi ci-in ngaihsutna nei hi. 1780 in Continental Congress, Philadelphia ah Virginia palai (delegate) in hong pang hi.  1783 in Continental Congress nusiatsan san-in Virginia ah ciahkik a, biakna vai-ah suahtakna a om theihna dingin Virginia innpi (assembly) ‘religious freedom statute’ kici thukham bawlna ding nakpi takin hong hanciam hi. Ahih hangin a sawt loin US upadi thak bawlna huh dingin Congress in sam kik hi. 

US  A KILAIH GAWP HUN (Revolutionary Times): 1772 in Virginia ah hong ciahkik ciangin American colony sunga gam mite leh Britishte kidona nasia mahmah hi. Orange County Committee of Safety kici makaih dingin December 1774 in kiteel a, tua khit 1775 in Virginia militia ah galkap makai (colonel) in hong pang hi. A college kahpih a lawm William Bradford kiangah hi bangin lai khak hi : “Tu-in leitung tangthu nakpi takin a hatsak tuam ding eima’ khut sungah om hi,’’   Madison pen galkap lamsang sangin lai gelh siam mi hi a, a siamna Virginia Convention ah Orange County-te palai dingin a sep lai-in limtakin a siamna na zang hi. Hih hunin Jefferson tawh kilawm ta uh a, tua khit nung lawm hoih suak uh hi. Virginia constitution gelhna ding tawh kisai tavuan committee kibawlna ah Madison kiseh a, Virginia constitution draft kici George Mason tawh gelh khawm uh hi. Virginia constitution ah ‘religious freedom’ tawh kisai lamsang kammal kizangte Madison at ahih manin hih pen a nasepte lakah a ciamtehhuai khat suak hi. 1777 in Virginia Assembly kiteelna ah lel ahih manin kiteel khit a sawt loin Governor' Council sungah kihel dingin kiseh hi . America in Britishte a do lai-in America leh France kipawlna (American-French alliance) deih pawlin pang a, France tawh kizopna vai tawh kisai Governor’ council a sep lai-in tavuan kipia hi.  1780 in Continental Congress, Philadelphia ah Virginia palai kisawlte lakak kihel hi. 1783 in Virginia ah hong ciahkik a, Virgina ah state legislature (thukham bawl) lakah kihel hi. State legislature ah biakna vai leh gam vai kikhenna ding tangkopih a, Jefferson in 1777 in Statute of Religious Freedom kici puahphat dingin nakpi takin hanciam in, 1786 Virginia's Statute of Religious Freedom hong kibawl hi. 1787 in hih sangin tavuan lianzaw US Constitution puahphat ding vai a tungah hong kinga leuleu hi


UPADI’ PA (Father of the Constitution): Constitution Convention, 1787 khawmpi ah Virginia palai dingin kisawl hi. Madison in kumpi pen central government (phualpi kumpi) hatsak a, state government leh local government kikhen ding a lunggulh den pawl (federalist) ahih manin hih khawmpi ah central government hatna ding a deihna thu tangkopih hi. Virginia Plan kici ah federal government pen thum - dingin executive (thusai/vai pua pawl), legislative (thukham bawl pawl) leh judiciary (thukhenna lamsang a len pawl) a khen ding a deihna thu gen hi. Hih thumte pen poimawh kim a, khat bekin  thuneihna val tawh a vaihawmn a lak ding leh dal ding kisam hi ci hi. Madison’ deihna US Constitution ah tampi a kihel hangin Constitution sunga thu omte a langpang Virginia leh America colony tuamtuam panin zong na om veve hi. Alexander Hamilton leh John Jay tawh hong pangkhawm in Constitution a kithukimna ding nakpi takin hong hanciam uh hi. A thum un mipi lungsim a lawngkha mahmah “The Federalist”  kici laikhak a gelh uh New York newspaper-te ah suaksak uh hi. Virginia hong ciahkik ciangin Constitution deih lo-a langpang leh puahphat ding deih Patrick Henry ngaihsutna Madison in dalzo hi. American colonies ten 1776 in Britishte ukna panin suahtakna hong pulak ciangun US Constitution dingin Articles of Confederation kici hong kibawl hi. Articles of Confederation 1781 in kipuahpha in, state pen pumkhat (union) tawh kibang loin state legislatures ten thuneihna lianpi nei uh a, gam khat ciat banga ding tek hong bang uh hi. Hih thu hangin national Congress thuneihna nakpi takin khiam ahih manin national congress hong thaknem in, a leibat (federal debt) loh kik ding leh galkapte khasum piak ding pia zo lo hi. Hih bangin federal government hong zawngkhal ciangin Madison in leitunga kumpite ki-ukzia leh thukham tuamtuam nakpi takin hong sim pha kik a, state legislature a om theihna ding leh federal sum ding a kikhansak theihna dingin federal government hat mahmah kisam hi cih hong tel hi. Federal government in sum kicing a neih theihna dingin sum zatna leh sum muhnate ciantakin ciaptehna (system of checks and balances) lim takin state legislatures in a bawl ding kisam a, khat bek thuneihna dalna dingin executive (thusai/vai pua pawl), legislative (thukham bawl pawl) leh judiciary (thukhenna lamsang a len pawl) a thum in a tonkhawm ding uh kisam hi cih hong tel hi. Hih thute leh governors (gam uk sawnte) leh thukhente (judges) ten federal government hatna dingin state legislatures (thukham bawlte) a huh ding uh kisam hi cih hong tangkopih hi.

