728x90 AdSpace

Hot
Menu
Zon-ol na Donate

Latest News

Mihing Hamphatna Khutzat bulpi - Laibu. (The Human Rights Handbook)

Mihing hamphatna (human rights) i cih in bang hiam?
  • Hamphatna (rights = hamphatna cin kizang hi.) i cih in ngah theihna, sep theihna, neih theihnate ahihi.Tua hamphatna te i zatna ah midang te hamphatna sukha lo ding (or) khaktan lo ding ciang bek zang thei ding hi. Cih nopna in mikhat i hamphatna dingah midang te in mawhpuak na nei hi.
  • Hamphatna in mihingte kisapna zui in kikhen khia thei hi. Tua kisapna i cihpen nopsakna, hauhsakna leh nuntakna ding a, a lo theilo a kisam te ahihi. Nang pen gam khat sunga teng mihing khat na hihmanin na ngah dinga kilawm hamphatna te ngah theihna na nei hi. A hih keileh thukham (Law = thukham ci'n kizanghi.) zui in na ngen thei hi.
Mihingte hamphatna pen thukham zui in na ngenthei hi ci'n na gen hi. Tua ahih leh mihing hamphatna in thukham i sehkhen khat a hihiam?
  • Hi mah hi.
Bang thukham i sehkhen a hia leh?
  • Leitung bup mihing hamphatna tawh kisai thukham (International Bill of Human Rights) i sehkhen a hihi.Tua thukham sungah zong leitung bup mihing hamphatna thuguipi te a bultu pen ahihi. Leitung gam tampi te in a mau gamsung thukhunpi (constitution = thukhunpi ci'n kizang hi.) leh thukham sungah mihing hamphatna thuguipi te gelhlut in vengbitna nei uhhi.Tua banah kumpi tampi te in " a mau gamsung mipi te hamphatna leh suahtaknate zung kipna ding in" mihing hamphatna tawh kisai leitung bup thukimna laipite ah letmat thuh (signature= letmat thuhna ci'n kizang hi.) in vengbit uhhi.
"Suahtakna" i cih in "hamphatna" tawh kibang ahi hiam?
  • Thukham or thukhunpi zui in ci leng kibang mah hi. Bawlsiatna (torture= bawlsiatna ci'n kizang hi.) pan suahtakna pen bawlsiatna thuaklohna ding in gamtat ding teeltheihna ding tanvo i nei hi.
Banghang in hih thukhamte pen leitungbup in thupi sak in theihpihna (recorgnition = theihpihna ci'n kizang hi.) nei ciat hiam?

Ahang pen mihing hamphatnate khuavannuai tangkona (Universal Declarition of Human Rights-UDHR) kam honna ah teltak in kimu thei hi. Tua in "a kiluah suk mihing vang (dignity= vang ci'n kizang hi.) leh mihing khempeuh i ngah ding hamphatna te thukim theihpihna in mihing te i suaktakna, thuman diktatna( justice) leh kilemna te tulpi a hih" cih ahihi. Mihing hamphatna te nelhsiahna leh zahtak lohna (simmawhna) in hai gamtatna a hihna honglak hi.

Thukhualna, lungduaina tawh pilvang tak a nasep ding a genbehna ah:-
  • "Hiamgamna leh nengniamna te pan suahtakna ding in lam tawpna ah mihing te in a lothei lo a sisan naisan tawh a gilo ukcipna doding dinmun a tun ma in mihing hamphatna te thukham tawh vengbit huai hi" cih ahihi.
Hih thukham kizat zawh hun bang tan sawt ta hiam?
  • A huampi in cileng hun sawt pi paita hi. A hizong in leitung galpi nihna ( Japan gal a Zomi te theih) ciang dong lai tawh kician tak a gelhna om nailo hi. Leitung galpi nihna bei leitung bup minam kipawlna (United Nation Organiztion,UNO) kiphuh khit 1948 December 10 ni in Leitung bup minam kipawlna thucinsai Innpi (UNGA= ci'n a tom in kizang hi.) in mihing hamphatnate khuavannuai tangkona (UDHR) hong suah khia a, tua in mihing hamphatna leh suahtakna tawh kisai laisung a kigelh masa pen ahihi.Gamkhat peuh UNO ah dongta gam (state party= dongta gam ci'n kizang hi) in a lutkhit nak leh hih thupuan sunga thute zahtak leh zuih ding mawhpuakna nei ahihi.
Kua teng in hih hamphatna te nei hiam?
  • Nang zong na nei hi. Ken zong ka nei hi. Mihing khempeuh in zong a nei hi. Hih in leitung bup tawh kisai hi a, numei pasal, mizawng mihau, mivom mikang (ci leh sa), biakna nei leh neilo khempeuh in zong tua hamphatna te nei ciat uhhi. Mihing khempeuh in a kikim tek in i neiciat hi.
A hizong in mi pawlkhat in khat veivei midangte hamphatna zahtak saklo in thagum zang in hai gamtat thei uhi. Tua bang hun ciangin a maute a kikim hamphatna piaktak lo hi i ci thei diam?
  • Mihing khempeuh a kikim hamphatna tawh suakkhia tek i hihi. Bang na sem in, koi mun ah om mah leh tua hamphatna te kisuh khiatsak theilo hi.Paih khiat theih hilo hi. Mihingte tawh khenkhiat theih hilo hi. Mihing hamphatna te palsat, mi gilote in thukham mai ah thuman tak leh kicing takin thusitna thuak ding hi. Tuabang thusitna ah khialhna nei a thu khensatna a om mateng midik in kiciamteh ding hi. A zenzen in khialhna nei in thu khensatna a om khit ciangin zong etphatkikna (appeal) ngen thei lai ding hi. A zenzen in kolbulhna (arrest) a thuak leh zong mihing vang' kiamsak lo ding ciang bek in kolbulh ding hi. A maute in hih hamphatna te ngah uh ahihman un tua hamphatna te a zahtak ding uh ahihi.
Hamphatna zahtak ding na cih in bang gen na hihiam?
  • Mihing hamphatna te zahtak ding i cihciang in " tua mi i pilna, siamna leh maitang zahtak na hilo in mihing ahihna, man neih sakna" a hihi.
A hizong in" hih mite bawlsia gawp ing; tua mi nu ka sual gawp hi" a ci mi khat i hamphatna banghang in zahtak sak ding i hihiam?
  • Amah zong mikhat a hihi. Mi khempeuh thukhen zum in khialhna nei ahi lam a lahkhiat ma hun teng midik a sang ding a hihi. Tua bang i santheih khit ciang bek in khialhna a neih leh neihloh thu kisit thei pan hi. Tua ahihman in mi khempeuh a suakta leh a kicing in mipi mainuai ah sittel ding kisam hi. Tua mahbang in khialhna nei cih kitel tak a kimuh khiat leh zong thukham bek zui in thaman piak ding a hihi. Hih in thukham vaihawmna (rule of law= thukham vaihawmna ci'n kizang ding hi) i deihna bul a hihi.
Hih bang a sepna pen kicing sa keng. Kei deihna ah bel " mit tang khat man ding in mit tang khat" in thuk kik nuam ing.

Hi mah hi. Khialhna neite in mawhna thaman piakna leh thu khenna thuak ding uhhi. Bangbang i sem zong in thukham zui a vai i hawm ciang in hehna (or) thiikthu tawh sep ding kilawm lo hi. Thukham i cih in thuman thudik ngahna ding a thudotpi panpihtu ahihi. Tua bang a sepna ah a lang tuak un thu dotna leh a mau gamtatna tawh kisai thu hilhna pia thei tuak ding hi. Khat veivei tua bang na sepna ah kipsakna ngahna ding haksat hun (or) gamsung vai ah tua bang na sepding a piak loh hun te ah thu khensatna bawlna ding hun sawtpi kisam thei hi. Ahizong in kicing tak a kisit thu hi a, thuman leh diktak a thu khensatna kingah veve hi.

Tanh kikimna(equality =tanh kikimna ci'n kizang hi.) na cih in bang gen nuam nahiam?
  • "Tan kikimna" in hamphatna hi i cih theih hangin leitung a om thuneihna (power) khatpeuh in tui bangin luang khawmsak thei omlo hi. (Balzac )
Eite khempeuh in kilamdanna i nei ciat hi.Mi khat in mel leh puam khat tek i nei hi. U'kna leh kivakna, siamna zong a tuamciat i nei hi." Keisang in tai na hatzaw mai thei hi. Kei zong nang sangin kanteh kan ka hatzaw mai thei hi." Tua hi a, eite pen kikim hang i cithei diam? Kici theilo hi.

" Eite pen lamkhat ah i kikim hang in lamkhat ah kilamdang i hihna mihing hamphatna in hong hilh cian hi." (Former UN-GS Boutros Boutros Gali thugenna, UNGS.)

Mihing hamphatna te in kikimna lamkhiatna ding hilo hi. Khat leh khat kibat lohna te ah kikhen tuamna om lohna ding venna ahihi." Nang tuate nam hiteh, tua biakna bia hiteh' cih thu tawh kikhen tuamlo ding hi. Mihing hamphatna thukham te in mizawng mihau khentuam lo hi. Gentehna-Khualmi nasem in zong tualmi nasem mite bang in a kibang nasep ah a kikim thaman ngahthei ding hi. Tua mahbang in numei te zong pasal te tawh a kikim hamphatna nei uhhi.

A hihhang in numei khat i mawhpuak in innsung kepcing ding bek hilo a hihiam?
  • Minam tampi te i ngeina ah hihthu pen numei te zuihding paizia bang in ngaihsun uhhi. Azenzen in numei khat in inn sungah a ma utna tawh om in a ma ut nate sepna in a ma aituam hamphatna a hihi. A mahin vakkhia in a pua lamah pasal te tawh thaman kikim ngahna ding na a sep ut leh zong a ma hamphatna a hihi.Tua bang hamphatna te ngahna ding lampi honsak ding pen gam kumpi te mawhpuak a hihi.
Kumpi te mawhpuakna cih leh ka phawk thu in gam kumpi te'n a mau ukna gamsung ah a mau deihna bang in nasem thei uhhi. Gamdang kumpi te zong a mau gamsung vaibek sai ding in leh midang te gamsung vai ah kikau si phumlo ding in gen thei uh hilo hiam?
  • Gam khat i kumpi te'n a mau gamsung ah a mau deihna tawh a vaihawmna uh pen gam khat i thuneihna sang pen (sovereignty) kici hi. Tua in gam khat leh gam khat kikal ah gamgi leh gamleivai (politics) tawh kisai suahtakna te kizahtak saktuahna a hihi. Hih mun ah gamdang te gamsung vai ah "va ki kausi phum" cih leh" kumpi khat in a ma gam sungah a ut bang in nasepna te tungah midangte (gamdangte) kawkmuh vauhilhna" cih kammal bel kilam dang hi.
Mimal khatsim tungah kumpite sepding mawhpuaknate nagen hi. Tua thute lakah kumpi te in santheihna (or) nialtheihna a nei uh hiam?
  • Kumpi khat in a gam mite tungah bangci gamtat hiam cih pen tuhun leitung bup zuih thukhamte tawh enkak in khinkhai leng lunglut huai thu ahihi. 1993 kum Vienna khuapi a kinei leitung bup mihing hamphatna khawmpi ah UN- thuzeekpi lui Boutros Ghali in hih a nuai a bangin gen hi.
"Mimal khatsim i lungmuanna (or) bitna in zungkip a khaktheih na'ng tui buak dingin leitung bup mi honpi (International cumminity) in a huampi a, a upthu uh bel kumpi te ahihi. Tuabang upna zui in kumpi ten a seploh uh ciangin leitung bup ah buaina piang hi. Kumpi te in mimal khatsim vengbit tu a hih nawnloh uh ciangin a maute pen (mimal khatsim) haksatna pia tu suak uhhi. Tuabang mawhpuakna a semlo kumpite' taksapna onghu ding in leitung bup mihonpi in mawhpuakna nei hi."

UN-thuzeekpi in a thugenna ah hih anuai a bang in ngetna bawl thukhupna nei hi.

"Ukcik kumpi (dictator) te in thuneihna sangpen cihkam mal meilet in numei pasal leh naupangte i suahtakna, hamphatnate suksuksiatna ding vanzat in a neih uh leh tua thuneihna sangpen kici in khang tangthu i mawhsakna thuakding hi cih a manthu kagen nuam hi."

Tua bang ahih leh kim leh pam a thupiang cizat huai gamtatna te beina ding leitung mi honpi in sem zo lo a hihiam?
  • Leitung mi honpi (international community) i cih pen gamsung leh gam pua a mimal metna ding leh phattuamna ding a gam tampi kipawlna a hihi. A tangpi in cileng gamdang khat i vai ah va kikausi phumlut ding thupi sa masa khollo uhi. A hizongin tua gamte ah gamsung mihing hamphatna te a hoihzaw a ciaptehna a ngahna dingun tawsawn theizel uhhi. Lampi kizong lel lai khat in gamkhat sungah gammi te tunga mihing hamphatna palsatnate a beisiang na dingin gamdang khatpeuh in bang lampi zang ding cih ahihi. Leitung bup thukham sungah palik (police) leh galkap te tung a kihilna (effect / imply) neizo ding thukhen zum om nailo hi.
Mihing hamphatna palsatna (violation) leh khialhna (crimes) bang ci kilam dang ahi hiam?
  • A nihtuak in gitlohna ahihi. Khialhna i cih pen mikhat (or) mihon in mihing hinna a siasak thei gamsung thukham palsatna a hihi. Mihing hamphatna suksiatna i cih ciangin gam vaihawm kumpi te nuai a om palik, galkap leh thuneitu khatpeuh in mimal (or) mihon te hamphatnate khaktanna sepna ahihi.
Gamsung mipite in khialhna a bawl uh ciangin thukham zui in man in thukhen zum ah thusitna thuak uhhi. Gamkhat i kumpi te in mihing hamphatna te a suksiat uh ciangin kua in a maute man in thusit ding hiam?
  • Thukhen zum in semding hi.
Bang ci e? 
  • Thukhen mangpi te'n gamsung lukhaipi (president) thusit in thukhen khum ding maw?
Hi, Tua bang in a kisep theihna ding in gamkhat i thuneihna sangpen te ahi; vaihawm theihna (excutive power), thukham khawnbawl theihna (legislative power) thukhen theihna (judicial power) ci'n tuam khen ding kisam hi. Hibang hun ciangin gambup thuneihna pen mimal khat (or) mipawl khat bek tungah kigawm nawnlo in mi khempeuh thukham khutnuai tung ding hi. Hih pen democracy vaihawmna a dingin a thupi pen paizia leh tehkakna thugui a hihi.

Ken zong tua hamphatnate nei ing i ci nuam ciat hangin tua te'n zung khazo kei in, zong zangthei tuan kei leng bang metna om nawn ding hiam? A zenzen in kumpi ten tua mihing hamphatnate amau deih bangin hong palsiat sak leh bang cih ding?
  • Kumpite in mihing hamphatna tawh kisai ciaptehna ah minhoih ngah ding damdam in hong phawk panta uhhi. Mihing hamphatna ciaptehna (record) siatna hangin kumpi te'n buaina tampi tak tuakkha hi cih leitung kumpi te'n teltak in thei uhhi. Gamkhat i lim leh mel susia banah minam dangte tung ah maimial sak hi. Sum leh pai zonna zong lamphok sak hi.
Hihbang a pianna thute lak ah khat in mipite in thukham zui in i hamphatna te bang teng hiam cih a theihloh man uh ahihi. Tua hang mah in kumpi te'n zong kiukhat pan in kipeng sak theihna ding kongvang khat ngah uhhi. Tua hi a, Vienna khuapi leitung bup khawmpi ah:- " Mihing hamphatna kan unla, theita un, ngen un, veng bit un" ci'n kitang ko hi.

Tua nong dawnna pen gamleivai (politics= gamleivai in kizang hi) tawh kisai lua hi. Kei bel gamleivai lunglut keng. Ko bel kumpi te ka cih uh ciangin mizawng tagahte nek leh dawn pia ding misiangtho bang in kakoih uhhi. A hizong in mizawng tagah leh gam mite'n nek leh dawn hong pia un ci'n kumpite kiang kanget uh ciangin gambup thuneihna (state power) susia nuamte ci'n hong ngawh uhi.

Mihing hamphatna hang a piang buainate in gamleivai buaina ahihi. Gambup kumpite leh mimal khatsim kizopna zong huam kha hi. Hih laibu sung a thusunte in leitung bup thukimna laipi te sung a mipi leh gamleivai hamphatna tawh kisai leitung bup thukimna laipi (International Covenant of Civils and Political Rights) tawh kisai laipi ahihi. Lamkhat pan cileng thukham paizia tawh kisai hamphatna te ahihi. Nang mah i nuntak theihna, suahtakna leh lungmuanna te tawh kisai hamphatna te in a kisupelhem theilo hamphatna hi a, thukham phalna omlo a matna, kulhkhumna, a guk a pimangna (kidnapping) leh thahna te dalna ding thukham tawh kisai hamphatna te ahihi. Tua hamphatna te zahtak ding kumpi te tung nanget ciang in gamlei vai zui a ngetna bawlna hi gige hi.

