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A Kiphawk Khalo Lampi: TEDIM ROAD leh Zomite . Gelh - Dr. Pum Khan Pau, PhD


Zomite tenna gam nih a kawm lam lianpi Tedim Road (Tiddim Road) pen Zomite bek hilo-in Meiteite, Kalate, Kawlte banah India leh Burma kumpite in zong hong theihpih lampi ahih manin thupi mahmah hi.

Hih lampi pen India gam Manipur state khuapi Phaipi (Imphal) leh Lamka kikawmna lam lianpi ahih manin Meiteite bang in Tedim a khiatna thei kilkello napi’n hoihsa pongin limzat mahmah bilbel uh a, Phai (Imphal) i pai ciangin lampi gei-ah Tiddim Restaurant, Tiddim Fish, Tiddim Studio cih bangin kimu kawikawi hi. Imphal leh Wangoo kikala tai bus khat bang a min Tiddim Express hi dep hi. Tua mah bangin England ah zong Tiddim Press cih bang om hihtuak liang hi. Nidang peka kipan kumpi ciamtehna ah ‘Tedim’ pen ‘Tiddim’ na kici ahih manin tuhun dongin Kawlgam Vaigam ah Tiddim a cici pawl om lai hi. Adiakin Tedim leh Lamka khua om Zomi pawlkhatte in zong amau sai/dawr signboard tungah Tedim sangin Tiddim cih bang zang bilbial lai uh hi. Tuhun Zomite in Tedim Road pen khualzinna leh sumbawlna lampi-in limtakin i zatzat hangin ataktakin hih lampi tawh kisai a kiphawk khalo, adiakin khangthakte in i theihkhak loh thu tampi om ahih manin tua a kimanghilhsa thute phawkkikna ding deihna tawh hih thului a kigelh ahi hi.


Tedim Khua, Tedim Pau
Zomite in khuapi tuamtuam i neihte lakah khat pen Tedim hi. Tedim khua pen tulaitakin Chin State  huam sunga om township 12 lakah khat hi-a, kum 2008 census dungzuiin Tedim township nuaiah inn 11,769 leh mimal 91,197 om, ciin ciamteh hi. Nidangin khua neucik ahih hangin Ukpi Kam Hau huna kipan ama tenna leh ukna phualpi ahih mah bangin Tedim khua damdamin khangin minthang hi. Kum 1888-89 kim pawlin Mikang (British) gamkekte in Khamtunggam (Chin Hills, tu-in Chin State kici) hong nawkto-in a tawpna ah i leitang hong luah khit uh ciangin Khamtunggam ukna khen thum kisuaha, tua lakah Tedim phualpi pansanin Tedim-Tonzang gam ki-uk ahih manin Tedim khua pen gamsung vaihawmna tawh kisai-in mun poimawh mahmah hong suak leuleu hi. Tua hun sawngteng mahin American Baptist Missions in zong Khalkha pansanin Khamtungah nasep kipan hi. Kum 1910 in Tedim ah mission phual khat kisat kik a, tua pansanin Joseph Herbert Cope in nasem hi. Zomite ki-ukna phualpi, Mikang Kumpi’ vaihawmna munpi khat leh Missionary-te kiphualna ahi Tedim pen khua thupi leh minthang ahihna tu-a teng banah genbeh kul nawn kei leh kilawm hi.

Ahih hangin genloh theihloh lai khat pen Tedim khua limlim a thupisak tua khua pana hong piangkhia Tedim pau ahi hi. Nidangin Tedim pau cih bang a om loh hangin tu-in Zomite taangkam a suak thei ding zahin hoihin a kideih theihna hang pen J.H.Cope hong deihsakna leh ama nasepna khutma hang ahi hi. Lai Siangtho leh Labute zong Tedim pau mah zangin kipuahtoto ahih manin tua in Tedim pau kipsakin kizelsak hi. Tedim khua, Tedim pau, Tedim Zomi cih pen tuhun ciangin i angtanpih theihna tuate hang hi-a, Tedim ah a piang khalo, a tengkha ngei zong hi beek lo, a paikha leh a mukha ngei kiuhkeuh lote nangawn in zong Tedim a kipulak khak ciangin kisaktheihpihin i omomna ah i kineihsak tanghial theihna atunga thute hang ahi hi. 

