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ZOMI TE KHANG TANGTHU

ZOMI TE KHANG TANGTHU
(Chin, Zomi leh Ciimnuai-mi)
Zomi Inhabited Areas.

Zomi
Pupi ‘Zo’ ii suan leh khak khempeuh Zomi ahi hi. Pupi pen Noah suan Sem, Ham, Japhet-te lakah Japhet suan hi dingin ki-ummawh hi. Sengam ah ukpi (dynasty) a hunhunin kilaih hi. (2205-1766 BC Xia dynasty) Xia kumpi ukna hun hi-in, (1766-1122 Shang dynasty) Shang kumpi ukna hun hi a, (1123-256 BC Zhou or Zo dynasty) Zo ukna hun ahi hi.

Shang ukpipa in khua kimah hausa upa koih lo ahih manin Zomite in baihtakin a ukna sutkhia zo hi, kici hi. Zo ukna hun ciangin khua kim ah upa, hausa koih ahih manin Sengam ah Zo uk hun sung pen a sawt pen hun suak hi. Hih Zo uk hun sungin mipil (philosopher) khankhiat hun hi-in hih hun a mipil minthang philosopher ahi, Confucius (Kung-fu-tze, 511-475 BC) in, hun sung tengin innkuan nuntak, beh leh phung kizopzia leh sahawm zia cihte a kipan hilhin sinsak a, tua ahilh ziate tu dongin Sente in zang lai-in, Zomite in zong zang uh hi. Zomi ih cih ciangin leitung bupa om Pupi Zo suan khempeuh kihel in, Zogam, Zo leitang pen kumpi te’n Chin State ci-a hong ciapteh sakna gamhuam teng ahi hi.


Chin Mi
Zo kumpite in a uk lai-un Sengam khen sagihin kikhen hi. Tuate in Han, Chou, Wei, Chow, Yeu, Chi leh Chin ahi hi. Hih gamte Zo kumpi in uk-in siah (tax) tam la lua ahih manin mite lungkim lo hi. Chin mite makai Yen Cheng a kici mitha hat khat hong khang in hipa in ( 230 BC pawl in) gamkhat khit gamkhat simin zo a, 221 BC ciangin tua gam sagih teng a uk khin hi. Yen Cheng in a kumpi gam mi “Chin Shi Huang Ti” a phuak hi. “Chin” kham cihna hi-a, “Shi” cih pen a masa pen ahih kei leh khatna cihna hi a, “Huang Ti” cih pen Milian cihna hi. Tua hi a, Milian masa khamkumpi cihna ahi hi. Hih hun pen a masa pen Chin Kumpi hun ahi hi. Hih Chin mite in tu dongin Sengam ah tengin uk suak uh hi. Hih a makaipa Yen Cheng in 256-206 BC sung teng uk hi. Tua khit ciangin Sen kumpi kizom toto a, tu dong in kizomsuak hi.

Sen i cih kammal pen Sente’ min bulpi “Chine” – “Chin-qin” pan a hong piang khia ahi hi. (Zaide 42) Tua mite ukna zabi 20 dong kizom suak hi (Perry 252 Pa). Hih laibute tungtawnin i et ciangin “Chin” a kici Sen mite tu dong Sengam ah teng suak uh a, mundang koi mah ah paikhia lo uh hi. Tua kumpi ukna a kipat tung vua kipan kulhpi (Great Wall) lam kipan uh hi. Tua kulhpi tai 1500 sau-in, tu dongin thupi kisa mahmah hi. Shangyong kici upadi khauhtak bawlin thu zui lo mite thong ah khum uh hi.


Zomite Kawlgam Sung Lutna
Chin ukna hun sungin Kulhpi (Great Wall) ciang dingin mi khempeuh na semsakin, nek leh dawn thaman ginna pia lo a hih manin mi tampitak Sengam panin taikhia uh hi. Tuate sungah a dangte enlo-in Kawlgam a zuanteng tom et pak le hang, Kawlgam ah Karen-te na lut masa uh hi. Tua khit teh ‘Chin’ kici Sente pawlkhat, tua teh Kawlmi, Zomite leh KaChin mite ahi uh hi.