May 1787 in state tuamtuam panin palaite (delegates) Constitutional Convention, Philadelphia ah hong pai khawm uh a, hih munah Madison in kumpi leh ki-ukna zia a hat theihna dingin a ngaihsutna “Virginia Plan” sungah kihel nam thum - legislative, executive leh judiciary kisam hi cih hong pulak khia hi. Madison ngimna pen US Constitution bulpi thumte hong suak ding hi ta hi. Madison in Constitutional Convention khawmpi ah kinialnate lim takin lai-ah ciamteh a, hih thu hangin US Constitution hoih mahmah hong bawlkhia thei a, Upadi’ Pa (Father of the Constitution) cih min hong ngah hi. Madison in US Constitution pen “khuak khat bek ta/suan hilo a, lu tampite ta/suan hi zaw a, tampi mah kikhailum hi (kipaai hi)” ci-in gen hi.

CONSTITUTION PUAHPHATNA LEH BILL OF RIGHTS: Constitution gelh hong man siang khit ciangin state 13 lak panin state 9 ten a saan (pom, thukim/ratify) ding uh kisam lai hi. State tuamtuam ten federal kumpi in thuneihna lian len lua hi cih ngaihsutna nei uh ahih manin hih thu pen thu baih hilo hi. US upadi gumte Federalists kici uh a, a deih lo leh a gensiate Anti-Federalists kici uh hi. Hih bangin upadi deih leh deih lo state hong kikhen ngeingai laitak un Madison in a deih lo ten upadi a thukim theihna dingun essay (thugil saupipi) hong gelh in, upadi deih thukhensiamte tawh kipawlin 1787-1788 sungin “The Federalists” kici essay 85 hong gelh khia uh hi. Upadi deih leh deih lo ten nasia takin kinialna hong neih khit nungun US upadi (Constitution) Sept. 1787 in Constitutional Convention member ten thukimna suai hong kai uh a, 1788 in state 13 ten US Constitution pen zat dingin thukimna hong nei thei uh a, 1789 kumin kumpi thak in US gambup zat dingin upadi hong nei uh hi.

US House of Representatives ah Madison hong kiteelcing a, 1789 panin 1797 dong sem hi. Congress ah Madison in a sep sungin Bill of Rights sunga kihel US Constitution amendment (puahphatna) 10, US gammi hihna nei khempeuh in hamphatna a neihna dinguh fundamental rights (suakta takin pau theihna leh biakna vai ah suahtakna) tawh kisai hong gelh kik hi. US sunga state 13 ten hih Bill of Rights zat dingin 1791 kumin thukimna hong nei uh hi.