Tedim cih kammal limlim pen tua zaha na minthang ahih manin ni dangin Mikang kumpi bang in zong Khamtunggama (Chin Hills) teeng Zomite a bawngbawngin a khenna ah Tedim gam ukna nuai-a om Sukte, Kamhau, Sihzang mite a kigawmin Tedim Chin ci-in na ciamteh zaw liang hi. Tua pen mah tudongin India gam Manipur a omte in zang den kha ahih manin tu-in India gam Tedim Zomite kipawlna Tedim Chin Union bang kum sawmnga cing khinta hi.

Tuhun ciangin minam min i zat dan leh i huamsak dan kibanglo ahih manin Zo minam i cihte kua teng taktak hiam cih ngaihsutdan tuamtuam tampi omta hi. Pawlkhat in Zo/Zomi a cih ciangin kumpi in Chin, Kuki, Lushai (Mizo) ci-a a ciamteh minamte cihna hi-a, amau san leh san loh tawh kisai saklo hi. Ahih hangin pawlkhatte adingin Zomi cih pen a pomthei teng bek Zomi hi ziau lel zel hi. Hih atunga Zo/Zomi sandan namnihte ah Tedim kampaute pen a nihtuakin thawl mahmah bilbel hi; a min mahmah kineisakin a ki Zomi sak penpente hizaw liang hi. Ahihzongin kineihsak luatna pen midangte nawlkhinna leh ei leh ei kineusekna hithei kawikawi hi. Hih tawh kisai genbeh huai mahmah taleh i thulu panin pialkha le’ng hoihlo ding ahih ciangin hih ciangah nga phot ni.

Kuateng Zomi hi hiam? cih tawh kisai ngaihsutna tuamtuam a tam hangin, kuate’n Zomi it hiam? kici leh a dawnna hoihpen Zo ngeina, Zo pau, Zo lai, a kem, a ciing, leh a zuunte hi kici thei hi. Gentehna in India gamah Tedim Chin Union kipawlna sunga Zomite in Zo ngeina, Zo lai leh Zo pau zuunin ciing den ahih manin Zomi it hi, cihna hi. ZOLUS, ZOMUS i cihte zong tuamah bang hi. I omna ciat panin eima hihtheihna ciangciang tawh Zo ngeina a ciing, a kem, a zuun leh a zang dente i hih peuh leh Zomi a it i hipah hi. Ahih zongin, Zo ngeina, Zo pau i cihte koite hiam? ci le’ng i dawnna tuamciat kha zel ding ahih manin hih munah zong full stop koih kik phot ni.

Manipur leh Chin Hills

I gennop pipen ah i lutma-in Tedim Road in a zoptuah gamnihte tawh kisai en lai pak ni. Manipur leh Chin Hills (Khamtunggam) gam kizom ahih mah bangin nidangin lampi kiciantak a om lam gen ding i theihpak loh hangin Zomite leh Meiteite na kikawmlo ngeilo hi. Kumpi ciamtehna ah hih gam nihte pen vanlei-vanzuakna lam sangin gal leh sa kidona hangin kikawmna na om ngei zaw hi. Kum zalom 19 tuung lam, Ukpi Khan Thuam hun lai khawnga kipanin Meiteite in Sukte gal na lau mahmah uh a, Ukpi Kam Hau hun teh Meitei tawh kidona na om zeuhzeuh in hun tamzaw ah Meiteite in lel zel ahih manin Kamhau-Sukte mite pen Meiteite in na kihta mahmah uh hi. Kamhau-Sukte mite khutlum ka thuak den sangin kidopih vet ning ci-in Manipur kumpipa Chandrakirti Singh in galkap 1500 (Kuki mi zong kihel hi) tawh 1857 in Zomite a va sim leh lel lua mahmah ahih  manin a galkap leh galvan tampitak mangthanga, amah zong kamphathuaitakin suakta zenzen hi kei leh a kithat ding hilai hi. 1871-72 sungin Mikang kumpi in Lusei gam a sim ciangin Manipur panin zong galkap honkhat kuansak hi. Tua galkapte a ciah lamun Mualpi khua ukpi Pu Go Khaw Thang tawh kituak kha uh a, Pu Go Khaw Thang leh a nungzui pawlkhat na man uh ahih manin tua huna kipan Zomite leh Meiteite kikal kisia semsem hi. Kum 1875 in Sugnu lam panin Meitei kumpi in Zomite na sim kik leuleu hi. Hih munah i tuppipen Tedim lampi ahih manin gal kisimnate a kicingin i kikum kei zaw dinga,  ahih hang tu-a teng pan i gen nop zawk pen kumpi ciamtehna ah Zomite leh Meiteite gal leh sa-in na kinei-in tua hangin kikawmna na om zel hi.