Karen mite Kawlgam tawlam ah tengin, Kawlmite Kawlgam laizang Mandalay kim ah teng uh a, hih Chin a kici Sen minamte Kawlte tawh tengkhawm in Kawlmi suak uh hi. Zomite Kawlgam a lutun Zo gunpi (Tuikang) dungzui suk uh a, Mandalay a tun’ uh ciangin Kawlte in Chin mite sa uh a, Sengam panin kulh ciang nuam lo-a taikhia-te Chin ukpi pa in hong delhsak kik hi ding hi, ci-in lau mahmah uh hi. Zomite pen Chinte ahih loh lam a theih uh ciangin Mandalay Kulh ciang dingin zawn uh a, Kawlte in kua minam cih tel lo uh ahih manin Chin-te cisuak uh hi. Kulh ciang-a sila nasep ding ut lo uh ahih manin Kawlgam laizang panin nitumna-lam manawhin peemkhia uh a, pawl khat Gunkhawm dung zui-in paito suak uh a, Kachin mite a tuaksuk tawh kituak in, Kachinte zong kulh ciang ding ut lo ahih manin kileh kik-in kimasuan to uh a, Kachin gamteng ah teng suak uh hi. 


Kawlgam Laizang Kuam pan Zomite Tangthu Pawl Khat

Zomite pen Kawlgam laizang tengah tawlpi khat mah Kawlte tawh na tengkhawm uh a, hih hun in Mon, Pyu, Kanyan lehThet minamte tengkhawm uh hi, kici hi. Pyu panin Kawlmi nam piangin, Kanyan panin Rakhaing, Thet panin Chin minam piang hi ci-in tangthu kan pawlkhatte in ciamteh uh hi. Hih hun pekin midangte in Zomite pen Chin ci uh a, tu-in kum 800 bang val khinta hi. Ahi zongin amau leh amau tudongin Chin minam, kici ngei lo uh hi. Pagan khuapi zong Zomite pau “Pugam” cih panin pai hi kici hi. Popa tawngkalat (volcanic neck) zong Tazahgam mual/tong ahih kei leh Pupa mual/tong kici hi. Gamtong i cih ciangin gam sungah khaniinte mihing pau bangin tong/pau in a gamlum theihna mun ahi hi. Tua bek hi lo-in Kawlte in a sum uh Dengga a cih zong Zokam-a dangka pan-a pai hizaw hi, kici hi. Pagan khuapi phuh hun pen AD 1044-1287 kimpawl hi-in, tua mun-a mualsuangte ah Zomite Chin mahin kiciamteh hi. Dahpa tangthu zong hih mun pan piang hi, kici hi. Pagan Popa panin nitumna saklam zuanin pai khia uh a, Sagaing gam kim teng ah sawtsim mah khawl in tua mun panin “Lengtong Hoih” tangthu piang hi kici hi. Hih Sagaing leh Ava kikal Sibani khua nai teng ah Zomite tawh kisai, inn mun logam leh vanzat lui (Ancient relics) tampitak tuni dongin kikan thei lai hi, (ci-in Tedim Sangpi Golden Jubilee Magazine, laimai 204-na ah Ngulh Khaw Suan in gelh hi).

Hih a paitosuak lo Zomite Mungzua (Monywa) leh Gunkhawm (Kalewa) kikal tengah tengin “Khawhkhen” na ci uh hi. Tua mun pan Gunkhawm kantan in pai uh a, tu laitak a (Kalay-valley leh Kabaw valley) teng na tung uh-a, Kawlzang (Khawlzang?) na ci uh hi. Hih Khawlzang a lut hun pen AD 800 kimpawl hita hi (ci in Tedim Sangpi Golden Jubilee Magazine, laimai 322 na ah Dr.Khen Za Sian in gelh hi). Zomite pen Gunkhawm gundung teng leh Kawlzang kilak kuam teng ah teng masa uh ahih manin Kawlte in a mau ciapteh na Chin min puasakin Zomite ten’na gamsung-a om Gun cihna in Chin dwin/ csif;wGif; na ci uh a, Zo Gunpi cihna ahi hi.


Bang Hang Zomite Chin Kici?