A zenzen in gamkhat sung ah patau linglawng hun (emergency period), gambup bitna susia thei ding hun ah kumpi te'n na bang ci sep ding hiam? Mipi te tung ah a piaksa suakta tak a pulak theihna leh a dang hamphatna te khaktan sak thei ding hiam?
  • Hihbang hun te ah mimal khatsim i hamphatna te vaulauna a thuak diak hun ahihi.Leitung bup thukham sung a om bang in kumpi khat in patau linglawng hun pulak thei hi. A kisap mahmah leh hamphatna pawl khat pen tawlkhat sung zuukkik thei hi. Khaktan thei hi. A hizongin hamphatna pawlkhat bang ci bang hun peuh ah zukkik thei, khaktan thei lo hi. Tua te in mikhat i vang suksiatna satna gawtna tawh kipelhna dingte a hihi.
A zenzen in sisan suah gamhtatna (terrorism) a sem mikhat in " bomb thang a kam khit teh mat tuak hi. A hizong in thudotna ah tua bomb thang a kamna mun gen nuam kei leh thuman muh khiatna ding a palik te' gawtna pen kilawm mawhlo hi lo hiam?
  • Bawlsiatna (torture), cizat huai gawtna (or) mihing bang lo a gawtna (or) mawhna thaman piakna te pen thukham pansan in gen leng bangcik hun peuhah thuman hi ci'n paulap kizong theilo hi.Tua mah bang in thupiak (order) om bang a kasep hi" ci'n kuamah kithalep khia theilo hi.
Nakpi tak a mihing hamphatna palsiatna khenkhat ah "gamphat tuamna ding", "gam leh nam itna hang" cih bang peuh in maiphaw thuah in minvawh thei uhi. Pawl khat leuleu in "Mipi te phattuam na'ng", " upna zuihna ding" cih bang peuh in minvawh meilet in zui lai uh hi. Gam kumpi te i nengcipna, gakcipna leh ukcipna, bawlsiatna te selna ding in maiphaw (mask) in zang uhhi.

Galvan tawi a kumpi langdo mite' cizat huai gamtatna leh hiamgamhnate bang na cih muh a? Hih bang cizat huai gamtatnate zong mihing hamphatna palsiatna mah hilo hiam?
  • Galvan tawi a kumpi langdo mite in gamleivai ngimna (political aims) thu leh la khat peuh paulap in mimal khatsim tungah cizat huai tak in a gamtatna uh zong mihingte nuntakna theihna mungpi hamphatna (fundamental rights) palsat a hihi. Siangtak in cileng hih bang palsatna zong thuneihna len kumpite palsatna tawh kilam danglo hi.
Mihing hamphatna te lak ah koipen in bultu pen in thupi pen ahi hiam?
  • A bultu pen, a thupi pen (a masa a nanung) kikhen khia thei tuamlo hi. A hangin tua hamphatna te a vek in khat leh khat kizom tuah vek a kiteng khia thei tuamlo hi. UN dongta gam khempeuh in mihing hamphatna te tawisangna ding kamciamna nei khin ciat uh hi.
UN General Assembly i ngaih dan leh muhna ah " Mihing hamphatna khempeuh tawisangna ding leh vengbitna na sepna ah a dang mihing hamphatnate tawisang nading (or) vengbitna ding te pan lampial na, sem zo keng ci a paulap zonna te pen gam kumpi te in sem thei lo ding hi."

Nitumna lam gamte (Western nations) in leitung mun khempeuh ah mihing hamphatnate thunlut teitei uh hi lo ahi hiam?
  • Mihing hamphatna pen nitumna lam gamte i bawl khiat hilo hi. Tuamah bangin nitumna lam gamte i tawi khaina (tehkakna) zong hituan lohi. Hih hamphatnate pen leitung bup a om biaknate leh ngeina te ah kimu thei hi. Mun khat leh khat, gam khat leh khat kikal ah bel kilamdan na leh kituamna bel om zek thei kha mah in teh.
Hih laibu sung ah sum bawlna, khotang hinkhua leh ngeina hamphatna tawh kisai leitung bup thukimna laipi (International Covenant of Economics, Social and Culture Rights) sang in mipi leh gamleivai hamphatna tawh kisai leitung bup thukimna ( ICCPR) thute holim zaw ding na ci hi. Gentehna in " Kei ka gilkial hi, ka tano zong damlo in zato kah pih ding kisam hi. Ka pasal zong nasep neilo in sum muhna omkei leh ngaihsutna te suakta tak a pulak khiat theihna cih gamleivai hamphatna sang in sumbawlna vai hamphatna te kumpi te tung ah nget ding kilawm zaw lo hiam?”
  • Mimal khatsim i sum bawlna tawh kisai hamphatnate nget theih mah hi. A kilawm a kituak mihingte hamphatna ding a kiphuh khia cimawh huhna munpi (relief department) cih bang pawlpi te kiangah i kisapnate ngahna ding va ngetna zong suakta tak a genkhiat theihna khat ahihi. Gam pawlkhat in sum leh pai hauhsakna khantohna ding in mipite i gamleivai hamphatna pawlkhat khaktan ding ngaihsutna gen uhhi. Hih pen mihing hamphatna kongkiu vang pan enleng thu kimpih theihloh hi. Ukcip kumpi gam pawlkhat in gam lam kikna ding a kisam khantohna (devolopment) paulap in mipi te hamphatna pawl khat khaktan thei uhhi. Khantohna i cih ciangin sum leh pai, neih leh lam bek gen ding hilo hi. Mimal khatsim i suahtakna, thuman thutanna om kei leh mi honpi zong khang to hi, kici theilo ding hi. Gamleivai hamphatnate khakcip a sum leh pai bek tawh khantohna in" luita khan" bangin sawt daihlo hi. Hamphatna khempeuh khat leh khat pen khivui bang in kizom ditdiat in kibeel tuah ciat uhi.
Kumpi te'n mipite nung ngatsan in deihna ngen mipite man in bawlsia le uh bang cih ding?
  • Kumpi te'n mipite nungngat san in deihna ngen mipite ngetna (deihna) te humcip, palsat ding kalkhat a suan uh pen thumanlo ukcipna a hihi. Tua bang a sepna uh hangin a mau leh a mau mipi deih vaihawmtu (uktu) a hihna uh khahsuah uhi.
Kumpi te "langpan, nialkalh,kawkmuh ding in" bang ci bang mi hih kisam hiam?
  • Mipil te thugen pawlkhat zangin hong gen leng;

" Cizat huai gamtatna leh zawhthoh bawl ukna nuaiah ui muk hen bang a dai dide a om mite pen misi a hihi" (Wole Soyinkai)

Liinglo gam tanglo in singbul bangin om leng langdona pianna ding thu omlo hi a ci nuam hi leh kilawm hi.

" Jew minam te bawlsia ding in a maute hong pai ciil lai un,

Ken,kammal khat zong ka na pau pih kei hi.

Ahang in kei pen Jew minam ka hi kei hi."

" Communist te bawlsia ding in a maute khatvei hong pai leuleu uhhi.
Ken,kammal khat zong ka na pau pih tuan kei hi.
Ahang in kei pen Communist khat ka hi kei hi".
"A maute khatvei nasem pawlpi te bawlsia ding in hong paikik uhi.
Ken,kammal khat zong ka na pau pih kei hi.
Ahang in kei pen nasem pawlpi dongta khat ka hi kei hi".
"Tu'n kei bawlsia ding in a maute hongpai ta uh.
A hizong in kei lam pangin hong gensak ding mi khat zong om nawn lo hi."

(Pastor Martin Niemoller)
Mite'n bang tuaktuak kei kasih keinak leh cih bang dandeuh a hihi. Hih a tung a dinmun nihte nang deihtel ding a hihi.

Leitung bup minam kipawlna (UNO) i cih in bang hi a, bang nasem hiam?

  • United Nations Organization in 1945 leitung galpi nihna ( Japan gal) bei khit a kiphuh khia ahihi. Leitung gamte khat leh khat kizopna (ki tanauna) te a kipkhona ding pahpih ding leh a muanhuai thuguipite gelkhia in kilemna nasepte semding ngimna tawh kiphuh ahihi. Gam (50) pan palai ten UN kiciamna laipi (the charter of united nations) pen thukimna suaikai in kiphuh khia ahihi. Tua kiciamna laipi sung ah UN i tup leh ngim, septheihna thuneihna leh lamkhiatzia (structure) te kihel hi. Tua ngimna sung pan Article 1.(3) na (Thukhiil = Article ci'n kizang hi.) sung ah " mihing hamphatna leh mungpi suahtaknate zahtakna, tawisangna leh thapiakna ah minam, numei pasal (sex), kampau, biakna thute siksan in khemtuamna omlo hi" ci'n kigelh hi.
Tua ban ah thukhil (Article) 55 (8) sung ah “khentuamna omlo in mihing hamphatna leh mungpi suahtakna te leitung bup in zahtak ding leh nungzut etcik ding cih thu a picing (tangtun) theihna ding in UN dongta gam khempeuh in thukhil (Article) 56 sung a mawhpuakna zui in”khutki len kawm in a hi zongin, a tuam in a hizong in sepna ding thukham tawh gakkhum hi.

Kiciamna (charter) in thukimna laipi (covenant) tawh kibang a hihiam?
  • Hi mah hi. Leitung bup thukham( International law) zui in gen leng gam khempeuh zuih ding a kisam thukimna laipi bang ahihi.
Kumpi ten mihing hamphatna te a zahtakna dingun hih kiciamna in bang ci bangin kihilna (effect) nei a hihiam?
  • Mihing hamphatna khuavannuai tangkona (UDHR) sungah mihing hamphatna leh mungpi suahtaknate zahtakna ding leh nungzuih etcikna ding gam khempeuh in mawhpuakna nei uhhi. Gam khempeuh in tua mawhpuakna pen nei uh ahih manin mihing hamphatna palsatna (or) ngimna tawh khaktanna te tawpsan dingin gam kumpite tungah ki ngen thei hi.1993 kum June kha sung a kinei mihing hamphatna tawh kisai leitung bup khawmpi ahi dongta gam (171) val suaikaihna Vienna thupuan sungah tuabang ngetna te teltak in kimu thei hi. Tua Vienna thupuan Article (1) sungah " mihing hamphatna leh mungpi suahtaknate in mihingte i pianken hamphatna a hihi. Kumpite i mawhpuak masa pen leh thupi masa pen in tua te nungzuih etcik ding leh phungvuh sangkhan ding ahihi".
Article (15) ah “khentuamna neu cik zong omlo in mihing hamphatna leh mungpi suahtakna te zahtakna in leitung bup thukhun i deihna laigil a hihi."

Tu hun in Leitung bup minam kipawlna (UNO) ah dongta gam (190) val ta om hi.

Leitung bup minam kipawlna thucin sai innpi(United Nations General Assembly (UNGA).

UNGA pen UNO dongta gam tuamtuamte pan palai kisawl khawmte tawh kiphuan (kiphuh) khia in kikhopna kinei UNO kahiang ahihi. Dongta gamkhat in mee (vote) khat tek nei in leitung bup kilemna, bitna leh lungmuanna thute a poimawh (kisapna) hunah thu khenna ding in vote kikhia hi. UNGA i nasepte lakah a thupi pen khatin khentuamna omlo in mihing hamphatna leh mungpi suahtakna te zatsiamna ding panlakna a hihi.1948 kum UDHR kipsakna a kineih khit ciangin mihing hamphatna tungtang thu ah UNGA khawmpi pan a pulakna tangkona, kipsakna leh thu khensatna kinei hi. Tua thu khensatnate in leitung gam tuamtuam buaina te vengsakna ding phattuamna tampi pia hi.

UNGA kumcin khawmpi pen kumsim September kha bei kuan leh December kha kimciang kikal hun teng in kinei a, thukin poimawh ( emergency) khawmpi pen Leitung bup bitna leh muanna sai kawnsi (UNSC) i ngetna (or) UN dongta gam a tamzaw te i ngetna zui in sam in thukin leh poimawh te khensat hun zong om hi.

Leitung bup minam bitna leh muanna sai kawnsi (United Nations Security Council) (UNSC)
Kiciamna laipi (charter) zui in UNSC in leitung bup kilemna leh lungmuanna (peace and security) vengbit ding mawhpuakna nei UNO i kahiang( organ) a hihi. Dongta gam vekpi gawm gam (15) omna lak ah tawntung dongta gam (permanent members) ci in USA, France, United Kingdom, China leh Russia gam (5) leh UNGA pan a kitel kumnih hunkhen (term) a kikhel zel dongta gam gam(10) om hi. UNSC dongta gam te in gam khat ciang in vote khat nei tek uh a, thu khensatna te pen vote (9) in a hizong in, tawntung dongta gam a hi gam (5) te i thukimna tawh a hizong in kipsakna kinei hi. Tua tawntung dongta gam (5) te i vote pen thu khensatna piakna ding a sangpen thuneihna (great power unanimity) ki ci hi. Hih thuneihna pen veto power ci'n mi a tamzaw ten kithei tek hi.

Sumbawlna leh khotang hinkhua kawnsi (Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)

UN i sum leh pai leh khotang hinkhua nasep te pen (ECOSOC) in mawhpuakna la hi. Dongta gam (56) om a, hunkhen (term) kum (3) sung a hihi. Mihing hamphatna leh mungpi suahtakna te zahtakna ding leh zatsiamna ding ngimna tawh nasem hi. Hih Council in kum khat sungin nih vei New York leh Geneva khuapi te ah thu kikupna nei hi. Nasepna panpih dingin hih Council nuaiah Comission tuamtuam phuan in nasem hi. Mihing hamphatna tawh kisai Commission zong hih council nuai a om kahiang Commission te lak ah khat ahihi.

Mihing hamphatna komision (Commission for human rights (CHR)
Mihing hamphatna komision (CHR) in mihing hamphatna tawh kisai thu te a sai vaiveng UNO i kahiang pi khat a hihi. A thuneihna (or) sepding mawhpuakna te in mihing hamphatna tawh kisai thubuaite vaiveng sak ding a hihi.

Hih commision in mihing hamphatna tawh kisai thukimna laipi te gelhna, thukanna pan muhkhiatnate sittelna tawh leitung bup zuih ding thukhamte leh tehkakna (tawikhaina) te phuhkhia hi. UNGA (or) ECOSOC pan kipia nasep te leh mihing hamphatna te thukan ding in a tuam vilvel a kipia mawhpuakna sepding zia gelna (or) nasepnate a kibansap lohna dingte zong gelkhia in nasem hi. Commission for Human Rights (CHR) i nasepte panpih ding in minam neute khentuamna pan hutna leh vengbitna (Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, CERD) min tawh sub- committee kiphuan hi. Tua sub-committee pen muntuam gamtuam bulphuh in pan lakna masak in CHR in a tel mipil misiam thulai gen mipil (26) tawh kiphuan hi. Hih sub-committee i nasep in a hih leh minam neute khentuamna pan dalna leh vengbitna ding tawh kisai CHR in nasep a piakte khempeuh sem in, sub-committee thu kikupna kumkhat in nipi kal (4) sung kumsim in kinei zel hi.Tua thu kikupna pen CHR i section khawmpi madeuh panmun len (working groups) te' kikup kholna a hi nipi kal (1) or (2) man ciang in kinei hi. Tua khawmpi ah kumpi ahilo kipawlnate (Non-Government Organization, NGOs) palai te leh kumpi te i thusim (enkhiatu) te zong kah thei hi. CHR in mihing hamphatna te tawisang ding leh vengbitna a sem a dang pawlpi, mimal te tawh pang khawm in nasem hi.

Leitung bup thuman zonna thukhen zumpi (International Crimes Jugde (ICJ)

Leitung bup khialhna tawh kisai thukhen zumpi (International Crimes Jugde) in UNO kahiang te lak ah a poimawh, a bultu pen khat leh a laigil thukhen tute pawlpi a hihi. Thu khensatna leh thutanna piakna ding pen a kisai pih kumpi te ngetna zui ahihi. Tua mah bangin kiciamna (or) thukimna laipi te leh khawmpi lian (convention) te zong tampi panpih tuam hi. Tua hangin zong thukimna laipi khatpeuh tawh kisai thu a om ciangin leitung bup thu khen zumpi ah ap in thukhenna kinei thei zel hi. Gentehna- Minam maimang na ding a thahna (genocide) tawh kisai thukimna laipi huamkhak thute pen ICJ ah hekna piak lut theih hi.

ICJ ah thukhen mangpi semding in UNGA leh UNGS te'n thukhen mangpi (15) tel khia uh hi. A kitelna pen minam leh gam bulphuh hilo in sepzawhna nei pilna siamna zui in kitel hi. A hi zongin gam khat ah mimal (2) kitel theilo hi. ICJ in Netherland gam The Hague khuapi ah zumpi hong hi.

Minam bup kipawlna thuzeekpi (United Nations Secretariat )

Thuzeekpi zum in UN tawh kisai thute ah nisim in sepding gelna leh vaihawmna nei hi. Tu laitak in hih zum ah a lianpen in UN- thuzeek pi Kofi Anna ahihi. Thuzeekpi pen hunkhen kum (5) sung semding in UNGS i thukimna tawh UNGA in a guan ( tel) a hihi.

Mihing hamphatna tawh kisai menzi (The High Commissioner for Human Rights)

1993 December kha a UNGA khawmpi ah Vienna thu tangkote zui in mihing hamphatna tawh kisai Minzi (mangpi) panmun kipsak in pomkipna kinei hi. Tua mun a semding in 1994 February in Mr. Jose Ayala Lasso kipia hi. Tua Minzi (mangpi) i sepding mawhpuak in leitung bup mihingte hamphatna sangkhanna ding leh vengbitna ding ahihi. Minzi (Mangpi) in mihing hamphatna phualpi (Center for Human Rights) i lukhai pi zong ahihi.

Mihing hamphatna phualpi (Center for Human Rights (CHR)

Hih phualpi in UN thuzeekpi zum i kahiang khat hi a, mihing hamphatna na sem UN kahiang khempeuh panpih ding a kiphuan a hihi. Tua ban ah UNGA leh UNGA nuai a kiphuan komiti thumna, ECOSOC, CHR, CERD sub-committee (minam neute khentuamna pan dalna leh vengbitna sub-komiti), leh mihing hamphatna thukimna laipi tuamtuamte huamsung a om komiti te munpi hi a, mailam ah mihing hamphatna tawh kisai leitung bup zatding "tehkakna" tawikhatna" te bawl khiatna mun zong ahihia. Mihing hamphatna tawh kisai kantelna leh etcikna, pulaknate puahkikna, lamlahna leh a kisam pilna siamna panpihna te, thu leh la, van, laibu bawlna leh hawmzakna te sem hi.