Kum 1890 zawh ciangin Manipur leh Chin Hills Mikang kumpi (British) khutnuai ah kila khin tuak hi. Chin Hills pen Burma Chief Commissioner ukna nuaiah kikoih a, tua mah bangin Manipur zong Assam pansan a om Chief Commissioner khutnuai ah kikoih hi. Hih gam nihte kumpi ukna gamkhen khat nuai-ah a om loh hangin a uk kumpi a kibang (Mikang kumpi) ahi hi. Tua ahih manin Manipur leh Chin Hills kizopna lampi a om ding Mikang kumpi adingin a kisam thu ahi hi. A kitheipha ciangah lampi kisial masak pen kum 1891-92 sung hi-a, tua huna kibawl lampi pen gan/sakol vanpua paitheihna ding lampi ahi hi. Tua lampi pen kum 1893-94 sungin Ukpi Hau Cin Khup in puahpha hi, kici hi. Hih thu kitelzaw-in theihbeh nophuai mahmah hi. Tua hun lai-a kibawl lampi in Tedim panin Tonzang, Lenglakot (Sialmong) zui-in Manipur gam Sugnu, Kakching (Meitei gun zui) lam tawnin Phaipi tawh kizom hihtuak zaw ahih manin tuhuna Tedim Road in a zuihna tawh kibang lo hi. Bangbang ahizongin Tedim leh Phaipi kikawmna lampi khat tua hunlai pek panin na om khin cihna hi. Mikang kumpi hong lutma-in zong kikawmna na omlo tuanlo ahih manin koiteng ah lampi om hiam cih kitello hi.

Tedim Road Kibawlna
Leitung Galpi Masa (1917-1919) sungin Mikang kumpi ukna pan suahtakna dingin kiphinna mun tuamtuamah a om laitakin Zo suante zong Mikang ukna pan suahtakna dingin mun pawlkhatah kiphin uh hi. Manipur ah Zou gal/Kuki gal/Thahdo gal kici-in Zou leh Thahdote in Mikang kumpi do uh a, tua mah bangin Chin Hills ah zong Khalkhate in na do uh hi. Tua hunin Zomite khempeuh in kithutuakin Mikang kumpi langpan lo kha ahih manin kiphinnate lawhcing zolo hi. A pankhop theihlohna uh a hang tampi mah na om zel ahih man hi. Galpi hun sungin kumpi lampan Manipur leh Chin Hills kikal ah a kisam bangin galkap kisawl kawikawi ahih manin tua hunin zong gan/sakol lampi omsate mah kitawn na hihtuak hi.

Tedim Road pen Galpi Nihna hun sunga kibawl ahi hi. Kum 1942 bul lamin Kawlgam ah Japan gal hong tung hi. Tua tawh kituakin Kawlgam panin Mikang kumpi galkap leh India mi nautang tampitak lampi tuamtuam zui-in India gamah kilehkik uh a, Japante in Kawlgam a banbanin la-in Kalemyo dong a lak khit uh ciangin Khamtunggam (Chin Hills) pen Mikang ukna nuai ah om lai hi. kawlpi leh Tamu kikal lampi om khin ahih manin tua hun a galtai a tamzawte Tamu tawnin India ah lut uh hi. Mikang kumpi galkap17th Indian Division zong Kawlgam pan Phaipi (Imphal) a tunkik zawh a sawtlo-in Chin Hills humbit dingin kisawlkik pah hi. Tua hunin Phaipi leh Tedim kikal mataw lampi om nailo ahih manin a manlanga lampi sial ding Mikang kumpi in gelna nei hi. Tua a kisial ding lampi pen Khamtunggam humbitna ding leh galkap, galvan leh nek leh tak nawnna ding bek hilo-in, Japante khut sung pan Kawlgam lakkik na dinga Kawlgam laizang (central Burma) lut theihna ding lampi hoih a suah ding ngimna hipha pen hi. Tamu leh Kawl kikal lampi omsa pen tawnlo-a Kawlgam lut theihna ding deihna ahi hi. Lampi bawl ding ngimna Lieutenant Colonel Towers in September 1942 in hih bangin gen hi: “Bishenpur (17 miles) ah camp ka bawl uh hi. Tua panin Torbung (Lamka panin Km 20 khawng hi) ciang khuasiat khuaphatni-a zat theih ding lampi bawl ding leh Torbung pan Tedim  dong mataw tunsuak theihna ding lampi bawl dingin ka hilh hi.”