Kawlte in Sengam-a Chin Mite Sa
Chin i cihte pen tu dongin Sengam ah teng uh a, Zomi hilo uh hi. Zo cih pen a min diktaktak ahi hi. Chin min a puakna uh pen, Kawlgam laizang a tun ciangin Kawlte in, a maute Sengam panin a nawhkhiatte uh sa ahih manin “Chin ten hong delh uh” ci-in na lau uh hi. Tua panin Chin a kicisuak ahi hi. Tu dongin Zomi cih sangin Chin in kiciamtehzaw hi.


Chin Kici pen Kawlkam “Tu-nge-Chin” pan Paisuak 

Professor Luce in Chin kici kammal pen Kawlte in lawm a cihna (Tu-nge-Chin / oli,fcsif;) pan hong piang hi, ci hi. (Ref. Chin Hills Linguistic Tour, Laibu, laimai-26.) 


Chin pen “Cin Hil” pan Kizomsuak 

Zo khang kante in i pupi Zo hi a, tapa nih nei in Kip Mang leh a nau Cin Hil hi, ci uh hi. Tua ahih manin sangmang J. H. Cope in Zomite Chin a kicih pen a pu uh Cin Hil hi a, Mikang khan ciangin Chin Hills ci-in a gammin in a koih hi, cih thu khamtung thu kizakna a bawlna sungah gelh hi.

Chin pen Kawlkam hi-a Bawm, Cihna hi.
Dr. Lehman in Chin cih kammal pen Kawlpau hi a, “Bawm” cihna hi. Kawlgam laizang ah a om lai-in bawm-in van ki-pua ahih manin, Kawlte in “Hei! bawm puapa” ci-a a sapna panin kizomsuak hi, ci hi.

Jin, Yen pan Chin min piang hi.

Zogam a om Zomi te thu agelh Carey leh Tuck in Zomi te, Chin a kicih pen Senpau in Mihing/Pasal cihna ahi, Jin/Yen kici kammal te pan piang hi ding hi, ci uh hi.

Bang Hang Zomite Chin Hong Kici Thukhupna

Hih a tunga nam li-te sung panin a masapen mah maanpen ding hi. Bangbang ahi zongin Chin pen Zo minam min hi lo hi, cih kitel mahmah hi. Pawl khatte in Sengam (Chin dynasty) Chin ukpi suante hi hang ci-in tangthu gelh om napi-in a gelhte naleng in Chin mi ka hi uh hi a ci khat beek om lo hi. Chin cih pen a pupi uh’ min hi leh Zomite sungah nam khat beek in Chin minamte ka hi uh hi, ci leh kilawm hi. Chin, a kici minam kuamah om lo hi. Tua hi a, Zomi pen minam min maantaktak ahihna thu kitel mahmah hi.

Tedim gam Khangthu Kan Kawmiti in CHIN leh ZO thu a thukzaw-a a kantel khit uh ciangin, ZO hi hang, cihna in a zawh khit banah leitunga pilna sang nei tampi mah in ZOMI na hi uh hi, hong cihna thukho, thupicing hi ci-in kisang a, ZO hihna thu kakipsak zawsem uh hi, ci in (Gamngai Magazine, Laimai 229 ah) Khuadaite Dr. Ps Kham Do Nang in gelh hi.


Ciimnuai Mi

Ciimnuai cih pen Zomite Zogam sung a lut ciangin a tun’ masakna mun min ahi hi. Ciimnuai mi i cih ciangin Ciimnuai panin a peemkhiate’ suan leh khak khempeuh huam a, Ciimnuai mi, Ciimnuai vontawi te a hi uh hi. Zomi a kici khempeuh Ciimnuai mi hi khin lo hi. Kawlzang pan khamtung zuanin Zomite a pai uh ciangin tonkhawm nawn loin kikhen thang uh a, pawl khat in Zogun dung zuito hi. Tuate in Locom lam zuanin pai uh a, Lailun khul ah teng uh hi. Tua pan gamhoih zuanin kikhen leuleu uh a, Falam, Hakha, Matupi leh Thantlang gamteng ah teng uh hi. Pawl khatte Zogam leitaw lam zuanin paisuk lai uh a, Paletwa, Kanpetlet dong ah teng uh hi. Hih “Lailun Khul” a tung masate in a luzangah tuktum uh ahih manin, lusuangte kici a, a tun masak na min pua-in amau leh amau “Lai-mi” kici uh hi. Hih Lailun Khul pen Falam Khua gei Sunthla khuataw-lam teng ahi hi.