CONGRESSMAN A SEPNA LEH THUGENSIAM MI (STATESMAN):  1789 in Madison in House of Representatives ah tutna hong ngah a, hih hun sungin thukham bawl pawl (legislative body) in nakpi takin thahat hong ngah uh hi.  Bill of Rights ding draft gelh in pang a, US Constitution puahphatna ding tawh kisai-ah hanthawnna hoih tampi June 1789 in pia hi. Madison in US gammi hihna nei khempeuh suakta takin a pau theihna ding, aana tawh neihsate a kilak theih lohna ding leh upmawh peuh ut bangbangin a kiveel theih lohna leh thukham palsat-a kingawh ten manlang takin thusitna mai-ah a din’ theihna ding uh deih hi. Ama’ deihna thu teng nakpi takin kiselna a neih khit nungin Sept. 1789 in Bill of Rights Congress in thukimna pia hi. Madison in President George Washington leh G.Washington’ vaihawmna (administration) a gup hangin G.Washington tawh sum vai buaina lamsang ah a kingaihsut uh kibang lo hi. Madison in Secretary of Treasury len Alexander Hamilton geelnate pen US leilu lam-a mihaute bekin phatuampih dinga, a tamzaw ten suplawh ding hi ci-in langpang hi. Madison leh Jefferson in Central Federal Bank pen upadi tawh kituak lo hi ci-in a kiphutkhiatna ding deih loin thu thehzak in tangko uh hi. Ahih hangin dal zo lo uh a, 1791 in Central Federal Bank kiphuankhia veve hi. Hih thu hangin Madison leh a lawm hoih tampi in Federalist Party taisan in Democratic-Republican Party hong phuankhia uh hi.

Madison in Federalists leh Democratic-Republican Partyte kituah lohna hangin politics cimtak in 1797 in a zi, Dolley tawh a teenna khua Virginia ah ciakkik uh hi. Madison leh Dolley pen 1794 in Philadelphia ah kimu kha uh a, 1794 kum mahin kiteng pah uh hi. Dolley in a pasal masa tawh tapa khat Payne kici nei a, Madison in ama’ tapa bangin kem in Montpelier ah teng uh hi. Madison’ pa 1801 in si a, a pa’ neihsa lo-gam (estate) khempeuh a pa’ goluah hi. 1801 in Madison in a lawm hoih mahmah Thomas Jefferson’ vaihawmna ah Secretary of State len a, Jefferson in US gamgi keek liatna dingin Louisiana Leina (Louisiana Purchase), Meriwether Lewis leh William Clark in gam thak zonkhiatna leh muhkhiatna (exploration) cihte ah a sawmnate ah huh in, gum hi. Great Britain leh Francete kidona hangin USte teembawte kikhawlsak in, a sung lim takin a kiveelsak banah tam veipi kikapsak in, Great Britain leh France in USte teembaw nasemte amau huh dingin aana tawh nawh den uh ahih manin hih thu tawh kisai Secretary of State ahihna tawh Madison’ tavuan lianpi hong suak hi.

Madison in kituahna leh sepkhawm theihna zia (diplomatic) ding nakpi takin a hanciam hangin lawhsam ahih manin 1807 in USte’ teembawte gamdang ah a lut lohna ding leh US in gamdangah van a zuak (export) lohna dingin “Embargo Act of 1807” kici bawl ding hong tangkopih hi. US mipi a tamzaw phial in hih thukham deih lo uh a, Embargo Act of 1807 hangin US sumbawlte adingin supna lianpi piangsak hi.

AMERICA PRESIDENT A LETNA THU: Democratic-Republican party ticket zangin president hong tuh a, 1808 in US president 4na dingin hong kiteelcing hi. Madison in a kituhpih Federalist Charles C. Pinckney leh Independent Republican George Clinton-te electoral vote (mee) 70% in zo hi. Madison in Embargo Act of 1807 kici a tangkopih leh hih thukham a bawlna hangin mipi tampi in langpang uh a, president dingin hong cing theih pen a lamdangpi ahi hi.

Madison' president let masak hun (first term) sungin US leh Great Britain kikal ah kitelsiam lohna lianpi hong piang ahih manin hih thu pen Madison’ tavuan lianpi hong suak hi. A beisa hunin Great Britain in USte’ teembaw leh teembaw sunga nasemte (crews) man thei zel uh ahih manin gam nih kikal-ah kitelsiam lohna lianpi na om khin zo hi. US in 1809 Embargo Act phiat (beisak) a, ahih hangin Non-Intercourse Act kici tawh laih in, Great Britain leh France tawh sumbawlna neih loh ding bek omsak lai a, gamdangte tawh sumbawlna nei kik hi. Ahih hangin US mi sumbawl ten Non-Intercourse Act thukham palsat in France leh Great Britain tawh sumbawlna nei veve uh ahih manin USte teembaw leh teembaw nasemte pen galmat tuak thei ding lauhuaina tuak den uh hi. Hih thu hangin US Congress ah politician hunkhop in Great Britain tawh kido ding a deihna uh hong tangkopih ta uh hi. Britishte tawh kido ding a deihte pen "War Hawks" kici a, tuate lakah min nei diak Kentucky mi Henry Clay leh South Carolina mi John Calhoun kihel hi. Madison in Great Britain tawh US kido leh supna lianpi US in a tuak banah kilel ding hi cih tel hi.