Leitung bup nasem te kipawlna pawlpi (International Labour Organization (ILO)

1919 kum in kiphuan hi. 1945 kum in UN kahiang khat in om hi. Kumpite,nasem neite leh nasem tute tawh kiphuh a hihi. Kumsim a kinei leitungbup nasem pawl khawmpi ah ILO in leitungbup nasemte hamphatna, suahtakna leh pawlpi nasepna ah suahtakna leh tualsuak minam (Indeginous people= tualsuak minam ci'n kizang hi.), beh leh phung te i hamphatna tawh kisai ngaihdan muhdan te thukimna leh laipi suaikaihna te neizel hi. ILO i ngaihdan muhdan te pen thukham bawlna ah lamlak mah bangin kumpite i khawmpi lian (convention) thukimna suaikaihna te ah na bangci sepding cih zong lamlak hi.

Leitung bup thukham (International Law)

Leitung bup thukham in ngeina thukham (customary law) leh thukimna laipite tawh kisai thukham te kigawmhi. Thukimna laipi in kiciamna (charter) (or) gam tampi thukimna (convention) (or) covenant thukimna tawh kibang ahihi. Gamkhat leh gamkhat kikum in ahizong in (or) UN a hih kei leh pawlpi khatpeuh in thu laigen in ahizong in thukimna la in kipsakna kinei hi. Gam khatpeuh in kiciamna laipi (charter) (or) gam tampi thukimna laipi(covenant) sung ah a kihel ut leh tua gam in tua thukimna laipi ah suai a kaih kul hi.

Gamkhat peuh in tuabang in suai a kaih hangin kipsakna ( ratification) a neih nai kei leh tua laipi sung kihel thute zuih ding leh mawhpuakna lakding kisam nai lo hi. Kipsakna suaikaih khit ciang bek in laipi sung kigelh thute thukham bang in zuihding ahihi. Tua hun ciangin tua gam zong laipi dongta gam hi ta hi. A beisa hun in kumpite aitang in kumpi palaite in laipi te kikum sittelna nei in suaikai uhi. Khatveivei suai a kaih uh hangin kipsakna neih loh hun zong om thei hi.

Bang hang in maw?

  • Gam pawlkhatte i thukhunpi (constitution) sungah leitung bup thukhamte gamsung thukhunpi bangin zat ding a ki thukim leh uh tua thukham pen khawnbawlna Innpi (parliament) ah kipsakna neih masa kul hi. Gam pawlkhatte ah laipi sunga thute eimau gamsung thukham bangin mawhpuakna neihna tawh kituak ding laipi pen puahpha in kithukim masak hunzong om hi. Gam pawlkhatte leuleu in a tangpi in a ngimnate a thukim hangin kipsakna piak ding awingai thei uh ahihman in masawn zom thei nawn lo hi.
Mihing hamphatnate khuavannuai tangkona (UDHR ) ahih leh leitung bup ngeina thukham in huamkha hi. UN dongta gam tuamtuamte in suaikaihna neilo uhhi. A hizongin thu tangkona sung a kihel thute pen dongta gam tuamtuam te'n a kigelh hun a kipan leitung bup tawikhaina (or) tehkakna (international standard) a kizang hi a, thukham bang in nuntakna neihi.

Leitung bup ngeina thukham (International Customary Law) i cih bang hiam?

  • Ngeina thukham i cih in ngeina tawh kisai paiziate zuihna pan a hong piang khia thukham ahihi. Hih thu in a kigelh lo thukham (Unwritten Law) te sungah kihel hi. Paidan tangpi te kiluah suk na pan thukham bang a kisang ahihi. Tua mah bang in leitungbup ngeina paidan thukham zong UN dongta gam te in sang in zui uh ahihi.
Thukimna laipi te pen bangci bang hun ciangin thukham bangin kizang hiam?

  • Hih thupen thukimna laipi sungah a tangpi in kigelh thei hi. Leitung bup mihing hamphatna thukham zong thukimna laipi sung a kitak lang mah bangin a kisam zah gam in kipsakna a neih uh ciangin thukham (law) bangin hinna neiding hi.
Gamkhat in thukimna laipi kizat hun ciang in tua thukimna laipi sungah a lut ut leh thukimna laipi sunga om bang in kiciamna bawl ding hi. Pangkhawmna leh kipsakna suaikaihna zong tua bangmah ahihi. ICCPR leh ICESCR te pen 1966 kum a UNGA in a gelh ahihi. 1976 kum ciang in gam (35) a cinna gam khatpeuh in vapawl khawm in kipsakna kineih zoh ciang bek in thukham bangin kihilna(effect) neipan hi.

Thukimna laipi te puahphatna, beklapnate a kinei thei ding hiam?

  • Thukimna laipite pen thukham mah bangin puahna leh behlapna kinei thei hi.Tua puahphatna (or) behlapnate pen thumeizom (protocol= thumei zom ci'n kizang hi.) sungah kiguang hi. ICCPR a khatveina thumeizom sungah mikhat sim i ngetkikna (appeal) phalsakna kimu thei hi.
A zenzen in gam khatpeuh in thukimna laipi sungah lut hi. A hizongin tua laipi sung a kigelh te lak pan pawlkhat sang zokei leh bang cih ding?

Thukimna laipi pen khenkhiat theih hi. Gam khatpeuh in thukimna laipi sung a kigelh thu pawlkhat a zuih ut lohna hih bangin lakkhia thei hi. A zenzen gamkhat peuh in ICCPR sung a thu pawlkhat siitkhen ut leh tua a siitkhen thute pen thukimna laipi i ngimna tupna tawh kikalh maw kikalh lo hoihtak in sittel ding hi.

Mihing hamphatna tawh kisai leitung bup khawmpi in laipi dongta gamte tungah hih a nuai a thute thupi ngaihsut dingin hanthon hi:-

(i)Mihing hamphatna thukhamte a hetkha thei ding siitkhenna(reservation) te pen a kilawm bang in ciangtan ding:

(ii)Siitkhenna te khempeuh a hithei zah a sittel ding:

(iii)Akisai pih thukimna laipi te' tupna leh ngimna tawh kituaklo siitkhenna te a hih lohna dingin lungkim ciangdong puahna ding leh:

(iv)Siitkhenna khatpeuh pen ngaihsun phakik tawntungna hang tawh tua siitkhenna pen zukkikna ding a sepna:

Laipi dongta gam kumpi khatpeuh in ICCPR sungah a lutkhit ciangin thukimna sung a kihel zuih ding thute zuihlohna, dinkhawlnate septheihna a om leh om loh? Gentehna in gamsung galbuai hun cih bang te ah?

  • Hi mah hi. Aman taktak buaina hunte i lah theihna hun ah laipi dongta gam khatpeuh in zuihding thuciam te zukkik thei hi. Gam khatpeuh ah patau linglawng hun (emergency) a tun taktak ciang in tua gam in ICCPR thukimna sung a kigelh zuih ding thute dinkhawl thei (or) zukkik thei hi. "ICCPR Article( 4) sungah"
Laipi dongta gamte in mihing hamphatna te khentanna (or) khaktanna te lampi dang khat zang in a sem thei hiam?

  • A thupi mahmah a kiciamteh hun bek ah semthei hi. Mihing hamphatnate khuavannuai tangkona in zong a nuai a ciangtanna hunte bek a ding in kong hong hi.
Hih thupen thukham tawh kituak in gelh in khensat dinghi. Tua khensatna in midang te i hamphatna leh mungpi suahtaknate hoihtak a theihpihna, zahtaknate zungkipsak na ding ngimna bek hiding hi.

Tua mahbang in Democracy gam mi honpi te i gamtat hoihna, mipi bitna leh kisapna tuamtuam te kicinna ding in thuman thudikna kisapna te kimtak a ngahna in zong "thugui" gelh ding hi.(UDHR Article -29)

Midangte i hamphatna leh suahtakna ding in a kisap leh khaktanthei ding hi.(UDHR Article -19)

Leitung bup mihing hamphatna thukhun kipat cilna:

(A) Mihing hamphatnate khuavannuai tangkona (UDHR)

Mihing hamphatnate khuavannuai tangkona in leitung galpi nihna (Japan gal) veng khit 1948 kum ciangin UN dongta gamte in a vekpi in zo siang in puangkhia uhhi. Hih thupuan i ngimna in mimal khatsim i hamphatna, suahtaknate vengbitna dingin a niampen a leitung bup zuihzoh ding "tehkakna / tawikhatna" ciapteh sakna ahihi. Hih thupuan sung a kihel thute pen thupi in bultu mahmah thute a hihi. Tuate pen gamsungah a hizong in, leitung bup thukhen zum ah ahi zongin, leitung kumpi tuamtuam te in a hizong in, pansan in thugenna nei thei zel uhhi. Tua mahbang in leitung bup ngeina paizia in kisang in kizang tangzai mahmah hi.

(B)Leitung bup thukimna laipi te:

(i) Mipi leh gamleivai hamphatna tawh kisai leitung bup thukimna laipi (International Convenant of Civil and Political Rigths-ICCPR) leh;

(ii)Sumbawlna, Khotang hinkhua leh ngeina tawh kisai leitung bup thukimna laipi (International Covenant of Economics, social and Culture Rights -ICESCR)


(i)Sumbawlna, Khotang hinkhua leh ngeina tawh kisai leitung bup thukimna laipi thumeizom (Protocol of International Covenant of Economics, social and Culture Rights -ICESCR)

Hih laipite pen 1976 kum in kizang pan (hinna nei) hi a, UDHR tawh gawmkhawm in leitung bup mihing hamphatna thukham kipat cilna bulpi in kiphut hi.

A tung a laipite pen a diak in thukham tawh kisai "tehkakna / tawikhatna" in kizang hi. Gam khatpeuh in hih thukham khat pen ahizong in (or) a vek in ahi zongin suai a kaih uh ciangin laipi sung a thukimna te hoihtak in a zuih uh leh zuihlohna uh kikawkmuh thei zel hi. A zuih uh leh kipsakna suaikai kik uhhi. A hihkei leh laipi sung a thute bangthu teng sang in pom cih lakkhia uhhi. A tung a laipi te sung a thukimna khempeuh zatna ah a tangpi in ICCPR pen mipi leh gamlei vai tawh kisai hamphatna leh suahtakna te zuihna ding tawh kisai hi a, ICESCR pen sumbawlna, khotang hinkhua leh ngeina hamphatna te leh suahtakna te ah zuihna ding tawh kisai ahihi.

ICCPR sunga hamphatnate pom in i kipsak hun tawh kiton in thukham bangin hinna / kihilna neipah ding ahihi. A kilamdan na neucik ahih leh bel - ICESCR sung a om hamphatna te in bel damdam in thukham bang in kihilna neipan ahihna a hihi. A hang in leitung bup mihing te khosakna in gamte i khantoh zia kibat lohna te theihpihna hi a, laipi dongta gam khempeuh in khotang hihkhua leh sum leh pai khantohna thupi sak huai hi cih a santheih hun lai mah un tua bang thupiang te pen bung leh bang a piang thu hilo in damdam a piang thei hi cih a pomtheih man ahihi.

ICCPR thumeizom (protocol) pen a kibehlap thukimna laipi ahihi. Tua ahihman in thumeizom pen a tuam a kipsakna suaikaih ding kisam ahihi. Tua thukimna laipi ah mimal khatsim i mimal hamphatna kisuksiatsak te hektheihna ding lampi zong honsak hi.

Hekna thute pen ICCPR pan a kiphuan mihing hamphatna komiti (HRC) in ngai khia hi. Tua HRC i nasep phalna leh mawhpuaknate mipi gamleivai hamphatna tawh kisai leitung bup thukimna laipi (ICCPR) Article (thukhil) 28-45 ah ki gelh hi. Mihing hamphatna komiti (HRC) in leitung bup minam kipawlna thucin sai innpi (UNGA) leh UN kahiang (organ) sumbawlna leh khotang hinkhua kawnsi (ECOSOC) te i thusun ngaihdan tuamtuam hilhcianna te laipi dongta gamte tungah piakna leh laipi sunga om thute sep picingna ding in panpihna leh hanthonna pianna sem hi.

Tua komiti in gam khat sungah mipi te thulai gil ahi nuntak theihna, bawlsiatna, suakta tak a pulak theihna, kolbulh matna leh galthu hasuanna te tawh kisai ngaihdan muhdan te lakkhia hawmkhia hi.Tua ngaihdan muhdan tuamtuam te bel thukham bang in thuneihna a neih loh hang in nakpi tak in kihilna leh sepphalna piangsak hi.

Hih thukimna (2) te in UDHR zui in gam tuamtuam te'n hih laipi sung a kigelh hamphatna te vengbitna leh suahtakna te zungkipsak na ding in a niam pen in madal kholhna khat piangsak hi. Thu khenkhat tawh kisai in ICCPR sungah mikhat in a ma suahtakna supna leh septheihna pen thukhil (article) -14 ah kicing tak in kigelh na kimu theihi.

Na genna sungah gam khempeuhin thukham gakkhawmna nuai a om gam cih kihel hi. Bang ci bang thukhamte a gen ut nahiam?

  • Gamkhat in leitung bup thukimna laipi kipsakna suai a kaih khit ciang in gamsung thukham sung ah tua laipi sung a thute gelh lut ding kisam hi. Gam pawlkhatte' thukhunpi (constitution) sungah tuate khumlut in khenkhatte ah buaina tampi om thei bangin buaina tampi zong vengsak hi. Hih bang a thukham tawh gakkhawmna in gam sung thukham tawh gakkhawmna leh leitung bup thukham tawh gakkhawmna ci'n nam (2) kimu thei hi.
Thukham vaihawmna (rule of law) na genteh bang thukham a gen na hi hiam?

  • Thukham vaihawmna i cih in gamkhat i gamsung ki-ukna ah thuman thutang leh a kilawm a kituak thukham zui a vaihawmna gen nuam ahihi. Tua thukham zong mi khempeuh tungah a kibang, a kikim in kizang ciat ding hi.
Banghang in hih bang in genthei na hihiam?

  • Nang i mimal upna leh sannate holimna, mikim santheih thuman thudikte holimna, gamsung thukhunpite leh leitung bup thukhamte lamlahna tehkakna (or) tawikhainate pansan in kagen thei hi. Azenzen in kumpite in UDHR leh ICCPR sunga kihel hamphatna leh suahtaknate tawh kituak lo na a sep uh leh paulap bangteng a zon uh hangin leitung bup theihpih ciaptehna pua lamah nasem ahi uhhi. Kumpi te'n thukham gelh a mite'n "thukham tawh ki tuak" cin a gen uh hangin leitung bup zuih leh sanzoh tawikhaina tawh i tehkak ciangin thuneihna mawkzatna (or) thukham tawh kituak lopi kigolh lutna ahihi.
Laipi pen suaikaihna (signature) (or) kipsak suaikaihna (ratification) a neilo gamte a ding in suai a kaihloh man un bang cibang in gakkhawmna tha (binding force) om thei ding hiam?

  • A masa pen in UN dongta gam khempeuh in khemtuamna om het lo in mihing hamphatna leh mungpi suahtakna te leitung bup huam in zahtak, zuihding leh hanthotding kamciamna nei ahihi. (UN Charter (kiciamna) thukhil (Article) (56) sung ah)
A nihna ding in suaikaih ding a kisam lo leitung bup ngeina paizia thukham om hi. Hih mihing hamphatnate khuavannuai tangkona pen suaikaihna (or) khenkhat bek thukimna bawl ding kisam lo hi. Hih UDHR sung a thuguipite pen leitung bup thukham bangin kizang a theihpihna zong kipia hi. Gam khatpeuh in ICCPR (or) ICESCR te kipsakna suai a kaihkei uh leh thunung thuma cih om thei lo hi. Leitung bup ngeina thukham (upadi) in " Leitung bup thukham nuai ah sila bawlna, minam thahmangna (genocide) pen leitung bup deihloh khialhna (crimes) ahihi" cih thu theihpih hi. Tua thu a palsat gamte in minam thahmangna (or) sila suahsakna tawh kisai laipi ah kipsakna suai a kaih leh kaih loh tungah kinga lo hi.

Gam khatpeuh in hih a nuai a thute bawlna, thapiakna, nelhsiahna te a sep leh leitung bup thukham palsat hi ci'n (Commission on Human rights,CHR) in ciamteh hi.

Sila suahsakna;

Bawlsiatna, gawtna satna:

Nuntakna ding kong khatcipna:

Thukham zui lo a matna leh kolbulhna:

Suahta tak a ngaihsut theihna, uptheihna, biakpiak theihna te khaktanna:

Mi khatpeuh in khialna nei keng ci'n teci a lah theih hangin tua mipe'n khial hi, ci a muanmoh teitei na:

Naupaai numei te leh naupang no te thahna ding thukhenna:

Minam, namphung leh biakna te huatna ah thapiak panpihna:

Kiteng theiding a khangcing khin mite nupa kop suahna ding halna:

Minam neute pen a mau ngeina, biakpiakna (or) a mau kampau zattheihna uh khaktanna

Hih a kigelh thute in leitungbup ngeina thukham tang a kizang a hihman in gam khatpeuh in hih hamphatna te lakpan khat peuhpeuh tuamsiit theilo hi.



Mipi leh gamleivai hamphatna tawh kisai leitung bup thukimna laipi:
International Covenant of Civil and Politics Rights (ICCPR)

Article (1) ICCPR

(A) Mi khempeuh in mimal deihtel khensatna (self-derterminatio n= mimal deihtel khensatna ci'n kizang hi) neitek hi. Gamleivai sepzia zong suakta tak in deihtel khensat in sumbawlna, khotang hinkhua leh ngeina khantohna ding in suakta tak in septheihna nei ciat hi.

(B) Mi khempeuh in khat leh khat kiliim belh ciat i hihna bulphuh in leitungbup sumbawlna tawh kisai pankhawmnate a khaksiat kei nak leh mimal phattuamna ding in i neihsa sum leh vante suakta tak in zang in zek thei ding hi.