Tedim Road pen Mikang kumpi’ Sappers leh Pioneers kicite makaihna tawh a kibawl ahi hi. Mun tamzawte bulldozer tawh kinawt ahih hangin Gun tawh Tedim kikal lampi bawlna ah Zomite tampitak kihelin mihing thathang tawh a kito ngekngek ahihi. Tua hun laitakin Japan gal lauhna hangin kuamah lokho gina zong om theilo-in kial leh tak takin mite singnuai gammualah om ahih manin lampi bawl ding vai a om ciangin mitampitak in tua panin sum thalawh thei hi. India galkapte khutnuaiah Zomi nasem bekbek 5000 bang pha thei dingin kituat hi. Kei pute khat (Pu Suan Kam ong nusia khin) zong nasemin kuan kha hihtuaka, amah banga lampi bawla kuankha, tudong a nungta lai zong om kha thei dingin ka lamen hi. Ukpi Pum Za Mang in tuabanga nasem kuan nuam ding mite kaikhawmin ama panpihna tawh Khamtunggam mual leh guam leitawhna, gun lei dawhna khempeuh hun tomcik sungin a kizo thei ahi hi. Pawlkhatte mimala kuan om a, innkuan a kuan zong om hi. Gal hun laitak ahih mah bangin “tua hun laitak na dang khempeuh sangin lampi bawl ki-awlmawhzaw hi; galte tawh kikap ding sangin zong lampi kibuaipih masa zaw hi,” ci-in Towers in gen hi.  Hih lampi sialna ah Ukpi Pum Za Mang’ panpihna hanga lungdam kohna leh pahtawina-in Mikang kumpi in King’s Service Medal pia hi. Tua pahtawina pen Ukpi Pum Za Mang in Tonzang innpi ah zu leh sa tawh lawm a, Mikang ulian tampitak zong cial hi, kici hi. Imphal leh Tedim kikal Tedim Road lampi sauna 165 mile (265 km) ahi hi. Lai Siangtho ah Emmaus khua zuatna lampi pen Emmaus Lampi a kicih danin Imphal panin Tedim zuatna lampi zong Tedim Road a kici hilel ngel kha thei napi’n Mikang kumpi in Ukpi Pum Za Mang leh  Zomite tha leh zungte pahtawina leh phawkna dinga amau khuapi Tedim min na tamsak zong himawhlo kha dingin ka um hi. Bangbang hi leh, tudongin Kawlgam Vaigam ah Tedim Road mah kicici lel ahih manin hih lampi in Tedim Zomite leh Zo minam bup hong tawisang mahmah hi. Lampi bawlte’ khasum pen vanleng tawh Tedim tualpi ah kikhiat zel a, khatveivei vanleng pana kikhia sumnente kithehzak gawp thei ahih manin sum tampi gamlakah mangthang kici hi.