Pawl khatte in Tuikang gundung nitumna lam zui-in Tuingo lui a phak uh ciangin Tuingo dungzui uh hi. Zangpi tam a tun uh ciangin Ngatan lui dung zui-in Ciimnuai Khul ah tung uh hi. A dang pawl khatte Thuamvum pan in nitumna lamah tuaksukin Sialtang lui zuan in kahto uh a, Ciimnuai Khul mah tung uh hi. Hih Ciimnuai a tung masa Zomi te deklam tuktum pawl hi a, Ciimnuai vontawi ahih kei leh a pupi Zo min pua-in ZOMI a kici ngiatte a hi uh hi.


Hih Ciimnuai kici mun pen Tedim pan Saizang lam zuan-in pai leng, Saizang khua tunma deuh mual kidawh iuh-euhna mun nuai deuh, mualnuai dang teng ahi hi. Tua munteng Sihzangte in Eden huan, mihing piankhiatna bangin ngaihsun uh hi, ci-in, Carey Tuck in The Chin Hills laibu sungah gelh hi, kici hi.



Ciimnuai pan mun tuamtuam ah

Tualgal tuamtuam hang leh nuntak nopzawkna ding zongin Zomite ciaugal kai-in kimkhat Bangladesh gamdong tung uh hi. Pawl khatte in paipai in sau pai lua uh ahih manin amin uh mangngilh in “paite” na kici uh hi. Tua mite Manipur Lamka kimteng ah tam teng pen uh hi. Tua bang a paito pawlkhatte in amau’ phung min kengin Thahdote na kici uh a, Manipur gam sung mah ah tamteng pen uh hi. Ciau gal a kaite a tam pen Mizo in na kilo uh hi. Bangbangin a kilo zongin Ciimnuai pana peemkhia khempeuh ZOMI, Ciimnuai vontawi, unau sanggam laizom khat ahi hi.