(C) Eimah ki vaihawmna nei nailo munte leh UN vaihawmna nuai a om munte a kumpi te bek hilo, hih laipi dongta gamte in mimal deihtel khensatna zui a nasepna te sangkhan in a sepzawk ding ban ah tua hamphatna zong UN kiciamna (charter) sung a kigelh tawh kituak in zahtak ding hi.

Mi khempeuh in mailam a eima deih gamleivai teltheihna neihi.

Mi khempeuh in i neih leisung sumpiang te leh leikiak sumpiang (natural resource) gou leh gamh te kilawm i sakna mun leh i deihna munte ah zat theihna nei hi.

Hilhcianna:

" Mimal deihtel khensatna (self-derterminatio n) i khiatna (deihna) in nisim a i gen kammal te ah baih lam tak in kitel thei hi. A hizongin hihmun a deihna in thuk mahmah hi. Hih hamphatna i ngimna in namdang khutnuai pan a manlang thei pen a suahtak theihna ding leh mipi deihnate suakta tak a pulak theihna ding Democracy paizia te phungvuh sangkhan ding ahihi".

ICCPR sungah "mimal deihtel khensatna" khiatna hilhcianna ah a sangpen thuneihna (sovereignty power) nei gam khat i kikhui khawmna leh gamleivai tawh kilung tuakna te a vekpi in a hizong in, khenkhat a hizong in, a nennen in khenkhapna (or) balsiatnate nakpi tak in kham hi. A hangin leitung i kilemna leh sumbawlnate a ding in a hoihlo paak leh gah te tawh leitung pen gam neu nono tampi tak in a kikhen khapkhak ding lauhna hang a hihi.

Mipi te i lungtuak hanciamna hang in a nuai a thugui (3) te thusiit khentuam (reservation) in ki koih hi.

(i) Namdang ukna (colony) vaihawmna langpanna:

(ii) Minamte a nengniam kumpi te langpanna:

(iii) Gamdang thahatna khatpeuh khazak khumna te langpanna a hihi.

Khatlam peuh in mipite tungpan a tamzaw san theihna ngah in a tung a thusit khentuamte lakpan khat peuhpeuh in a huamkhak leh suahtakna ding nasepna leitung bup theihpihna ngahthei hi.Tua theihpihna ngahna pan a kician hamphatna leh mawhpuakna te hong piangkhia ding hi. Tua te in:-

1. Colony sumbawlna, minam nengniamna leh gamdang mite khazak khumna thute tawh kisai kha gam te in mimal deihtel khensatna suakta tak a zat theihna ding thukim ding uhi.

2. Suahtakna ding nasepna ah mimal deihtel khensatna zungkipna ding in galvan tawi theihna ding hamphatna om hi.

3.Gam tuamtuam ten suahtakna ding nasepna ah thudam in thapiak panpihna nei thei uhi.Tua bang in a nengniam gamte tung ah panpihna botsat thei hi. A zenzen in mimal deihtel khensatna hong kinialsak leh zong thudam in lampi khak ding in hanthotna pia ding in UN ah ngetna pia lut thei ding hi.

Suahtakna ding nasepna ah (1) colony (2) gamdang mite leh (3) minam nengniamna te hangin langdona hileh galvan tawh langdona pen kikhamlo hi cih a dik mah hiam?

Hi mah hi. Tuabang dinmun ah leitung mite muhna in hih pen sep theihna ding khamloh ding hi ci in theihpihna zong hong pia ding uh hi.

A gilo ukcip kumpi te galvan tawh dothuk kikna ee leh, bang na ci muh a? Hih zong suahtakna ding nasepna khatmah hilo a hihiam?

Tu laitak a kizang thukham tungtawn in gen leng hi theilo hi.Kikhelna pawlkhat bel omthei kha mai in teh. Leitung bup ah hih thu pen nakpi takin kikupna kinei hi. Hih bang a galvan tawina pen "kitom gitlohna" ciangbek in gen uh hi. Hun sawtpi tak mun leh mual pawlkhat zong luah zoden hi leng bel leitung mite muhna ah " thukhun in khamlo, thukham phalna tawh sep theihna" kingah ding hi. Ahizong in suahtakna ding hanciamna sepna hun dinmun ngah tuan lo dinghi.

Gamsung hauhsakna zektheihna tawh kisai in:-

Hih hamphatna in sumbawlna tawh kisai hamphatna leh gamte i sepding mawhpuakna thukham te ah a kicing zaw in kigelh hi.

Gam khatpeuh in hih a nuai a hamphatna te ngah thei ding hi.

(a) Gam dangte sumbul sunna (foreign investment) te enkai ding :

(b)Gam sung sumbawlna in khotang hinkhua tawh kituah sakna ding, gamsung thukham tawh kituak a leitung bup pangkhawm a sumbawlna te zungkipna ding gelna:

(c )Gamdang mite neihsa suhsakna (or) gambup neihsa suahsakna (nationalization) te ah a man ding zah kilawm kituak zangna dopna (compensation= zangna dopna ci'n kizang hi.) piakding:



Article (2) ICCPR

(A) Thukimna laipi sunga letmat thuh gamte in a mau neihsa gam huamsung leh vaihawmna huamsung a om mi khempeuh tungah minam, ci leh sa, a nu a pa, biakna, kampau, gamleivai leh a dang upnate,beh leh phung, neih leh lam, pianna mun leh mual leh a dang khentuamna te omlo in hih laipi sung a kigelh hamphatna te zahtak in zui ding hi.

(B) Thukham (or) vaihawmna omloh na mun te ah zong laipi sung a kigelh hamphatnate a kizuih theihna dingin laipi dongta gam te'n a kisam thukham (or) vaihawmnate a gelh theihna ding gam bup thukhunpi gelhna a sepzia paizia tawh kituak in a banban in sem thei ding hi.

(C) Laipi dongta gamtuam te'n hih a nuai a te sem ding hi.

(i) A kitheihpih mi khatpeuh i hamphatna (or) suahtakna te a kipalsiatsakna ah a gamta mi in kumpi phalna tawh nasem a hizong in, a thuak mi tungah zangna dopna a piakna ding kumpi in mawhpuakna nei hi.

(ii) Tuabang in zangna dopna a ngen mi i hamphatna pen thukhen zum, ki-ukna (or) thukham bawl theihna thuneite (or) a dang thuneihna lentu te'n khensatna pia ding a, thusitna tawh kisai ah zangna dopna a ngahna ding zung kiipsak ding hi.

(iii ) Thukhen theihna thuneitu te'n zangna dopna a kipiakna dingah a kisepsuah theihpah nading zong muanhuai sak dinghi.

Kumpi te in khentuamna om hetlo in gam mikhat sim hamphatnate zahtakna ding leh vengbitna ding mawhpuakna nei hi.

Hih hamphatnate a kingah theihna ding in thukham bawl ding hi.

Hamphatna khatpeuh palsiat sakna thuak mite'n zangna dopna a ngahtheihna ding gelsak dinghi.

Hilhcianna:

UDHR leh ICCPR sung a om hamphatna te leh suahtakna te pen leitung bup tawh kisai thu ahihi. Mi khatpeuh in ci leh sa ah bang lim leh mel sun in a hizong in, a lamdang deuh kampau in a hizong in, khanglui upna nei in a hizongin, biakna tuam leh lamdang deuh bia in a hizongin, na leh sa in om in a hizong in a kigelh hamphatna te ngah thei ding hi. "Khentuamna" cih kammal in muntuam gamtuam a i om ciang in tua mite tan kikimna pen a kinawl khin hun ciang in kizang thei kammal ahihi.

Laipi dongta gam khempeuh in Article (2) na sung a om bang zui in hih a nuai a thute sem ding hi.

(i)Tua gam i gamsung aituam thukham te ICCPR tawh tehkakna:

(ii) Laipi sung a om hamphatnate vengbitna (or) kihilna neihna ding a kisam thukham (upadi) gelhsakna:

(iii)Hih hamphatnate a kipalsiat saknate ciangin thukhen zum ah zangna dopna (nop tuamna) nget theihna ding:

(iv)Zangna dopna (or) noptuamnate i ngahtheihna ding panpih kipsakna: Gentehna, ICCPR sunga om hamphatnate gam kiukhat a om mihing honpi te tungah zat theihna a kikhaktan sak leh gambup in tua bang hun te ah lampi man ah pilut ding hi. Tua bang a lampi man hilhna ah zong mihing hamphatna tawh kituak in sem ding hi.

A dang etkak thute:

Minam khentuamna beina ding komiti ( CERD)

Hih thukimna laipi sungah minam khentuam nengniamna a nuai a bang in kitei khia hi.

" Mipi te nuntakna i gamleivai, sumbawlna, khotang hihkhua, a dang bang kongkiu cih omlo mihing hamphatnate leh mungpi suahtakna te kikim tak in a kisai khakna munte ah theihpihna, nasep leh zatna te suksiat utna (or) siatsakna, kihilna khat peuh neihsakna leh ngimna, mihing ci leh sa, phunggui (or) minam beh leh phungte hang in khentuamna, nawlkhinna, khentanna (or) piakthuahna te khempeuh sepna" a hihi. (CERD kamhonna)

CERD i ngimna te in :

(i) Thunei tu te leh tangpi tangta in minam khentuamna te khaktan na ding :

(ii)Minam khentuamna in leitung bup thukham palsatna bang in ngaihtuah in sanna te ahihi.

Laipi dongta gamte in minam khentuam deidanna a nei pawlpi te tungah nasep khatpeuh a kituak thaman piak ding ahihi. Tuabang pawlpi te pen thukham pua lam a om pawlpi a puang in tua pawlpi mite thusit na nei ding hi.

CERD in vengbit ding a kisam diak mihing hamphatna te a nuai a bang in ciaptehna bawl hi.

(i)Thukham mai ah tan kikimna:

(iii)Sisan suah gamtatna pan vengbitna ding:

(ii)A hoih a kilawm nasep theihna mun bawl sak ding:

(iv)Mun leh mual piak ding:

(v)Mipi zat ding mun (or) nasepna te zattheihna piak ding:

CERD in “i gamsung thukham palsat mite tungah thukhenna a kineih theihna dingin kumpi te'n thukhen zum honsak ding tha a piak banah mimal khat sim in hekna a neihna ah zong thukhen zum i sepzia paizia dingte zong bawlsak hi".

CERD thukham zui a gamta thunei tute in hoihtak in thukham zui in vengbitna pia ding hi. A diakdiak in mihing hamphatna in mihing khempeuh khentuam nei lo ngah theihna ding leh sangkhanna / masawn na ding in a hizong in, mihing vang te kizahtak na ding leh vengbitna ding a hizong in, tua hamphatna te ngahna ding in lampi honna te a bulkipna ding te sem ding in zong hanthon hi.

CERD laipi sungah kumpi te in minam muhdahna tawh nasep pawlpi khempeuh thuman lo a hih man in thukham bawl in khaktan ding hi, cih om cileng a maute suatta tak a pulak theihna tawh kisai in bang na ci muh hiam?

Suahtakna pawl khat leh hamphatna pawlkhat te ciangtanna om thei hi. Mihing khat i hamphatna leh suahtakna te pen midang khat i hamphatna leh suahtakna tawh tehkak in ciapteh ding kisam hi. Suakta tak a thugen theihna i cih zong midang te vang kiamsak theiding, kumpi te langpan na ding te gelhna genna te pen thukham bawl in kikhak tan hi. Minam khentuamna (or) mudahnate i saiveng na ding in thukham te ah mipi te lung muanna (or) midang te hamphatna te vengbitna dingte khiapkiam ding kisam tuanlo hi. Tua ban ah minam khentuamna (deidanna), mudahna tawh kisai nasep pen Article (20) sungah nakpi tak in kham hi.

Vienna thupuan( Vienna Declaration)

Lim leh mel, zia leh tong kilamdanna paulap lo in mihing hamphatna leh mungpi suahtakna te zahtak ding pen leitung bup mihing hamphatna thukham i thubul phuh khat ahihi. Article (15)

Khutbul khelbai te zong nengniamna omlo in mihing hamphatna leh mungpi suahtakna te a kikim in kipia ding hi. Tua sepna sungah mihing kim leh pam (nai huai) ah a maute thalawp tak in a kihel theih nang uh sepsakna zong kihel hi.



Article (3) ICCPR

Hih laipi dongta gamte in laipi sung a om mipi leh gamleivai hamphatnate numei leh pasal tan kikim in a ngah theih nang un dongta gam kumpi thunei te in mawhpuakna la ding hi.

Numei te in zong pasal te bang mah in a kikim hamphatna nei uhhi.

Hilhcianna:

Numeite pen khanglui lai (tanglai) hun pek a kipan thanem in kiciam teh a, pasal te sang in dinmun niam zaw in kikoih hi.

Etkak thukimna laipi te:

Numeite nengniam deidanna namkimte beisak nang laipi (CEDAW) sungah kumpi te'n a mau gam sung thukham sungah numei te hamphatnate vengbitna ding mawhpuakna nei ahihna leh numei te i hamphatna tawh kisai thute kigelh khawm hi.

Tua laipi zui in kumpi te in numei te tungah –

(i) Pasal te tawh kikim in nasep kibang sep theihna ding:

(ii)Kivak' siamsinna leh nasepna te suahta tak a teel theihna:

(iii)A kibang na sepna ah a kikim thaman ngah theihna ding leh numei te pen hih a nuai a thute pan lungmuanna ngah theihna ding in (thukham bawl na kihel in) lampi kong hon sak ding:

(a)Naupaii na hang paulap in na sepna pan numei te hawlkhiatna.

(b) Nauneih hun in thaman khasum pelhem lo in khuan ngah theihna.

(c)A kisam mihing taksap te panpihna piak ding, cihte ah kumpi te'n mawhpuakna nei hi.

Thukham sungah numei te in pasal te mah bangin sep theihna nei uh hi. A diak in buplak na sepna (contract), ki-ukna thute ah vaihawm tu in septheihna nei uhhi. Laipi dongta gamte in koppih zonna leh innkuan sung vaite ah numeite nengniam deidanna beinang a kisam bangin sepding mawhpuakna nei hi.

Pasal te mahbang in numei te in a kikim hamphatna nei uhhi. Tuate pawlkhat in:

(i)Ei utna bek tawh suakta tak in koppih zonna leh kitenna bawlna:

(ii) Kitenna leh kikhenna te ah a kikim hamphatna leh mawhpuakna neihna:

(iii)Nau neih ding zah ciangtanna (family planning) leh nau kihal ding hun deihtelna ah thu khensatna a kikim neihna:

(iv)Kivakna ding zonna leh nasep zonna ah zong pasal leh zite in a kikim hamphatna nei uhhi.

Tua ahih man in laipi dongta gamte in numei te nengniam deidanna namkim beina ding in thukham gelh in nasem ding kisam hi. Numei te khentuamna in nu a pa (gender) kilam danna bulphuh a zawhthoh bawlna ahihi. A nu a pa (gender) kilam danna bulphuh a thagum tawh zawhthawh bawlna in minamvai khentuamna namkim beina ding leitung bup thukimna laipi (ICERD) sunga om thute palsat ahihi. ICERD sung a om thagum tawh zawhthoh bawlna pen a kawkkha in a kawkkha kei zong in a nuai a thute palsat a hihi.

(a) Mikhat i suahtakna leh lungmuanna:

(b)Thukham mai ah tan kikimna:

(c ) Innkuan sung ah tankikimna:

(d)Lungsim leh pumpi a ding a kisam te a hithei zah (asang pen) ngah theihna:

(e) Nasepna mun a kikim tak a nasep theihna:

Tua banah nengniam deidanna ah kumpite (or) kumpi te aitang a nasemte cih in zong pengthei tuan lo ding hi. Laipi dongta gam te in mimal khat pawlpi (or) nasepna munte ah numei te nengniam deidanna beina ding in panlak ding mawh puakna nei hi.

CEDAW -Article 2 (D)

Mi khatpeuh i na sepna pen vengbitna (or) kanciat sittelna ding leh mawhna thaman piakna ding a kisam nasepte a semlo gam in laipi sung a thute palsat ahihi. Numei leh pasal khentuamna a piangsak thute khinkhaina ah komiti in "Numei te pen pasal te khutnuai a koihna (niamkoihna) ngeina paizia te pan ngaihsutna" pen bulphuh hi. Hihbang khanglui paiziate in innkuan sung kilem lohna, ut lo pi a gawmtuahna, mo van ken ding neihloh man a kosiatna (simmawhna), numeite zahmawh attan sakna cih bang in piangsak hi. Tua bang in numei khat i cih nak leh mikhat in ngaihsut sang in pasalte taksa utna kicing sak tu, pasal te etlah ding a kizem ding in kingaih sun kha pah hi. A nu a pa ki batloh man a nengniam deidanna te i beisak na ding laipi dongta gamte in a kicing lungmuanna a pia ding thukham bawlding in komiti in hanthon hi.

Innkuan sung ah thagum zang a zawhthoh bawlna tawh kisai in komite in hih a nuai a bang in thukim pihna nei hi.

(i)A kisap leh mawhna khialhna thaman piakding:

(ii)Innkuan sungah numei te simmawh na (or) Thahna te a min kisialna te khaktanna:

(iii)Innkuan sungah zawhthawhna thuak numeite a ding in lungmuanna mun a om theihnang khawlbuk lamna ah panpihna piakna:

(iv) Thu kizaknate ah zong numeite zahtak dan siamna ding leh zahtakna a khantohna ding suahna:

(iv) Siamsinna leh mipite tung tangkona khatpeuh ah numeite tan kikimna a kiamsak theiding malakna te a beina ding in limgelna puanpihna:

(v) Zahmawh metbawlna leh kizuakna te paisan zawh na ding in kidalna leh gawtna na piakding gelna:

(vi) Na sepna munah numei te zahmawh tawh kisai zawhthoh, simmawh bawlna leh botlawh sakna te pan vengbitna ding:

Vienna thupuan:

“Gamsung mun leh mual, leitung bup gamleivai, gam mite hamphatna, sumzonna, khotang hinkhua leh ngeina tawh kisai hamphatna te ah numeite tan kikim a kihel theihna leh zahmawh kibat lohna hang a khentuamna a beina ding pen leitung bup mihing te i ngimna bulpi ahihi”. (Article- 18)

Article - (38) sungah hih a nuai a omna sepna te thupina leh thuukna te lak hi.