Tedim Road leh Galpi Nihna
Tedim Road pen galpi nihna hunin Mikangte leh Japante adingin a gallelna mun uh lah hi, galzo-a galte delhna lampi lah hi, si leh nai luangin luang leh ban kiphumna uh, leh dah leh kahna leh gualzo-a otna zong ahi hi. A dahhuai mahmah thu khat pen, 17th Indian Division in Tedim Road lampi a kizawhkhit sawtlo in Japante Khamtungah hong lutpah uh hi. Tua hunin Mikang kumpi in Japante do ding leh amau gamtatna a nawngkaisak dingin Zomi galkap (Chin Levies) phuan khin ahih manin Japante Khamtung hong kahtoh ciangin Zomi galkapte in nakpitakin na do-in na dal uh hi. Tua hi-a, 25 May 1943 ni-a Leisan Mual kidona ah Zomite in Japan galkap tampitak that uh ahih manin tangthu ciamteh tak mahmah suak hi. Tua kidona panin Subedar Khup Za Neng in Kawlgam Galhang Pahtawina BGM (Burma Gallantry Award) ngah hi. Mun tuamtuamah kidona a om kawikawi hangin Japante in damdamin nawkzo veve ahih manin a tawpna ah Mikang kumpi galkapte adingin Phaipi (Imphal) ah nungkik ding cihloh lampi dang om nawnlo hi. Hih munah a kanbeh huai khat pen Zomite lakpan Mikang kumpi deihlohna hanga Japante a huhte thu ahi hi; hih munah bel tualam i kan man kei ding hi.  

Mikang kumpi in Khamtunggamah Japante a lelh luatma-in nungkikin Phaipi ah pan lakik nuamzaw uh ahih manin March 1944 in 17th Indian Division nungkik dingin thu kizasak hi. 15 March 1944 in Mikang kumpi galkap khempeuh in Tedim nusia in Tedim Road tawnin nungkik uh hi. Tua hun laitak 17th Indian Division makai ‘Punch’ Cowan adinga hamsa mahmah khat pen galkap 16,000, mataw 2,500, gan/sakol vanpua 3500 Tedim panin thakhata tuahkhiat ding ahi hi. A hamsa zawlai pen Japante in lampi ah na khiang sawnsawn uh a, Tonzang, Sakawng leh Singgial ah kidona nasia mahmah om in galkap tampitak in sihlawh hi. A hun lapin Phaipi pan huhna/nungthuap hong tunglo hi leh 17th Indian Division te sukcimitin om khat thei ding zahin gallel manta uh hihtuak hi. Tua hi-a, galte (Japante) in tua lampi nuamtaka a tot loh ding deihna tawh amau bawlsa lampi leh leite mah amau mah in pawlkhat susia kik pah uh hi.

Tedim Road ah Mikang kumpi galkapte leh Japan galkapte nakpitakin kido ahih manin luang leh ban tampi mangin, mawtaw, tank leh van tuamtuam, kinusia hi. Kum 1986 (kei zong naupang cik hilai) in Tedim Road tawnin ka nute tawh Tedim ka zin lai-un Singgial ah mawtaw kinusia ka mit mahmah tawh ka muhte tu-in a tangthu kankik ding ka hih lam theikhol leng limtakin na vel mah ding hiveng maw, ka ci hi.

15 April 1944 ni-in 17th Indian Division pan a cianlai teng Phaipi tung khin uh hi. Amau nungah Japante in delhtoto ahih manin Manipur gamsung Torbung leh Bishenpur dongah kidona omtoto hi.  Tedim Road a kidonate tua hunlai-a 17th Indian Division nuai-a om 70th Light Field Company ah a sem Ian Grant Lyall in a laibu Burma: The turning point, the Seven Battles on the Tiddim Road which turned the tide of the Burma War” sungah kiciantakin gelh hi. Kum 1944 beikuan lamin Japante gallelin Manipur pan a nungkik uh ciangin tampitak in Tedim Road mah zuikik uh hi. P C Marindin makaih Lushai Brigade in Japante nungdelhin October 17 ni-in Tedim leh Khamtunggam bup amau ukna pan sutkik uh hi. Tedim tawna Manipur a lut Japante  33rd Division pan hi-a, a vekpi’n galkap 25,000 pha uh a, tua lak pan a suakta 4000 khawng bek hi, ciin a uang deuh ciamtehna khat om hi. A sau luat ding lauh manin Indian National Army, Chin Levies leh gal hun sunga Zomite i panlakna tuamtuamte hih mun ah kikhum zolo hi.