Ciimnuai pan peemkhia, unau laizom khat tektek, bang hangin pau leh ham kibang lo hiam cih thu, minam i kikhenna zia tawm kikumsuk dih ni. Meel leh sa, gamtat zia utdan a kibat loh pen lam dang sak ding hi lo hi. Lai Siangtho sungah Kai leh Abel-te zong numei masa pen Eve sungpan suak tektek, gamtatzia a utdan uh kilamdang pah lian hi. Esau leh Jacob unau a peeng hi napi’n, a vun uh a ham leh a nel in kilamdang hi. Tu laitak leitung mi khempeuh Noah suan vive hi napi-in Pasian in Babel tausang a lamna hangin mi khempeuh pau kitukalhsak hi cih i theihsa ahi hi. Tua hangin leitung ah kampau nam atul-a simin kilamdang hi. Zomite zong Ciimnuai ciangah kampau aw-kaih kibang lai hi napi-in a kikhen ciangun mun leh gam zui-in a aw-kaih leh kammal pawl khat a kilamdang ahi hi. Tuate pawl khat a tomin en pak leng:
  1. Zote ih cih “ii-aw” kammal a zang pawl: Zo cih pen Zomi khempeuh in mun, mualdawnlam genna-a a zat kammal ahi hi. Simlam, cih ciangin lui tawh kinai-na lam, tuitaw lam genna hi a, ni sa-in khua lum hi. Zo lam pen khua vot hi. Ciimnuai pan kimkhat Balzang ah tengto uh a, tua hun lai-in Tedim gamsung khua om khempeuh lakah a votpenna mun ahih manin, a dang teng in Zo lam-a tengte a cihna un Zote na ci uh a, tuate suan leh khak teng Zote kicisuak hi. Pawlkhatte in Zomite pupi Zo i suan leh khak deuh dingin ngaihsun khial kha uh hi. (ci in Rev.G.K Dal in Tedim BEHS No.1 Golden Jubilee Magazine laimai 309 na ah gelh hi). Zomite pupi Zo khang pen 1123-256 BC hun lai pek hi-in, hih minam neu tuamtuam-a a kikhen pen Zomite Ciimnuai a tunkhit, AD 1500 kum khit ciang hi pan hi. Tua ahih manin Ko pupi Zo tawh khanggui kizom deuh ung, a ci thei ding kuamah om tuam lo ahih manin Ciimnuai pan-a a peemkhia khempeuh laigui khat ahi hi. Tu-a Zo kampau deuhte a pupi uh pen Suan Tak ahi hi. Pu Za Hung in tapa nih (Sek Tak leh Suan Tak) nei in, Pu Sek Tak tapa Thahdo hi-a, Pu Suan Tak sungpan Sihzang leh Zote khempeuh banah, Pu Suan Tak suan mitampi, Thahdo te sungah om ahih manun, Thahdo, Zote, leh Sihzang te Unau phungsung khat ahi uhi (ci in Dr.Ps. Kham Do Nang in Gamgai 21st Thanksgiving Magazine laimai 233 na ah gelh hi).
  2. Teizang kampau pawl: Pawi gal (Vaipi gal) a tun ciangin Ciimmnuai pan Luika khua sat uh a, Luika khua a siam Gulpi in vok, ui leh naupang peuh ne thei zel a hih manin, tua gulpi a thah uh ciangin Luika khua kicim gawp a, tua mun panin Teising honkhat a pona leizang mun khat ah kisuan uh a hih manin Teizangte kici hi. Tua mun pen tulaitak-a Mualbem khuataw teng ahi hi. Hih khua asat hun pen AD 1500-1600 khawng teng hi ding in ki-um mawh hi. Penglam zong Teizang pau in kipau-sak hi, ci-in Dr. Ps Kham Do Nang in (Gamngai Magazine laimai 231 ah) gelh hi. Hih Teizang khua pan a sawtlei loin Mualbem khua satin kituah leuleu uh a, Mualbeem khua pen Sukte khuapi, ci-in kiciamteh hi. Hih khua panin Zomi mipil milian tampi khangkhia hi. 1892 kum in Tonzang ukpi Hau Cin Khup (Ukpi a suah ma), Teizang pau a siamna dingin Mualbeem khua ah kikoih hi, kici hi.
  3. Saizang kampau pawl: Ciimnuai khua pan saigam (gamsai) tam mahmahna luita dung mun khat-a teng phei pawl teng, Saizangte kici pah hi. Nam min hi loin, khua min hizaw hi. 
  4. Sihzang kampau pawl: Saizang khua, tulaitak a khuataw lam nekpian ah tui limci mahmah sihtui khuk khat om a, tua kim-a teng teng zong Sihzangte mah kici leuleu hi.
  5. Vangteh kampau pawl: Mangkang Galkap General Founce leh Major Raike makai-in 1889 March 09 ni-in Siallum kulhpi sim gawp uh hi. Tua ni mahin Vangteh khua mi khat in inn lam in inn vang a tehteh laitak Mangkangte in Mangpau tawh na khua min uh bang a hia? a cih leh nasep a dong sa in ‘innvang ka teh’ a cih leh Mangkangpa in a dalzazi bu sungah “Vangkateh khua” ci-in ciamteh pah hi.
  6. Diim kampau pawl: Tu laitak-a Diimpi khuataw teng ah AD1500 kum kim pawlin cikdumpi buan leh tui a kidim khat om a, tua pen a tomin Diim ci uh a, tua lai-a teng mite Diimte kici suak hi. Hih mun teng pen a minthang ngei khat ahi hi. Tua kim tengah “Keei tui” kici, dawn kha leng sahang nam a kisuak thei tui khuk khat zong om in tua tui pen Mangkangte hong khan ciangin leivuk cip uh hi, kici hi.
  7. Khuano kampau pawl: Teizangte Hau Cin Khup in a pano Do Thawng’ nek dingin siah kaihna ding khua kimkhat pia hi. Do Thawng in khual a zin’ ding sialin a gamh luah dingpa Pau Khua Mang in, kaw’ pai ding ci-a a dot sialin ‘Khuano kual ah’ ci den ahih manin tua kimteng Khuano Kual kici suak hi. Tua khuate pen Dimpi, Dimlo, Suangpi, Phunom, Thangnuai, Taakkhawl, cih bang . . . khua sawm-le-thum pha uh hi.
  8. Tedim kampau pawl: 1857 kumin Lushai gal leh Meitei gal a ven’ ciangin Tedim khuapi ah Zo, Vaiphei, Teizang, Diim, Thahdo, Gangte, Sihzang, . . . kiptak in tengkhawm uh a, inn 300 val bang a phak uh ciangin, ki-ukna zong haksa pian cipcip ahih manin tua teng kigawm-in, khua laizang lamdung- a Khangnote’n a zat uh kampau (kihelzau) pen 1860 kum ciangin Kam Hau Thukhun’(Regulation) 27 teng leh Tedimkam, ci-in kipsak uh hi. Tua a kihelzau kampau a zangteng Tedim-kampau ci uh a, 1919 kum ciangin J. H. Cope topa in Zolai Sim Bu a bawlsak ciangin hih Tedim Uk sunga kam tuamtuam apau khua khempeuh tawh thukimna om bangin Tedim kam-in bawl a, a khua-nung ciangin‘T -Tedim pau, eimau pau’ ci-in Zolai sinna-in kinei hi.
Thukhupna
Pupi Zo suan leh Ciimnuai vontawi ahi khempeuh sim leh zo, tuipi galkhat dongah a kikhen zongin laigui zom khat, puan khat zawngkhawmte a hihlam mangngilh ding hi lo hi. A kibat lohna neucik a omte sutlo zawin, a kibatnate uh gawmkhawm a, a minam uh leh a gam uh --Zogam, Zolei zun khawm diamdiam ding hizaw hi. Ngeina, kampau, leh laite kemin, zangin, zun khawm diamdiam thei leh, Zogam a pal lun semsem ding hi.