(a) Mipi tawh kumpi na sepna mun ahizong in, mimal in a hizongin, numei te zawhthoh bawlna beina ding:

(b)Numei te zahmawh tawh kisai in botlawh sakna, metbawlna leh zuakna te beina ding:

(c )Thukhenna munte ah nu leh pa khentuam in angvan tuamna te beina ding:

(d)Numei te hamphatna leh khanglui paizia, ngeina, paizia luite meilet lunggulhna, limsang biakna pan a piang buaina te beisak na ding:



Article (4) ICCPR

(A) Gambup thukin kisap hun (emergency period) ah mipi a ding in thukin kisap hun a kitangko leh laipi dongta gamte in laipi sung a om sepding mawhpuak te tawlkhat sung dinkhawl thei hi.Tua bang a dinkhawlna ah a hun leh a mun kisapna taktak zui in sem ding a, leitung bup thukham sungah mawhpuaknate tawh zong kitukalh lo ding hi. A hizongin minam, ci leh sa, nu leh pa, kampau, biakna, beh leh phungte khentuam lo in sem ding hi.

(B) Hih zuih ding thukham in Article 6, 7, 8 (1,2), 11, 15, 16, leh 18 te bang ci bang lampi tawh hetsia kha lo ding hi.

(C) Laipi dongta gam khat peuh in laipi sung a thute a zukkik ut leh United Nations General Assembly (UNGS) pansan in laipi dongta gam dangte kiangah thu zasak ding hi. Tua thu a zaksakna ah bang thu, bang hang, bang hun pan kipan in zukkik hi cih kihel ding hi. Tua ban ah zukkikna a bei hun ciang in zong UNGS pansan mah in thu zasak kik ding hi.

Gam khatpeuh a thukin kisap hun a tangko ciangin hamphatna leh suahtakna pawlkhat te tua hunsung khaktan thei hi. A hizong in hih a nuai a hamphatnate kikhaktan thei ngeilo hi.

(i)Nuntak theihna (rights to life)

(ii)Thukham mai ah mihing khat a hihna ciaptehna:

(iii)Suakta tak a ngaihsutna, lunggelna leh biakpiakna:

(iv)Bawlsiatna pan kipelhna:

(v) Sila suah sakna pan pengna:

(vi)Leibat hangin kolbulhna pan pengna:

(vii)A sisa (a lui) thukham te tawh thu khenna pan pengna te ahihi.

Hilhcianna:

Hamphatna pawlkhat pen hih a nuai a hun te ah zukkikna, khaktanna te kinei thei hi.

(i)Gam leh mipi te a ding in sih leh hin thu zah a thupi kisap hun hi ding.

(ii) Gambup leh mipi te tung ah zumvai (officially) in tangko ding hi.

(iii) UNGS kiang ah thu zasak pah ding:

(iv) Hamphatna te khaktanna in a hun leh a mun kisapna a hihman hi cih kician sak ding:

(v) Tuabang sepna (khaktanna) te pen leitung bup thukham tawh kituak ding:

(vi) Khentuam deidanna bulphuh lo ding:

Mipi tawh kisai thupi kisap hun i cih bang hiam?

Gam khat sung a mipi te nuntakna a lingsak in lauthawng huai dinmun ah a om hun ahihi. Tuate lakah zinlinna, khua hun siatna cih bang dan kim leh kiang (enviromental) khua hun siatna te zong kihel hi. Gamsung gal (or) galvan tawi in langdona te hangin zong piang thei hi. Bang thu hangin piangpiang, tua thute pen bang ci vengsak ding cih gelna kumpi te'n mipi te tungah tangko ding hi. Tuabang gelna pen zong leitung bup minam kipawlna thuzeekpi (UN-GS) tung ah bang hang in hih bang in kigel hiam, cih zasak ding hi.

Tuabang hunah kumpi te'n a khengval in na a sepding uh pen kilawm na sa hiam?

Kumpite in thukham vaihawmna, gam mite lungmuanna leh gam bitna dingin kisam a sak uh bangin nasem thei uhhi. Tua nasepna ah zong mi khempeuh a dingin a kikim phattuamna ding bek hi henla, mipawl khat phattuamna ding bek in kisem kei hen. A thu leh la zui in kisem hen la, a khengval in sepding kiphal lo hi. Mihing hamphatna komision (CHR) in" gam khat i thukin kisap hunsung a nasep te in a hun leh mun ngetna (kisapna) hang a tom cik sung zat ding ahihi." ci'n teikhia hi. " A lo theilo a kisam hi" cih zong a kician tak in sittel ding kisam hi. Hih in a suakta thukhenna leh thukhunpi sung a hamphatna gelh lut ding a thupi na honglak hi. Tua te in leitung bup thukham tawh kituak sak ding hi. Gentehna- Thumanlo pi tawh a kicing lo paulap zang in mi khat peuh bawlsiatna (torture) pen kiphal lo hi.

Hamphatna khempeuh kibang hiam? Khennen ding leh khaktan ding phalloh hamphatna te pen hamphatna dangte sang in a thupi zaw hiam?

ICCPR sung a kigelh hamphatna te i thupina pen a tawm a tam, a niam a sang kikhen khia theilo hi. A thupi mahmah hamphatna pawlkhat te zong khennen, sukkhak, khaktan theih hamphatna sung ah kihel lo hi. Hamphatna pawlkhat te khaktan phalloh cihna in mipi te i thukin kisap hun a kizang thukham sung a gakcip khentanna te tawh kisai khakloh man ahihi. (Gentehna- Article (11) ah Leiba neite in leiba a ditkik zawh loh man un tan inn (jail) ah khum ding kiphal lo hi.) A dang khat tawh khaktan ding hithei peuhmah lo hi. (gentehna- Article (18) sungah suakta tak a ngaihsutna). Ahang in hih hamphatna te khaktanna pen thukham vaihawmna omnawn lohma honglak hi.



Article (5) ICCPR

(A) Laipi sung thute in laipi i theihpih hamphatnate leh suahtaknate suksiatna ding (or) suksiatna ding ngimna tawh nasepnate ah gamkhat a hizong in, pawlpi khat a hizong in, mimal khat a hizong in kihelna ding phalna om hi ci'n kilet khia kei hen.

(B) Laipi dongta gam khatpeuh i thukim pihna a hi mungpi mihing hamphatna leh suahtaknate pen thukham tawh a hizong in, laipi suaikaihna tawh a hizong in, zuihding thukham tawh a hizongin, pu leh pa thuzuih khanglui paizia tawh a hizong in paulam bawl in hih laipi thukim pih lohna leh theihpihna kiamsakna, khaktanna, neusakna te kibawl kei hen.

Mi khat peuh in ICCPR sung a om hamphatna a siasak ding nasep theihna hamphatna ngen thei lo hi.

ICCPR sung ah a kigelh khakloh hang in hamphatna khatpeuh omkha lo ci'n kisang kei hen.

Hilhcianna:

ICCPR sung a om hamphatna te siatna ding in kumpi, pawlpi leh mimal khatpeuh in hih laipi khutzat in neilo ding hi. Mimal leh pawlpi khatpeuh in zong ICCPR sunga om hamphatna te a siatmangna dingin maiphaw in zang theilo ding hi. Minam mudahna ding tangko in " ken' kei suakta tak a pulak theihna zang hi'ng" ci'n laipi sung ah kigelh thute pansan in neithei lo ding hi. Gamsung thukham leh laipi sunga om thute a ki tukkalhna a om leh gam mipi i hamphatna leh suahtakna vengbit zo ding pen thupi sak in sem masa ding hi.



Article (6) ICCPR

(A) Mikhempeuh in nuntak theihna pen a pian ken ahihi. Hih pen thukham in vengbitna pia ding hi. Mi khatpeuh thukham zui lo in a nuntakna kilak sak theilo ding hi.

(B) Thukham zui in khialhna thaman a thahna ding thu khensatna neilai gamte in thahna ding thu a khensat uh ciangin a kizang lai thukham tawh kituak in khialna lianpite bek ah nei ding hi. Tua bang a thu khensatna ah zong hih kiciamna laipi tawh a hizongin, minam beina ding a thahna (genocide) hang a khialna thaman piaknate tawh kitukalh lo ding hi. Hih thu khenna pen thukhen zum sang pen i thu khensat tawpna khit ciang in kizang pan ding hi.

(C) Nuntakna kikhaktan sakna in minam beina ding a thahna (ngimna) in huamkhak ciangin minam beina ding a thahna tawh kisai mawhna thaman piakna zia ding thukimna laipi sung a om kamciam te kumpite in a zukkikna ding hih Article in phallo hi.

(D) Thah ding a thukhen khumna thuak mi khatpeuh in mawhmai sakna (or) thaman khiapkiamna ding in ngen thei hi. Thaman piaknate ah mawhmai sakna (or) khahkhiatna (or) puahphat, etkiknate kinei thei hi.

(E) Khialhna nei kum (18) nuai lam mite leh naupaii numei te thahna ding thu khensatna kipia kei hen.

Thahna ding thu khensatna pen a lian mahmah khialhnate bek ah kipia ding hi. Nuntak theihna pen a kikhaktan theilo hamphatna a hihi. Tua hi a, gam khat kumpi te in a gam mite nuntakna a vengbit kul hi. Bang ci bang thuteng piang leh zong nuntak theihna pen a kikhak tan theilo hamphatna ahihi.



Hilhcianna:

Gam khatpeuh ah thunei mite hang in mihing khat i nuntakna a kimawk supsak (beisak) lohna ding thukham tawh gaktak in khaamcip ding hi. (HRC-Human Rights Committtee)

Gam khatpeuh i khutkhakna pen thukham deihna khengval loding hi. " Gamsung thukham zui in vaihawm kumpi te'n a sem ahihi" cih pen leitung bup mihing hamphatna thukham ah "nung leh ma enlo a matuah peuh a gamtatna, mawt gamtatna (arbitrary)" tawh ki pelh theituan lo hi. Gentehna- gal buai hunsung in galvengsak ding a kisawl galkap mang te nasep theihna ding a kigelh thukham in hih Article tawh kituak lo hi. Thukin poimawh hun ah gambup in a kisai lo mipi te a liam a bai sak lohna ding in thukham vaihawmna (rule of law) gaktak in a sep ding a hihi.

Nuntak theihna i cih sungah "naungek piang cil sihna a kiamnang, natna kiamnang, thong inn (jail) tang mi te cidam na hoihna" cih te zong kumpi ten a sep ding un huam kha hi.

Gam tuamtuam thukhen zum tawh kisai leh khialhna thaman thahna piakna:

ICCPR laipi dongta gamte in khialhna thaman ding a thahna piakna pen phiat ding ahih loh hang in tua bang sepna ah ciangtanna neihding leh a kician mahmah khialhna lianpi te longal thudangte ah piakloh ding (phiat ding) ahihi. Bangteng a hizong in thahna ding thu khensatna tawpsan ding pen sep ding a kilawm na a hihi, cih hih Article in gen hi. Nuntak theihna bucing tak a ngahna ding in thahna ding thu khenna tawpsan ding in CHR in hanthon hi. Tua bang thu khensatna neih ma in zong sepdan ding gelna a nuai a bang hi ding hi.Tua te in –

(i)Guptuam paihtuam omlo a thusitna leh thu ngaihkhiatna:

(ii) Khialhna neilo mite tung thudamna:

(iii)Thu khensatna etphatkikna ding ngetna:

(iv)Thahna ding pan thonginn (jail) ah tang ding in thaman khiapkiamna:

(v)Mawhmaisak ding ngetna hang in a niam pen in zaidamna piakna:

(vi)Kum (18) nuai lam mi leh naupaii numei te thahna ding thu khensatna khaktan ding cih te ahihi.

UN in thahna thuak ding mite i hamphatnate vengbitna ding in a nuai a thute zui in thahna ding thu khensat ding in hanthawn hi.

(a) Khialhna lianpen i cih in sihna manna a piangsak ding (or) tua bang dan thute a sia mahmah thumei zom a piangsak ding gamtatna:

(b)Mi hai, lungsim sianglo leh nau nawitep nupi te huamkha lo hi.

(c )Lampi dang tawh khialhna neilo ahihna lahkhiatna ding a bei ciang leh a muanhuai in mikhial a hih lam i lah theih ciang bek in thahna ding thu khensat ding hi.

ICCPR laipi thumeizom (OP) nihna sung a om thute in thah ding thu khensatna paikhia hi. Tua thumei zom nihna thukimna leh kipsakna suaikai gamte in khialhna thaman dingin thahna pen paikhia ding hi. Thahna ding thukhensatna phiat (beisak) gamte in hih a nuai a te ahihi.

Australia Andorra Angola

Austria Cambodia Cape Verde

Columbia Costa Rica Croatia

Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic

Ecuador Finland France

Germany The Gambia Greece

Guinea- Bissan Haiti Honduras Hungary Republic Sao Tome & Principe Slovale Slovenia Solomon Island Sweden

Switzeland Iceland Ireland

Kiribati New Zealand Nicaragua

Norway Panama Portugal

Romania San Marino Tuvalo

Uruguay Liech Tensein Luxembourg

Macedonia Marshall Islands Microniasia

Monaco Mozabique Namibia

Netherlands Vanuatu Vatican City State Venezuela



Thusitna omlohna, Hiamgamh thusitna leh Upmawh thu tawh thahna:

A tung a thute deihna leh khiatna sung ah -

(i)Thahna te ah Article (6) sunga om thukham zui a seplohna:

(ii)Hih bang thahna te ah thukhen zum leh thukham zui in semlo in kumpi te thupiak (or) kumpi ngaihsutna (or) kumpi te thukimna bek tawh sepna:

(iii)Thukham zui a nasem mi te'n thuneihna khengval a zatna (or) thukham palsatnate hang a sihna:

(iv)Gamsung buai hun (or) galpi hunsung a zuih ding thukham te palsat in galvan tawi galkap (or) Kilemna vaisai galkap te'n mipi te thahna te kihel hi.

Hih bang thahna te pen thukham pualam (or) thuman lo tak a thahna (or) thukhen zum pua lam a gamtatna a kiciapteh hangin gamsung a kizang thukham leh leitung bup thukham te huangpua lam a na sepna ahih man ahihi.

Ukcippi (dictator) pawl khat in thunung thuma sulzuih theilo ding in imcip seelcip khit uh

ciang in mithat uhhi. Gentehna : Pawl khat te inn sung a hizongin ,pawl khatte galvilna

leh galphual ah ahizong in si hi, ci'n genthei uh hi.

1989 kum in UNGA in thukham huangpua lam a thahna, muanmawh thu tawh thahna, hiamgamh taka thusitna te khaktan na ding leh nungzuih kantelna ding thugui pi pawlkhat gelh khia hi. Thuman lo tak a thahna khatpeuh khaktan nang, nungzuih kantel nang leh thaman piak nang te ah kumpi te zuih ding in tua thugui pi te a kigelh a hihi.

Kidal kholhna:

(i)Galvai (or) mipi buaina hun ah paulap zong in thukham zui lo a thahna pen khialhna lian in ciamteh in a kituak thaman piak ding:

(ii) Tavuan nei mite hih khialhna ah kihel leh kihel loh theihna ding in enkimvel in semding a sawltu te leh a semtute zong khialhna nei in ciamteh in a kituak thaman piak ding:

(iii)Tua bang khialhna te semding in thupiakna thuak mite in nialkalh theihna ding leh tua sepna i mawhna thaman pen a matung pan zong peng tuanlo ding a hihlam thusin sak ding:

(iv)Thahding a vaulau na thuak mimal leh mihonpi te a ding in kibukna ding bawlsak ding:

(v) Kolbulhna thuak mite pen mite theihna mun bek ah koih in, a mau thu leh la te pen beh leh phung, tanau te (or) thukham siam (lawyer) te kiang ah manman in zasak theihna:

(vi)Kolbulhna thuak mite omna teng ah thukan sittel mite a hun leh mun ciangtan omlo in enkhiat theihna:

(vii)Leitung bup a thukan sittel mite tawh kipawlna:

Thukan zonkhiatna (investigation)

(a) Muanmawh a om mi khempeuh angvan tuam omlo in manlang tak thusit zonkhiatna neih ding:

(b)Thusit zonkhiatna ah sepzia bawlzia leh zum te zong kician tak a ciaptehna:

(c )Tua zum ah a kisapna behlap ding .Gentehna, a kisai kha Ulian, thunei mite leh teci (witness) a sem mite khempeuh tua zum ah sam in thusitna thuak ding uhhi.

(d)Khialna lian pi te ah zumte i thu khensatna kicing lo hi cih kicantakin a kilah khiat theih leh tua thu tawh kisai in thusit zonkhiatna sai commission khat phut khiat ding:

(e)Misi in kua hi a, bang hang a si, bang ci bang a si hiam cih theihna dingin misi luang pen semzan in zonna:

(f)Thusitna mite khempeuh a mau sepna mun pan in khiakniamna leh vauna te a thuak lohna ding un thusit zonkhiatna nei hunsung venbitna:

(g)Thusit zonkhiakna ah innkuan pih te leh thusitna tawh kisai kha mi khempeuh tungah tawlnga lo in thu zaksakna leh thusit ngaihkhiatna te zong zaksak kholhna, thusit zonkhiat khit ciangin misi luang pen piakkik ding kamciamna:

(h)Thusit zonkhiatna pan kimu khia thute mipi tung ah zasakna, tua ban ah kumpite in tua muhkhiatna pansan in nasep ding zia gelna zong zaksakna : cih te a hihi.