Tedim Road leh Zomite Maban
Zomite mailam khantohna ding Tedim Road ah zong a kingakna ciang om hi. Tuhun India kumpi in “Look East Policy” ci-in Southeast Asia (SEA) gamte tawh socio-cultural leh economic lamah kizopna hoihtak neih ding ngimna thupi mahmah neita ahih manin tua tawh kituakin India adinga SEA lutna ding kongvangte lakah mun thum Zo mite tenna tawnin pai hi. Moreh leh Champhai tawna Burma lutna tu ciangciang kihongin hoihtakin a paitheih bangin Tedim Road zong kong vang hoih mahmah hong hih theihna dingin limtakin puahphat kik kisamta hi. India lamah tu dinmunin Phaipi leh Behiang (India gamgi) kikal mawtaw nuamtakin tungin kilehzo lel hi. Kawlgam lamah ci le’ng Tedim leh Cikha ciang mawtaw a tun theih sam hangin tuk leh khal hunin kileh ziahziah cih bang haksa lai hi. A taktakin sumbawlna lam a khanna dingin tuk leh khal hunin Tedim Road ah vanpua-mipua mawtaw a pai theih ziahziah ding kisamta hi. Tua dingin kumpi in lampi a puahphat ding kisam mahmah a, tua mah bangin a leitang nei Zomite in zong ihih theihna lamtek panin hih lampi puahin i kep ding thupi hi. Hun khat lai-in Tedim Road tawnin Kawlgam pan van hong lutin Behiang bang zong sumbawlna phualpi khat suak ngei napi’n tuhunin Behiang khuata khat tawh kibang lelta hi. Bang hang aitam? Kawlgam panin sumbawl kuamah hong lut nawnlo-a, India panin zong Kawlgam ading bangmah theih tham ding kinawn nawnlo cihna hi.

A taktakin sumbawlna lamah khantohna a om theihna dingin lampi hoih a kisap mah bangin tua lampi ah bitna/muanna a om ding zong kisam hi. Nidangin sumbawlte’ thuaklah pen Palikte/custom-te hi-a, tuhun ciangin palikte sangin singnuaimite kikihta zawta hi. Kawlgam Vaigam Zomite sumbawlna lamah i khantohna dingin i huangsunga i neih Tedim Road puahin zunin khangsak ni. Tua in neih leh lam bekah hamphatna hong pialo dinga, kikawmtuahna hong khangin kimeltheihna, kinaina, leh ki-itna zong hong tun ding hi. Kikawmna baihlam leh i lai leh paute leh i ngeinate zong hong kigawmgawm ding na hi lel hi. Tedim Road pen hoihtakin kipuah peuh leh tua lam dunga om Zomite tenna khuate mah bangin Zomi bup in zong i noptuampih/metpih hamtang ding hi.  

Thukhupna
India gamah Tedim Road a kici, Kawlgam lamah Mawtaw Lam Lianpi ci-a a kitheizaw Zomite tenna gam nih a kawmtuah lampi tungtawnin Zomite tangthu pawlkhat i sut citciatna hang khat om hi. Tedim leh Lamka pen Zomite in khuapi lian i neihte lakah a thupipen pawl ahi hi. Nidangin Tedim ah a tengkhawmte sung panin Tedim pau hong pian khiat bangin, mailamah zong Lamka ah a tengte sung pan “Lamka pau” cih bang khat hong piangkha ngel ding hi (A piangpiang hizawta hi). Zomite pau taang a pian theihna khuapi nih a zom tuah pen Tedim Road ahih manin ni dangin Mikang kumpi makaihna tawh i pi i pute in hih lampi hong sialsak pen mah tu-in hong zomtuah leh hong kinaisak, hong ki-itsak lampi a suah ding i lunggulh hi. I tenna gam leitang kizoma, ahih hangin eima tel lohpi-in kumpi gam in hong khen se citciat taleh i lampi in tua leitung gamgi pailetin hong kawmtuah/zomtuah veve ahih manin tu-in a kisam pen i lungsim khuituahin pangkhawm le’ng mailamah mailamah Zo suante kigawmna leh khanna dingin Tedim Road in International boundary nangawn nawk pailet khinta hi. Tua ahih manin tuhun Zomite in hih Tedim Road puahin, zunin i zat ziahziah theihna dingin kumpi lampan thuneite in hanciamin, tua mah bangin a hithei lamlam panin i puah i kep ding eima tavuan ahi hi.
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 Source ; ngeisoksquare .



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Item Reviewed: A Kiphawk Khalo Lampi: TEDIM ROAD leh Zomite . Gelh - Dr. Pum Khan Pau, PhD Description: Rating: 5 Reviewed By: Cinpu Zomi
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