Hih i gelh Zo Khangthu tung tawnin Zomite unau laizom i hihlam tel in hong kipum khatsak semsem ding hi, ci-in ka lam-en hi. Pasian in Zomite’ thupha ahi dingin hih lai asim mi khempeuh Thupha hong pia ta hen. Amen !


MNcinpu (BA; M.Div)

Suangphei Khua.



Et kak laibu te (Bibliography)

  • C. Thang Za Tuan. “Zomi te Pusuah Cilna, Khanlawhna Leh Khantohna,” Tedim BEHS No.1 Sangpi Golden Jubilee Magazine. eds. H.Gin En Cin leh adangdangte. Yangon: MBC press, 1999.
  • C. Thang Za Tuan (Prof. Ph.D), Advisor of ZBCM, Lecture hand out given in Tamu ZBCM Youth Conference, in May 2004.
  • Cin Za Nang, Cin Sian Pau leh alawmte. “Zomite Pianna Thu,” Sezang Khua Kum 100 Cin Magazine,2004.
  • G. K. Dal. “Ciimnuai Mi, Tedim Mi,” Tedim BEHS No.1 Sangpi Golden Jubilee Magazine. eds. H.Gin En Cin leh adangdangte. Yangon: MBC press,1999.
  • Hau Khan Langh. Suangphei Khua Hualnam Beh Kipawlna Laibu. 2008.
  • Khen Za Sian. “I Pu I Pate’ Sul,” Tedim BEHS No.1 Sangpi Golden Jubilee Magazine, eds. H.Gin En Cin leh adangdangte. Yangon: MBC press,1999.
  • Ngulh Khaw Suan. “Etlawm Mualkuam Zogam Nuam,” Tedim BEHS No.1 Sangpi Golden Jubilee Magazine. eds. H.Gin En Cin leh adangdangte. Yangon: MBC press, 1999.
  • Ps Kham Do Nang. “Zo Khang Tangthu,” Gamngai 21st Century Thanksgiving Magazine. ed. Cin Khen Mang. Yangon: Hebron Printing Press, 2008.
  • Tuan Khaw Kham. “Zomi Tawh Kisai Theihhuai Thu Tuamtuam,” Tedim BEHS No.1 Sangpi Golden Jubilee Magazine .eds. H.Gin En Cin leh adangdangte. Yangon: MBC press, 1999.
  • Vum Lian Thang. “Ciimnuai Pana Tedim Mite,” Tedim BEHS No.1 Sangpi Golden Jubilee Magazine. eds. H.Gin En Cin leh adangdangte. Yangon: MBC press, 1999.

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Item Reviewed: ZOMI TE KHANG TANGTHU Description: Rating: 5 Reviewed By: Cinpu Zomi
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