Mikhat peuh kolbulh hunsung in si leh thusit kanciannate a tawntung in a tunga bang in kisem ding hiam?

Sep ding mah a hihi. Kanciatna (or) a thu leh la te sittelna kanciatna pen mipi theihvek dingin kisem ding hi. Kanciatna in tua thubuai pholak bek hilo in kidal kholhna ding zong hong pia hi. Tua bang kanciatna in khialhna leh nekgukna te zong pholak khia hi.Kanciatna ah mipil misiam te in thuman tak leh a hoihpen in a sepna uh zong lakhia hi. Tua bek hilo in kanciatna hang in thanemna leh thahatna in munte zong hong lak khia thei hi. Kumpi te in sumzatna khan ding maw khiamding a cihna munte zong hong lak hi. Kumpi tawh kisai khat mite zong angvan tuam nei lo a mau sepna mun te ah a mawhkhu ding uh hi cih honglak hi.



Article (7) ICCPR

Mi kuamah peuh bawlsiatna, mihing vang kiamsak ding a hiamgamh taka gawtna, mawhna thaman piakna te kithuak sak kei hen. Tua bek hilo a mau utna omlo in zatui sinna (or) telsui siamsinna (scienctific) te ah vanzat in kizang kei hen.

Kumpi nasem te in ngimna nei a lungsim leh pumpi natna piansakna in leitung bup thukham zui in gen leng khialhna lian a hihi. Hih khialhna pen paulap bawl in khiapkiam na leh khaktanna te kinei theilo ding hi.

Hilhcianna:

"Bawlsiatna" i cih in-

(1)Mawhpuakna neih hun in thunei tu (or) a ma aitang (or) thunei tu khatpeuh i thupiakna tawh mikhat peuh liamsak baisakna:

(2)Thu ngahna ding (or) kiciamsakna (confess) ding a hizong in:

(3)Lungsim lauthong sakna leh utlo pipi sawl teitei na ding leh

(4)Nengniam deidanna thu bulphuh man in mikhat peuh lungsim leh pumpi gen theihsakna te ahihi.

Bawlsiatna in a siahuai mahmah hiamgamh tatna hi a, mihing vai lo (or) mihing hihna (vang) kiamsak gawtna leh thaman piakna ahihi.

Mihing vailo tak a bawlna leh gawtna:

Hih pen mihing khat a piang khia mite tuah ding a kilawm lo pen gawtna ahihi.

“Thunei tu in mikhat pen mihing khat bang lo in vanzat khat bang a bawlna in tua mi i vang nengniam a hihi”. ( Europe Judicial)

Thusitna ah a ki sam zah dotna leh dawnna a khengval a phut teitei na in mihing vai kei a kicih theihloh hang in lungsim leh pumpi te thanemna ding kolbulhna, hunsawt pi tak ihmu lo a gawtna te pen mihing vailo gamtatna in kiciam teh hi.

Mihing hihna a kiamsak thei bawlsiatna:

Mi khatpeuh i maizum zahlakna ding leh a ma utloh, deihloh (or) a ma i sia leh pha theihna te tawh kituak lo in gamtatsak teitei na in mihing hihna kiamsakna ding a gamtatna ahihi. Tua bang na sepna ah pumpi hetkha keileng zong a ma dinmun, vang leh minphatna te kiamsak theihna ding gamtatna te kihel hi.

Khialhna thaman dingin khauhtak in gawtna piakna in khialhna tawmsak tuam leh mihing te a dingin hoihzaw lo ding hiam?

Hih bang a thaman piakna sepna pen hoihzaw hi cih na dingin lim leh na a kician omnai lo hi. Khialhna thaman dingin khauhtak a gawtna piakna in khialhna tampi khaktan (kidal) na ding ngimna bek tawh zat ding in kilawm lo hi. Khialhna thaman ding gawtna khatpeuh piakna ah leitung bup zuih leh zat thute tawh a kituah ding kisam hi.

Teci (witness)

Article (7) palsatna pen teci (lim lahna) neih ding hamsa mahmah hi. A hangte in-

(i) A tamzaw muhna ah teci (limlah) ding a om loh hang a hizong in:

(ii) A thuak mite in a mah leh a inn kuanpih te tung ah phuba a lak ding luahman in a hizong in:

(iii)Thunei mite in a mau zuih ding a kipia thukham te palsak a hihna uh pulak ding lunghiangna leh thusit kantelna tawh kimai tuah ngamlohna:

(iv)Bawlsiatna (or) mihing banglo a hiamgamh tatna (or) mihing hihna kiamsakna ding bawlna (or) gawtna te ah a kithei tham ding liamma te a omloh man te ahihi.

Tua bang hekna te a kingah hun ciangin thunei (or) kumpi te in zuaupi hi ci'n zepmang zel uh hi. Kicing tak a hilh cianna omlo pi in zuaupi cihna tawh khin khiatna pen kicing zolo hi. Tuabang hun ciangin mihing hamphatna komision (CHR) in a thu leh la kicing tak in sulzuih in teci (limlahna) tawh vaisai ding hi.

Kumpi te tavuan:

Hih bang bawlsiatna (or) gawtna te sepna pen hih thukhil (Article) tawh khaam bek ciang pen kicing zolo hi. Kumpi te makaihna tawh malak a dalkholhna neih ding hi. (CHR)

Tua bang kidalna dingin hih a nuai a thute leh lampi te zui a sepding mihing hamphatna komision (CHR) in kawk muh hi.

(1)Mat a om mi leh a pua lam a om mite thu kizakna khaktan sak lo ding:

(2) Mat a om mi te siavuan (or) thukham siam (lawyer) leh a innkuan pihte tawh kimu sak thei ding:

(3)Mat a om mite pen mipi te theihna mun bek ah koihna leh a kisam a ma tung thu ciaptehna laibu te (record) zong koih ding:

(4)Article (7) tawh kituak lo in hiamgamhna tawh thusitna pan a kingah thute thukhen zum in san loh ding.

(5)Thukham vengbit (zui a nasem) mite'n tua bang na a seploh na ding un thu sinsakna leh lam hilhnate neih ding ahihi.

A kisai pih thu leh la dang te:

Bawlsiatna leh a dang mihing banglo a gamtatna (or) mihing hihna a kiamsak gamtatna leh gawtna te beina ding thukimna laipi (CAT)

Hihthu kimna laipi (CAT) dongta gam kumpi te in –

(i)Bawlsiatna in khialhna (crimes) a ciapteh a thaman piak ding.

(ii)Thukhen theihna huam sung ah bawlsia tu te man in thusit ding, thusitna thuak ding in gamdang ah puak ding.

(iii) Bawlsiatna thuak mite zangna dopna piak ding cih te ah mawhpuakna nei hi.

Vienna thu tangko:

Vienna khuapi leitung bup mihing hamphatna khawmpi ah bawlsiatna pen hih a nuai a bang in ciamteh in thukimna kinei hi." Bawlsiatna in mihing vang a beisak gawtna siahuai pen hi a, bawlsiatna thuak mite a ding in mailam nuntakna ding ah mihing vang leh min hoihna (hin man) omnawn lo zah dong in susia hi"

Tua khawmpi thu tangko in mat a om mite kolbulhna munte ah vaveh zelna hangin bawlsiatna beisakna ding lampi zonkhiat ding thukimna laipi (CAT) tung ah thumei zom thukimna neih ding ngen hi. Gam khempeuh kiang ah " Bawlsiatna tawh mihing hamphatna nasia tak a, a palsat mite mawh maisakna leh humbitna ah a panpih thukhamte phiat ding leh a palsat thute uh tungah thusit thukhenna leh thukham vaihawmna bulpi sak pen ding zong han thon hi. (Chapter II, Article- 55,60,61)



Article (8) ICCPR

(A) Kuamah peuh sila in kikoih kei hen. Sila khawina leh sila zuakna namkimte kikham hi.

(B) Kua man peuh suak leh sal in kikoih kei hen.

(C) (i) Kua mah peuh thagum tawh sawlna leh semlo in om theilo ding cihna tawh na ki semsak teitei kei hen.

(ii) Thong inn (jail) sungah na ham sem ding a thaman kipiakna gam te ah hih Article (3) (i) na tawh kisai kha lo hi.

(C ) Hih Article (8) sunga " thagum tawh sawlna leh semlo theilo ding " cih khiatna in hih a nuai a te kihel lo hi.

(a) Article (3) (ii) simloh thukham zui a thukhen zum phalna tawh mat a om mite sawlna (or) hun tawl khat sung tuabang matna pan khah in thusiah pawlkhat tawh kikai-awk lai mite sawlna:

(b) Gal thu tawh kisai sawlna leh kumpi te leitung thukimna ngahna ding a thukham zui a sia leh pha theihna tawh nasepna te:

(c ) Buaina hangin thukin hun leh mihing nuntakna ding lungziin huai dinmun a om hun (or) gamsung nopsakna te a susia thei ding lauhuaina hunte ah thupiak bang a nasep te:

(d) Mipite phattuam ngahna tawh kisem den nasep te a hihi.



“Sila khawina pen leitung bup thukham ah khialhna a hihi.” (International Crimes)

Hih pen bang hun mah ah a kimaisak theilo, thaman a ki khiamniam theilo khialhna a hihi.

Hilhcianna

Suak leh sal a kikhawina pan a suahtak ding pen leitung bup thukimpih mihing hamphatna masa pen a hihi. Sila khawina i cih kammal in-

" Mikhat i theihna siamna, tha leh zung khempeuh leh kimkhat pen mikhat i nuntakna tungah zatkhiatna a hihi" ci'n sila khawina tawh kisai thukimna ah kigelh hi.

Sila zuakna:

Sila khawina beina ding thukimna laipi thumei zom sungah-

(a) Mikhat peuh sila sem ding ngimna tawh matna, zollutna, laklutna tawh kisai na septe :

(b) Mikhat peuh sila ding ngimna tawh zuakna (or) khektuahna na septe;

(c )Zuak ding (or) khektuah ding utna tawh mikhat peuh zuakna (or) khektuahna:

(d)Bang lampi tawh i pi (puak) a hizong sila zuakna leh puakna tawh kisai nasepte khempeuh sila zuakna i deihna in huamkha hi.

A zenzen in gamkhat peuh in sila khawina beisakna ding thukimna laipi kipsakna (ratification) suai a kai leh tuipi tung thu tawh kisai Geneva thukimna zui in gam kumpi te in sila puakna (metbawlna) te dal ding leh gawtna piakding pen panlakna a neih ding uh ahihi.

Sila bang nuntakna:

Thumeizom (Protocol) sungah a nuai a thu leh la te zong sila khawina tawh kilam danglo hi ci hi.

(a) Leiba neite zawh thoh bawlna. (Leiba ditzoh loh man in tua leiba tawh gakcipna:)

Mi khatpeuh in midang khat kiangah leiba a hihmah in tua leibat ditna dingin thazung thatang leh a ma thu nuai a om midang khatpeuh i thazung thatang a hizong in apna:

( b) Bawi lutna

Mi khatpeuh in midang khatpeuh kiangah nuntakna ding in thukham (or) ngeina (or) thukimna khatpeuh tawh a hizong in, midang khat tungah nasem ding in kikai-awk kha ahih man in a hizong in thaman, sum leh pai, neih leh lam te a ngah in a ngah kei zong in tua bang dinmun pan kisut khia zo nawn lohna:

(c ) Koi mun cih omlo mi khatpeuh kiang ah--

- Numei te in a mau utna tello in nu leh pa (or) nukik pakik kemtu (or) mikhat peuh sum piak man (or) neih leh lam piakman in kitenna bawlsakna:

- Pasal (or) beh leh phung te sum ngahna ding (or) neih leh lam ngahna ding in midang khatpeuh tungah zite angkawmsakna:

- Pasal te sih khih ciang in zite ngah ding go leh gamh te midang khat tawh luah khop sakna.

- Nu leh pa (or) kem tu in thaman ngah ding lam-etna tawh kum (18) nuai lam naupangte midang te tung ah apna te ahihi.

Thagum tawh sawlna (or) Semlo theilo ding

Leitung bup nasem mite kipawlna pawlpi (International Labour Organization, ILO) Article (29) a hih a nuai a bang in a deihna gelh hi.

" Vauna tawh mi khatpeuh a mau utna omlo pi'n gawtloh ding man a na sepsakna ahihi".

Tua bang nasep te in---

(i)Mikhat peuh a ma utna omlo in nasep sakna:

(ii)Nengcipna (or) simmawhna (or) hiamgamna te hangin a lo theilo a na sepna te ahihi.

ILO in thagum tawh sawlna beina ding thukimna laipi No. (105) ah laipi dongta gamte in hih a nuai a ngimna te nei in thagum tawh sawlna zatloh ding mawhpuakna om hi.

(iii)Siamsinna (or) gamleivai ah thagum zang a kawikaihna.

(iv) Gamleivai (or) khotang hinkhua, sumzonnate deihloh in ei muhna leh ngimna te pulak tangko man in gawtna.

(v) Sum leh pai kining cin nang paulap in thazung thatang te kaihkhopna.

(vi)Nasem mite zuihding thukham paulap a sawlna a hizong in.

(vii) Deihna gen khiatna (lungphona) ah kihel man in gawtna a hizongin.

(viii)Minam, khotang hinkhua, gamleivai (or) biakna te khentuamna hangin ahizong in thazung thatang zatloh ding ci hi.



Article (9) ICCPR

(A) Mi khatpeuh in mimal suahtakna leh lungmuanna neih theihna nei hi. Kuamah peuh thukham zuilo in matna (or) kolbulhna kithuaksak kei hen. Thukham paizia zui a na sepna simloh mikhat peuh i suahtakna kikhak tansak theilo hi.

(B) Mi khatpeuh a kimat leh bang thu leh bang khialhna hang a kiman hiam cih a kisai mite tung ah theisak pah ding hi.

(C) Khialhna khatpeuh tawh matna leh kolbulhna thuak mite in thukhenna ngahna dingin thu khen mangpi (or) thukham phalna zui a thu neihna kipia thunei tu te mai ah zekai hetlo in puak ding hi. A kilawm hun tawl khat khit ciangin, thu sit in thukhenna (or) khahkhiatna kipia ding hi. Thusit ding ngak (Thusitna kinei nailo) mite kolbulh ding cih pen zuih ding thukham bangin kibawl lo ding hi A hizong in thusit ding hunsim in zum a kah theihna ding leh kiciamna thusiah (a ma' khan) tawh khah khiat theih ahih leh zong khah ding hi.

(D) Matna (or) kolbulhna na hang a mimal suahtakna supthuak mite in thukhen zum ah thusung in hek theihna nei hi. Ahang in kimatna hang pen thukham tawh kituak kei leh zekailo tak a khahkik theihna ding ngimna ahihi.

(E) Thukham tawh kituak lo pi a matna (or) kolbulhna thuak mite in a sup a baina te uh zangna dopna ngen thei ding hi.

Hilhcianna:

Thukham phalna om lo pi in mi khatpeuh matna leh kolbulhna kinei kei hen.

Article (9) a hamphatna te in-

(i)Matna leh kolbulhna ah a hang hilhpah ding.

(ii)Thukhen mangpi mai ah manlang tak a puak ding.

(iii)A kilawm hunkhat khit ciangin thusit ding (or) khahkik ding.

(iv)Thusitna zosiang in thusit hun ding hun bikhiah a kisuan leh kiciamna thusiah tawh khah ding.

(v)Kolbulhna pen thu khen zum ah nialkalh theihna ding.

(vi)A dik lo pi muanmawh thutawh matnate ah zangna dopna piakding. cihte a hihi.

Thuman lopi a matna leh kolbulhna

Palik (police) hiam, thukham zuia vaihawm tute hiam, kumpi thuneihna nuai a nasem ten thukham zuilo in matna (or) kolbulhna pen thuman lopi a matna ahihi. Thukham tawh kituak lo a galvan tawi mite'n mipi te pimangna zong thu manlo matna mah a hihi.

Mi khatpeuh a kimat leh a kimat hun laitak mah in a kimatna hang theisak pah ding hi. Mi khatpeuh in matna a thuak leh bang hang a kei hong kiman hiam cih theihna ding mi khempeuh in hamphatna neiciat hi.

Mi khatpeuh a kimat leh a kihekna thupen a kimat khit a sawtlo in theisak pah ding hi. Tua theihsakna piak ding hun pen a tamzaw in thukham sungah kigelh hi. A sawtlo hun i cih in nipi kal a sim hilo in a ni a sim bek hi ding hi.

Thukhen mangpi maiah a manlang tak in puak ding ahihi. Tua hun huam sung ding pen thukham sung ah kigelh lut ding hi. Thukhen mangpi maiah puakma in a innkuan pihte, thukham siam (lawyer) te leh midang kuamah tawh kithu zalo a kha (1) sung khumcipna pen tua thu kin ngaihsut hi kici thei lo hi. Thukhen mangpi mai ah puak ding a thupi na hang te in -

(a)Thukhen mangpi in mipi te zak theih ding leh ngaih theih ding in thusit ding hi.

(b)Thukhenna mun ah mipi kikaih khop theihna mun hiding hi.

(c )Innkuan pihte leh tanau lawm leh gual te in mat a om mi pen koimun ah kikoih hiam cih theih ding.

(d)A kihekna thu mi khempeuh thei sak ding.

(e) Thong inn ah zong bang ci bang in kikoih hiam cih mipi thei sak ding.

(f) Thusitna paizia khempeuh mipi thei sak ding. cihte ahihi.

Thukhen zum ah thusitna ngah theihna.