Great Britain tawh kido ding deih pawlin Madison thuzawh zo a, Madison’ party ten kido ding deih in, Federalist party ten kido ding langpan’ uh hi. US in June 1812 kumin Great Britain tungah gal pulak khum ahih manin Federalists party ten hih gal pen Mr. Madison’ Gal ("Mr. Madison's War") ci uh hi. Kidona hong piang a, kido cil lai-in US Navy ten Britishte’ Navyte lelh mahmah uh hi. Kido lai mahin president kiteelna hong om kik a, Madison in a kituhpih New York City Mayor DeWitt Clinton zo hi. 1814 in kidona hong nasia mahmah a, British galkap ten Maryland hong sim uh a, US khuapi Washington manawh in hong nawk manun Washington panin Madison leh a uliante tai uh hi. British galkap ten August kha-in Washington khuapi hong nawk suak uh a, kumpi inn tampi a hal ban uh-ah White House leh Capitol building cihte zong suksiatsak gawp uh hi. September kha-in US galkap ten British galkapte US leilu lamah ah a nawk zawh lohna dingun na dal zo uh a,  Andrew Jackson in British galkapte sangin galkap tawm a neih zawk hangin 1815 in New Orleans ah “Battle of New Orleans” kici ah British galkapte na zo gawp hi. US leh Great  Britain in 1815 in “Treaty of Ghent” kici kilemna suai hong kai uh a, gal hong veng hi.

A HUN BEI KUAN (Final Years): 1817 in White House nusiatsan a, a zi, Dolley tawh Montpelier ah ciakkik in a lo khawhna leh University of Virginia ah special board ah sem a, Thomas Jefferson tawh nasem khawm in buai mahmah hi. University of Virginia pen 1825 in kihong a, Jefferson pen a rector ahi hi. 1825 in Jefferson hong si ahih manin Madison in hih university makaih hi.  1829 in politics ah hong bual kik leuleu a, Constitutional Convention ah Virginia state palai in hong pang hi. Robert Finley, Andrew Jackson leh James Monroe kipawlin 1816 in a phutkhiat uh American Colonization Society kici ah zong Madison hong kihel hi. American Colonization Society pen sila suahtakna ngah khinsate Africa gamah puak kikna dingin kipawlna ahi hi. 1833 in American Colonization Society president zaa Madison in len hi.

June 28, 1836 in a lo-gam Montpelier estate kicihna ah Madison si a, a sih khit nung 1834 in US adingin a kam vaikhakna thu "Advice to My Country," kici kisuaksak hi. A sih ma-in "Advice to My Country," a kisuak khiatsak ding phal lo ahih manin a sih khit nungin kisuaksak pan hi. "Advice to My Country," a tawpna ah Madison in, “ US gam kiphutkhatna dingin ka hanciamna leh ka lungsim tawng panin thu hoih hilhna/hanthawnna kapiakte kikemcing den hen a, kizang den ta hen. US galte pen Pandoro singkuang (Greekte’ tuanthu sunga singkuang hon loh ding a kihonna hangin leitung a gimna hong piangsak singkuang) bangin kituat hen la, US lehpei nuamte leh a kineihkhem mite gul bangin Paradise zuan dingin kithuzawh ta hen” cih tuang hi.

Madison pen mi tuntom leh a pau mengmeng lo mipil bangin a kingaihsut hangin a ngaihsutna hoih nonote leh a pilna hangin US gamah kumpi thak hong ding thei a, ama’ ngaihsutna leh thumuhna hangin tu dongin US mi ten hamphatna (rights) a ngah uh a ngah thei suak uh hi.
Source : 
Biography.com

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Item Reviewed: US KUMPI 4NA 'JAMES MADISON’ TANGTHU’. Agelh - www.laibusaal.com Description: Rating: 5 Reviewed By: Cinpu Zomi
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