Thupi thukin (state emergency period) hun ah lungmuanna ding paulap in mipite hun ciang tan omlo kolbulh a khialna thaman kician pia lo a sawtpi tak khumcipna in " suahtakna nakpi tak a palsatna" a hihi. Khumcip theihna ding hunkhen pen khialhna tawh kisai thaman piakzia ding thukham (Criminal Law) sungah kician tak in kigelh hi. (Inter-American Commission of Human Rights)

Mihingte man in khumcipna pen zuihding thukham bangin zatloh ding ahihi.Mi khatpeuh mat a, a om leh zong a suahtakna te theihpihna a ngah theihna ding hamphatna om hi. Tua banah thusitna ding hun ngak sungin kiciamna tawh khat khiat ding ngen thei hi. Tua kiciamna ah hih a nuai a dinmun ah muanmawhna a om leh tuam ngaih sut ding hi.

(i)Thukhen zum ah thusit ding in pai lo thei ding dinmun a om mite:

(ii)Kiciamna hang tawh khahkhiat hun sung in a khialhna dang bawl thei ding dinmun a om mite:

(iii)Thukhenna na sepna te nawngkaisak thei ding mite ( teci mite vauna leh teci vante sutsiatna)

(v)A hinna lauthawng huai dinmun a om mite ahihi.

Article (9) ICCPR ,A neu (4) hilhcianna

Mi khatpeuh matna (or) kolbulhna in thukham zui a kisem ahih kei leh thukhen zum ah hek in hilhcianna ngen thei ding hi. Kumpi te'n zong a hang hilhcian in thuman mah hi ci'n limlahna a neih zoh kei uh leh tua mi pen thukhen zum in khahna ding thupia ding hi. Tua pen mangpau in " habeas corpus" kici hi. Thumanlo nasepna tawh mikhat suahtakna khaktansakna ding dalkholhna ahihi.

Zaangna dopna (Compasation)

Thukham tawh kituak lo a matna leh hencipna thuak mite in thukhen zum ah pai in zangna dopna nget theihna ding hamphatna nei hi. Hih thupen gam tampite i thukhunpi sung ah kigelh thei zel hi. Palik leh galkapte in a nasep te tungah mawhpuakna lakna khat ahihi.

A kisai khat etkak thudang te:

1992 kum in leitung bup minam kipawlna thucin sai innpi (UNGA) in pimangna (kidnapping) pan mite vengbitna ding thupuan sung ah " gam kumpi khatpeuh in pimangna tungah phalna (or) maisakna neihloh ding ahihi" ci hi. Pimangna cih ciang in "kumpi nasem palaite in mi khatpeuh hencip in kai uh a tua mi omna leh nuntakna bang ci hiam cih sel (imcipna) ahihi" (Amnesty International)

Tua laipi thumasa ah " Pimangna in thukham vaihawmna, mihing hamphatna leh mungpi suahtakna a susia nak pen" ahihi. Hih bang suksiatna te pen mihing hihna tungah khialhna (crimes against humanity) ahihi. Tua ban ah "pimangna" in leitung bup thukham sung a om hamphatna, mihing suahtakna leh bitna, bawlsiatna, mihing banglo a gawtna pan kipelhna ding in thukham mai a mihing bang a theihpihna te palsat ahihi.

Pimangna pan mite vengbitna ding ah kumpi te hih a nuai a sepding mawhpuakna nam (14) zui in panlak ding Leitung bup hotkhiatna pawlpi (Amnesty International) in gelhkhia hi.

(1) Mawhsakna;

Gam khat i vaihawmtu lian pen te in pimangna pen langpan in do takpi ahihna lak ding hi. Amaute pen bang ci bang mun peuh ah pimangna sem mite pen mawk koihlo ding ahihna palik te leh a dang venbitna tawh kisai galvan tawi mite sulzuih sak ding kisam hi.

(2) Thupiakna tawh vaihawm ding.

Vengbitna sai galvan tawi thunei vaihawm mite in a nuai a nasem mite khatpeuh in pimangna a sep lohna dingun thukham tawh gakcip ding hi. Pimangna sem ding a thupia tu (or) thumang tu(or) thupiakna nuai a kihelkha mite khempeuh te khialhna palsatna nei hi a, thaman piak ding ahihi.

(3) Matna leh khahna thute ah:

Mi khatpeuh matna ah a hang, khumcipna mun, omna mun suanna leh khahkikna te ah thu leh la a kicing in a innkuan pihte leh a tanau, thukham siam (lawyer) leh thukhen zum te ah zasak ding hi. Khahkhiat ciang in zong a kikhah na thu kician tak in kipia hen la, a nuntakna ah zong lungmuanna omsak ding kisam hi.

(4) Kulhkhum mite vengbitna:

Khumcipna thuak mite pen a innkuan pihte, a tanau lawm leh gual te, thukham siam (lawyer) te in baihlam tak a zon muh theihna ding in koi mun a koih, kua thunei mi vaihawmna nuai a om, a mau a ding in lauhuai lo hi cih a theihna ding un leh muanmawh thu tawh matna thuak te khah kik ding cih bang thukhenna tawh kisai puahphatna te ngahsak ding hi.

(5) A simtham a khumcipna ki om sak kei hen:

Kumpi te in mipi theihpihna mun bek ah khumcipna nei ding hi. Khumcipna mun khempeuh leh bulpi ah a kihen cip mite a ding in nisim ciaptehna koih ding hi. Tua ciaptehna sung a thu leh la te a kihencip mite innkuante, thukham siam, thukhen mangpi leh mat a om mi thu leh la lunglutna a kantheihna ngah pawlpi te leh thukhenna paizia tawh kisai a lunglut midang te theisak ding hi.

(6) Matna leh kulhkhumna tung ah septheihna:

Matna leh khumcipna pen thukham zui a thuneihna nei mite bek sep ding a hihi. Mi man tu in matna thuak mi kiangah a min, a zaa, a nasepte gen ding hi. Matna leh khumcipna sem dingin kua te in thuneihna kipia hiam cih kumpi te in kician tak in lai gelh ding hi. Pimangna a piangsak thei ding lampialna ah a kilawm bang in gawtna kipia ding hi.

(7) Kulhkhumna thuak mite tawh kithuzakna:

Mat a om mi khempeuh te a manlang thei pen in thukhen zum ah puak ding hi. Innkuan pih (or) tanau lawm leh gual (or) thukham siam (or) siavuan te tawh a tawntung in thu kiza thei ding hi. Phalna nget kullo a a maute vaveh (muh) theihna, khaktanna omlo in ciah leh kuan theihna te pen khumcipna mun khempeuh ah kipia ding hi.

(8) Thukham deihloh khaktanna:

Pimangna a sem mi khatpeuh in khialhna nei ahihi. Tua khialhna neu leh lian zui in thaman kipia ding hi. Mipi patau linglawng hun, gal buai hunsung in a hizong in pimangna pan venbitna leh pimang na a sem mite panpihna te tawpsanna ding hi.

(9) Mimal khatciat mawhpuakna:

Matna leh khumcipna a kihel thuneite thu sinsakna ah pimangna a pian lohna ding kidalna ding zia te hel ding hi. Pimangna ah kihel dingin thupiakna te nial theihna ding mawhpuakna leh hamphatna te hoihtak in sinsak dinghi. Pimangna ah a kihel mite pen tungsiah te thupiak (or) thunei tu te thupiakna bang a ka sep hi ci a kitha lepna (paulap zonna) pen kisang lo hi.

(10) Thukan sittelna (investigation)

Pimangna thu tawh kisai hekna ah kumpite in a kin thei pen in sulzuih in kantel ding hi. Thukanna ah a kimu khia thu leh la te mipi te theisak ding hi. Pimangna ah kihel kha ding a upmawh Ulian, thuneite pen tua hunsung a mawhpuakna pan in din khawlsak pak ding hi. Pimang na thuak mite' tanau te pen thukan sittelna pan muhkhiatna te theisak ding hi. A hektu te, mit a mu teci, thukham siam te leh thusitna a kihel mite vaulauna a thuak lohna ding un veng ding hi.

(11) Thukhen zum ah hekna:

Pimangna ah a kihel kha mite pen thukhen zum mai ah kipuak in thusitna kinei ding hi. Koi mun, koi mual a piang ahi zong in, kua gam mi a hizong in a kisai kha mi khempeuh in hunsawt ngak lo in thusit ding hi. Thusitna pen mipite a ding a kihong thukhen zum hi ding hi. A palsat mite pen thukham zui in khialhna thaman thuakna pan kipengsak kei hen.

(12) Zangna dopna:

Pimangna a om mite leh a ma lukhaina nuai a nungta mite in kumpi te tung pan zangna dopna ngen thei ding hi. Zatui zaha tawh etkolna leh kitun din kikna ding panpihna kipia ding hi.

(13) Mihing hamphatna thukimna laipi te kipsakna: (Leitung bup nasepna zui a nasepna)

Kumpi te in ICCPR leh thumeizom thukimna (Optional Protocol) sung a pimangna pan kidalna ding leh kipelh theihna ding tawh kisai mimal khatsim i hekna te bang a sep ding kihel leitung bup thukimna kipsak ding hi. Kumpi te'n pimangna tawh kisai leitung bup thukimna pen UN thu tangko bang in sem ding hi. Hih bang a sepna ah tua thu palsatna tawh kisai leitung bup pawlpi te lamlahna, kawk muhna te sang ding hi.

(14) Leitung bup mawhpuakna.

Pimangna omna gam ah kibawl kik theihna ding in kumpi te in lampi tuamtuam tawh sem ding hi. Pimangna a kiamna ding in a kisam nate, vante leh siamna, gal leh sa lungmuanna leh palik te sinsakna te nei ding hi. Mi khatpeuh a tung ah pimangna a thuak theihna ding gam ah kipuak teitei kei hen.



Article (10) ICCPR

(A)Suahtakna a kikhaktansak mite i mihing vang leh mihing hihna te zahtak sak ding hi.

(B)(i)A hun leh mun piak loh man cih loh in hekna thuak mite pen khialhna nei a thukhen satna thuak te tawh tuam koih in khialhna neilo bang in bawl ding hi.

(ii )Hekna thuak a kum cing nailo mite pen mi picingte tawh kituam koih ding a, a thubuai uh zong a kin thei pen in sittel sak ding hi.

(C) Tan inn (jail) sung ah kulhkhumna thuak mite hinkhua tunding kikna ding ngimna kinei in na kisem ding hi. Naupang te leh picing te a tuam in koih dinga, a mau tawh kituak ciat in ki-uk ding hi.

Khumcipna thuak mite'n zong hamphatna nei hi. Article (10) sungah khumcipna thuak mite hamphatna te in :-

(1)Mihing khat hihna hang in zahtak ding:

(2)Khialhna kimu khia nai lo mite khialhna thaman a khumcipna thuak mite tawh tuam koih ding:

(3)Nau pang te leh picing te khen in tuam koih ding:

(4)Khialhna hang a gawtna hilo in, kipuah phatna mun a zat a bawl ding:

Hilhcianna:

Khumcipna thuak mite pen hiamgamna, sisan naisan suahna, mihing bang lo a bawlna leh mihing vang a kiamsak thei te tawh bawl loh na ciangbek tawh kicing zolo hi. A maute pen mihing vai tak in zahtak ding ahihi.

Article (10) (1)

Hih sung a thu in khumcip mite bawlsiatna, kongkilh khum in hun sawtpi tak pualam lengla te tawh thuki zaksak lohna te pen tan-inn cing te'n a sep loh ding uh ahihi. Suahtakna khahsuah thongkia te pen a mau i vang zahtakna tawh mihing khat bang a bawl ding pen leitung bup thukham ahihi.

Article (10) (2)

Thusitna a thuak nai lo mite pen khialhna nei a thu khensatna kinei khin mite tawh gawm khawm lo ding hi. Ahangin a mau te pen khialhna nei hi cih muanhuai tak a kilah khiat theih hun mateng khialhna neilo in kisang ding hi. Naupangte pen lungsim ngeklai uh ahih man in gawtna, kosiatna leh a hoihlo gamtatna te a kilawh lohna ding in picing te tawh tuam koih ding hi.

Article (10) (3)

Thongkia mite pen sun niloh thong inn sung ah koihcip lo ding hi. Thu nei mite in thongkia mite a suahtak uh ciang in a nek zonna ding uh ngimna in nasep pantah ding uhhi. Naupang thong kia mite pen a mau kum tawh kituak in pilna sinsak ding hi.

Etkak thudang te:-

(i)Thong kia mite kepzia ding thukhun :

(ii)Naupang thongkia te tawh kisai zuihding leh kepzia ding UN thukham ( Peking Thukham)



Article (11) ICCPR

Mi khatpeuh thukimna om sa tung ah a ciampel man in man in khumcip thei lo ding hi.

Hih in a kikhaktan thei lo, a kinul mang theilo hamphatna ahihi.

Hilhcianna:

Mi khatpeuh a dang khialhna lian a neih kei leh cih loh ciampelna, thuman lohna bek leibat man bek in thong khum ding pen a kicing thu hilo hi.



Article (12) ICCPR

(A) Mi khempeuh in a mau gam i gam sung koi mun leh mual cih omlo in inn leh lo neih theihna, zin leh vak theihna neiciat hi.

(B) Mi khempeuh in a ma gam sung a hizong in, gam dang ah a hizong in zin khia thei ding hi.

(C) Gam mipi lungmuanna leh mipi thelthang lo in kihuai khopna ding (or) mipi cidamna ding (or) mipi gamtat hoihna ding venna ban ah midang te hamphatna leh suahtakna te khaktan lo ding ngimna tawh thukham bawlna cih loh a tung a hamphatna te kikhak tan kei hen.

(D) Gam ciah kik theihna pen thukham zui lo pi'n kikhak tan kei hen.

Mi khempeuh in hih a nuai a hamphatna te nei hi.

(i) A tenna gam sung ah a ma utna zui in zin leh vak theihna:

(ii) A ma gam sung ah koi mun cih omlo in ten theihna:

(iii)A ma utna zui in gam dang zin theihna (or) ciahkik theihna:

Hilhcianna:

Hih hamphatna te khaktanna ah thukham zui in kisem ding hi. Tua te in:-Gam leh minam bitna ding, mipi lungmuanna ding, mipi cidamna ding (or) gamtat hoihna ding leh midang te i hamphatna te vengbitna ding in ICCPR sung a om thu te tawh a kilehbulh lohna ding te ahihi.

Palik (or) lungmuanna sai galvan tawi pawlte i nungzuih det mi khat bang cih ding?

Nungzuih det a om mi khat in a zin leh vakna ah mimal suahtakna te a sum suak hi. A pumpi a kimat tang loh hangin a lungsim sung ah akgul mu bang gige in suahtakna omlo hi.



Article (13) ICCPR

Laipi dongta gamte kumpite in a mau gam sungah thukham phalna zui a hong lut mite pen thukham zui bek in hawlkhia kik thei ding hi. Tua bang hawl khiatna ah zong gam bup bitna ding tawh kisai thute bek hi ding hi. Hawlkhiatna thuak mite in tua thu pen enphakik ding in thunei mi (or) thunei te aitang a sem mite kiangah ngetna pia lut thei ding hi.

Gam dang mite pen thukham zuilo in gamsung pan hawl khia thei lo dinghi.

Hilhcianna:

"Hawlkhiatna" cih ciangin gam sungah hong lutkik nawn lohna ding in thupiakna ahihi. Gamsung kilemna ding ahihna a om kei leh tua hawlkhiatna thuak mite in tua thu etkikna ding ngen thei ding hi. Hawlkhiatna pen apna (thu neite tungah) tawh kikai-awk saklo ding hi. "Apna" i cih in mi khatpeuh thusit ding a hizong in, gawtna piak ding a hizong in, gam khat pan gam khat ah piak sawn na ahihi.

Tua hihleh galtai or gambel (refugee) mite bang cih ding? A mau ten hamphatna (rights) bang teng nei uhhiam?

ICCPR in hih thu tawh kisai bang mah genna nei lo hi. A hizong in mihing hamphatna khuavannuai tangkona (Universal Declaration of Human Rights) Article - (14) sung ah:-

(i) Mi khempeuh in bawlsiatna, nengniam gawtna tawh kipelhna ding in gam dang ah kibukna ding ngen thei hi.

(ii) Hih hamphatna in gamleivai tawh kisailo khialhna (or) UN ngimna leh thuguipi te langpanna hang a piang khialhna nei mite huam kha lo hi.

(iii)Mi khempeuh in gamdang ah kibuk theihna ding ngen thei ciat hi. A hizong in san ding leh phal ding pen kigelh lo hi.

Hilhcianna:

Gambel (galtai) ciaptehna thukimna (CR) sung ah "galtai (refugee)" cih a khiatna in :- " Minam, biakna, namphung, gamleivai upna leh pawlpi khatpeuh ah kihelna hangin bawlsiatna thuak ding cih kiten a hihman in gam pua lam ah tai khia in tua launa hangin gam ah a ciahkik thei lo mite (or) a ciah kik nuamlo mite" ci hi.

A nuai a thute ah bawlsiatna thuakkha ding cih ahihi.

(1)Minam vai

(2)Biakna vai

(3) Beh leh phung vai / namphung vai:

(4)Pawlpi ah kipawlna vai:

(5) Gamleivai upna te ah lunglauna hangin a mah gampan tai khia in gam ah ciakkik theihlohna (or) gam ciahkik utlohna te ahihi.

Khual leh tual etkai na mun ( Immagration ) te in kibukna ding ngen mikhat phalna piak theihna ding thu a neihloh uh hang in ICCPR ki zatna gam te ah hih Article (13) sung a kigelh venbitna te a mau gamsung ah zong piakding mawhpuakna nei uh hi. Gam dang khatpeuh in zong thusitna omlo pi in mi khatpeuh gamsung pan hawlkhiatna nei thei lo hi.

Thusiah pawlkhat (Reservations)

CR sungah mi khatpeuhin hih anuai a thu te ah kician tak in thulahna om hi cih a up te galtai (refugee) in sanglo in venbitna pia lo ding hi, ci hi.

(i) Kilemna susia khialhna lian khatpeuh nei te:

(ii)Galkap thukham te palsatna :

(iii)Mihing hihna langpan khialhna (crimes against humaninty)

(iv)Gamsung ah a om lai in gamleivai tawh kisai lo khialhna lian neihna : Gentehna in khamtheih guihtheih zuakna, mi thahna, numei sualna (rape) ----- cih te

(v)UN i ngimna leh thugui pi te langpanna ahihi.

Leitung bup minam kipawlna i galtai te tawh kisai Menzi zum

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)

Galtai mite leitung bup pang khawm a venbitna ding leh galtai te tawh kisai thukimna laipi leh thumei zom (protocol) te zui a nasepna a picing na ding in UNHCR kiphut khia hi.UNHCR i nasep te in:-

(1) A pualam mite i buluhna:

(2) Inn leh lo suhsakna a hizong in:

(3) A lauhuai thei nawngkai saknate hang in gam sung pan ut leh utloh thu hi lo a taikhia mite vengbit ding ahihi.

Tua bang vengbitna ah UNHCR in galbuaina (or) gamlei vai, khotang hinkhua, sumzonna khenglam dan na te hang in a kihem khia, inn leh lo taisan a lu ngakna ding neilo mite zong huamkha in vengbitna pia hi.

Vengbitna pen a nuai a lampi te zui in kisem ding hi.

(i)Galtai te tawh kisai thukimna laipi (CR) nasep na ah makaihna:

(ii)Gam ah ciahkik ut te puakkikna (or) mun khatpeuh a khosa kip ut mite a ding in kumpi a hilo pawlpi te (NGO's) (or) Kumpi te'n panpihna ding sepsakna:

(iii)Galtai mite mun leh mual piakna ah panpih ding (e.g neih leh lamte puahpihna)

(iv)Kumpi a hilo pawlpi te (NGO's) te leh kumpi te kitanau a pankhawmna:

(v)Galtai mite tutna khawlna tawh kisai NGO's te nasep a muingilna ding sepsakna:

Kibuk theihna ding cih in galtai mite a kibukna gam ah omlai theihna (or) bawlsiatna thuak kha thei ding a lunglau man na gam ah puakkik lo ding cihna ahihi.



Article (14) ICCPR



(A) Thukhen zum leh thusitna munte ah mi khempeuh tan kikim hi. Mi khempeuh in a ma tung a hekna leh thu khensatna piakna ding mun ah thukham tawh a kituak, a suakta leh maitang zahtak tuam a nei lo mipil misiam te tawh kiphuan thukhen zum ah thuman tak in mipi mai ah thusitna ngah thei ding hi. Gamtat khohekna, thukham vaihawmna (rule of law), democracy zui a kiphuan pawlpite leh pawl dongtate lungmuanna, (or) pawlpite phattuamna (or) mipi mai ah thusitna hang in thuman diktatnate susia kha dinmun te ah thukhen zum in thusitna khempeuh (or) khenkhat pen thu kizakna saite leh mipi ngaihkhiatna te khaktan thei hi. Ahizong in naupang kituhna innkuan vai cih loh khialhna dangte pen mipi zak theih ding in kibawl ding hi.

Mi khempeuh thuman thutang tawh thusit ding hi.

Kua mah peuh thukham tungah omlo ding hi. (No one is above the law)

Hilhcianna:

Thukhen zum mai ah kikimna:

Thukham in mikhem peuh ading hi a, mi khempeuh tungah a kibang in zat ding ahihi.

Thumanna tawh mipi mai a thusitna:

Hekna thuak mite leh a hek mite kikal ah tan kikimna a om theihna ding in thumanna tawh thusitna pen a kisam mahmah ahihi. Thuman tak a thusitna neih theihna ding in hekna thuak mite pen hih a nuai a venbitna te kipia ding hi.

(i) Khialhna nei hi cih kitel tak in a kilah theih ma teng mi khiallo bang in koih ding.

(ii) A kihekna pan in a kisutkik theihna ding in a kisam hun leh vante piak ding:

(iii)Thusitna thuak ma hun leh thusit hun sung in thukham siam mi cial thei ding:

(iv) A kisap leh kam let zonsak ding:

(v)Teci te thudot theihna leh a ma aitang in pantheihna:

(vi) Etphat kikna ding nget theihna:

Mipi thungaih khiat theihna thusitna i cih in:-

(i) Mipi kikaihkhop theihna mun leh hun hi ding:

(ii)Thu ngai ut mite ciangtan lo in mipi, gamdang pan in enkhia tute in thuman a hihna a san theih ding uh hi ding hi. Mipi te'n thu va ngai theilo ding cih khaktanna a om leh a hang kitel tak a lah ding kisam hi. Mipi theih ding in kilawm kei cih thu te in:-

(a) Mipi lungmuanna ding leh gam kipna ding kumpi te thusim ( official secrets):

(b) Zahmawh tawh kisai khangno te tung a bawlsiatna te ahihi.

Maitang zahtak neilo,thu tang gen thukhen zum:

Democracy tawh ki-uk gam te in thuneihna pen phualpi pan lencip lo in hawmzak den uhhi. Thukhenna (thukhen mangpi in) thukham zui a na sepna ah khawnbawlna Innpi (parliament) tawh a tuam vilvel in om ding hi. Kumpi te'n (vaihawm tu te'n) thukham pualam a na a sep uh leh zong a mau te'n thusit ding uhhi.

Thukhenna tawh kisai suahtakna pen gambup in zong thukim pih in gambup thukhunpi sungah gelhlut ding ahihi. Thukhenna nasep na ah kumpi te kigolh lut loh ding leh thukhen zum zong mipi te gawtna pia ding kumpi (vaihawmtu) palai a hihloh ding kisam hi. (Draff Declaration on the Rights to a fair Trail and a Remedy)

Thutang leh siangtho tak a thusitna in a kisusia theilo hamphatna a hihiam?

Hi lo hi. Kumpi te in Article (14) zui in gambup thukin kisap tangko leh tua Article sung a thu te kidin khawlsak theihi.



Gamsung gal (tualgal) a hih kei leh galvan tawi te kitom hun sung in hih hamphatna te a thupi mah hiam?

Thupi mah hi. Mihing hamphatna komiti (HRC) in hih thu tawh kisai in a nuai a bang in gelh hi:-

“Gam vaihawmtu te in gambup thukin kisap hun tangko ding in a khensat uh leh Article (14) sung a thute khaktan (dinkhawlsak) thei hi. Tua bang a sepna ah a piang taktak thute tung a kisam zah khengval sak lo in Article (14) (i) na sung a thute zahtak ding hi”.



Article (14) ICCPR (B) Khialhna nei a hekna thuak mi khempeuh in thukham sung a kiciamteh bang in khialhna nei taktak ahihlam kitel tak in a kilah khiat theih mateng mi khial lo in kikoih ding hi.

Khialna nei hi cih kitel tak in a kilah theihma teng mi khempeuh khialhna neilo in kiciamteh dinghi.

Hilhcianna:

Mihek tute i mawhpuak in hek a om mi pen khialhna nei hi cih limlahna (teci) lak khia ding ahihi. Upmawh thu bek tawh a hih leh liau sum pen hekna thuak mi kipia ding hi. Khialhna nei kha ding hi cih muanmawh thu bek tawh kicing lo hi. Mi khatpeuh bangzah tak in muanmawh huai in a om zong in gawtna piakna ding thu khensat ma in teci (limlahna) kician neih kisam masa hi.



Article (14) (3) ICCPR (C) Khialhna nei a thu khensatna thuak mi khempeuh in a niampen in hih a nuai a thute kicing tak leh kikim tak in ngahthei ding hi.

(i) Hek a omna thu leh la khempeuh leh thupai zia pen a ma theih kampau tawh a kicing in hilh ding hi.

(ii) A ma kivenna ding a kisam thudot ding leh vante a mah deihtel sak in hun a kicing a pia ding hi.

(iii ) Hun sawtpi tak koihcip lo in thusitna pia ding hi.

(iv) Thusitna ah a ma deih thukham siam (lawyer) lak theihna, tua bang a thukham siam cialna ding sum a kicing a neilo mite kumpi te'n cialsak ding gelsakna, tua bang a gelsakna te a mah theih sak ding:

(v) A lang mite limlaktu (teci) te thudotna a kineih mah bang in hekna thuak mite teci zong thu dong ding hi.

(vi) Thukhen zum a kizang kampau a theihkei leh kumpi te'n kamlet ding mi cialsak ding hi.

(vii) Utlo pipi thagum tawh dikmah hi (or) khialhna nei mah ing cihsak na neilo ding hi.

Hilhcianna

Article (14) (3)

(A) Hekna thuak mite pen bang thu hang a kiman hiam cih kintak a zaksak ding ahihi. Tua pen nipi kal hal hilo ding a ni hal bek hi ding hi. (Article - 9)

(B) Khialhna lian tawh hekna thuak mite in a kisut kikna ding a kisakkholh hun ding nai (48) in ki cing zolo hi. A kisam vante cih ciang in thukhen zum leh thukham siam (attorney) te panpihna, teci (limlahna) ding laikung laidal te zong huam vek hi.

(C ) Zekai ding a kilawm lo na pi a zekai sak thei thute in:-

(i)A lian mahmah leh a tangzai mahmah thubuai a hihna:

(ii)Palik, a hek mi leh thukhen zum te pangkhawm a nasep zia te:

(iii) Hekna thuak mite nasep zia:

(iv) Hekna thuak mite thusit hun ding ngak hun in kolbulhna a kineihloh man ahihi.

(D) Hekna thuak mite in thukhen zum ah a ma pumpi mah pai in thusitna ngah ding hi. Ama taang mi (or) lai in gelh in a hizong in thusitna kinei thei hi.

Hekna thuak mite thusitna ding mun, hun, ni leh kha te ki theisak napi a pai kei leh a mah omloh hangin zong thu khensatna kinei thei hi. A hizong in hekna thuak mite in a mah a dingin hun kicing lo hi (or) a mah thukhen zum pai na ding a khak sia om hi ci'n thu kician a lah theih leh thusitna ngen kik thei hi.

Hekna thuak mi te khatveina thu sitna hun ah a ma pumpi kah in ahi zong in, a ma aitang a thusung a ding a tel thukham siam (lawyer) zang in a hizong in thugen thei ding hi. Thukhen zum tawh kisai panpihna ngah loh hun ah:-

(a)Thudot cil hun a kipan thusit hun sung khempeuh leh etphat kik ding ngetna te ah thukham tawh kisai panpihna te ngahsak ding:

(b)Thahding a thu khensatna kipia thei ding thulian te ah thukham siam (lawyer) te cialna ding sum a kicing a neilo te kumpi te'n cialsak ding hi.

(F) Thusitna ah hekna thuak mite kiven bit theihna dingin a ma deih teci te' min leh thukham siam mite cialna ding a kisak kholhna ding a kisam hun te kipia ding hi. Thusit hun sung ah min gen ut lo, mit a mu teci te gen leh sak te zatna in hih thu palsat hi. A zenzen in hekna thuak mi in teci ding mi a muh zawh nai kei leh thusit hun ding khiin in a hizong in, mun khel in a hizongin teci ding a ngah theihna ding in sepsak ding hi. Tua bang a sepding a kiphal kei leh thu khenna buppi zong thumanna om nawn lo suak ding hi.

(G) A zenzen in thukhen zum a kizang kampau a theilo (or) a pau theilo mite a ding in kamlet ding mi kicial sak ding hi. Gamdang mi (or) gamsung mi (khual mi tualmi) in zong hih hamphatna ngah thei ciat ding hi. Thukhen zum a kizang kampau theihlohna (or) pau theihlohna in thubuai saina a ding in a thupi pen khat hi a, hekna thuak mi hamphatna zong khaktan hi.

(H) Mi khatpeuh a ma utna tel lo in teci ding a hizong in, thagum hatna zang in khialhna nei mah ing cih sak teiteina pen thukhen zum ah kisang lo ding hi. Hekna thuak mi in bang mah gen lo in dai dide a, a omna zong a khialhna hang a kizia phawk hi ci'n kila lo ding hi.



Article (14) ICCPR (4) A kumcing nai lo khangnote thu sitna paizia ah a mau kum tawh kituak in a mau bawlphat kikna ding ngimna tawh sem ding hi.

Hilhcianna

A kumcing nai lo te pen picing te bang in bawl lo ding hi. A maute a ding a tuam vilvel in gelsak ding hi.



Article (14) ICCPR (5) Khialhna nei hi cih thu khensatna thuak mi khempeuh in thusitna paizia leh thu khensatna te thukham tawh kituak a etphatkikna ding a sang zaw thukhen zum ah ngen thei hi.

Hilhcianna

Tua bang in a sang zaw thukhen zum ah thu khensatna etphatkikna ding a ngetna pen maitang zahtak tuam omlo in a kinthei pen in semsak ding hi. A beisa hun a thu khensatna omsa etphat kik hunsung in thu khensatna omsa zui a kipia ding gawtna thaman te kipia lo ding hi.



Article (14) ICCPR (6) Mi khatpeuh "khialhna nei hi" cih thu khensatna nunung pen khit ciang a piang thukhat peuhpeuh ah khialhna neilo hi cih kician (or) a diklo pi in thukhensatna omhi cih a kician leh tua mipen thukham tawh kituak in zangna dopna kipia dinghi.

Hilhcianna

Thu khensatna neih khit ciang in midik (or) thukham santheih zah a khialhna neilo a hihna a lak thei te ahizong in, thukhen zum te i kicin lahman a khialhna neilo pi mi khial banga thukhenna thuak mite'n a suahtak uh ciang in kumpi te tung ah zangna dopna ngen thei ding uhhi.



Article (14) ICCPR (7) Gam khatpeuh i thukham zui a thusitna nunung pen pan a suakta khin mi (or) khialhna thaman kipia khin mite pen thusit kikna (or) gawtna te kipia kik theilo ding hi.

Hilhcianna

Khialhna khat thaman ding in gawtna a thuap in kipia kei hen. A zenzen in gawtna ding thu khensat khit ciang in khialhna nei ahihna a dang teci a kilah thak theih hang in gawtna kipiak thuah theilo ding hi.



Article (15) ICCPR

(A) Mi khatpeuh gamtatna pen tua hunlai a gamsung thukham, leitung bup thukham te sungah khialhna a kiciamteh lo ahih leh khialhna nei hi ci'n hekna pen kisang lo ding hi. A zenzen in khialhna bawl khit nung ciang in thukham bawlphatna (amandment) a kikhiam kiam gawtna zong ngah thei ding hi.

(B) Mi khatpeuh gamtatna in tua hun a kizang leitung bup thukham sung a khialhna in a kiciap teh leh hih Article sung a kigelh thute pen thu sitna ah kua mah maitang zahlo ding hi.

Gamtatna khatpeuh ah tua hun a kizang thukham sung a khialhna a kiciamteh lo pen gawtna kipia thei lo hi. Hih pen a kikhaktan thei lo thu hi a, bang hun peuh ah zong kizukkik (dinkhawl) sak theilo hi.

Hilhcianna:

Hih Article ngimna masa a hih leh kumpi thak in a beisa hun a khialhna a kiciamteh lo pen khialhna a koihding a thukham thak gelhna pen dalna ahihi. Gentehna- Hun khatlai a thukham phalna tawh kiphuan nasem pawlpi a dongta mikhat in a hun leh mun zui a kikhel gamleivai nasepna ah a kihelna hang in tua pawlpi gawtnopna hang tawh thukham thak gelh in pawl dongta mite gawtna (matna) te ahihi.

A nihna ding in kumpi thak in khialhna thaman piak ding a thu khensat sa mite tungah a lianzaw leh a thuap a, a piak theihloh nang dalna ahihi.

Article (15)(2) pen gam kumpi te'n khialhna in a kiciamteh nai loh uh hang leitung bup thukham sungah khialhna a kiciamteh nasem mite gawtna piak theihna ding ngimna ahihi. ( Gentehna: Sila khawina, minam thah mangna, bawlsiatna cih te …..)



Article (16) ICCPR

Mi khempeuh in muntuam mualtuam cih omlo thukham mai ah mi khat a hihna theihpihna ngahthei ding hi.



Mi khempeuh te thukham venbitna ngah thei ding hi. Hih in a kikhaktan thei lo, a kizuk kik thei lo thu ahihi.

Hilhcianna:

Mipi te pen mipi i deihtel palai te gelh thukham nuai a om bek hi a, kumpi te (or) kumpi palai te khutnuai a om hilo hi. Tua bang in thukham i venbitna pen thukhen zum ah nget theihna, thu ngetna hang in thukhen zum in zong a kisapna zui a sepsak ding mawhpuakna nei hi.

A zenzen in hih hamphatna pen gamkhat i thukham in mimal te vengbitna piak ding nial leh bangcih ding?

Tua gam i thukham in leitung bup thukham palsat ahihi. Tua bang in leitung bup theihpihna leh zat thu bulpi te zong palsat ahihi. Tua bang hun ah nialna thuak mite in koi mun leh mual cih omlo in bitna ngen thei ding hi.



Article (17) ICCPR.

(A) Mi khatpeuh in mimal suahtakna, inn kuan vai leh laikhak te thukham phalna omlo in nawngkai sak lo dinghi. Tua banah mikhat i vaang leh min te zong kosiatna kithuak sakkei hen.

(B) Mi khempeuh in tua bang nawngkai sakna leh kosiatna te pan thukham panpihna tawh kiveng bit thei ding uhhi.

Hilhcianna:

Mi khat i mimal vai ah thunei tu te'n a suk nawngkaina a om leh thukham tawh kituak a kisem ahihna a lah ding kisam hi. Gentehna: Palik te sitna, zonna pen thukhen zum in tua bang sitna, zonna neih theihna ding phalna a piakna lai lak ding hi. Set van zang a etcik sulzuihna, telephone leh laikhak te lamlak a khaktan guk sepna te zong tua bang septheih nang phalna kipia te bek in sem ding hi. Tua bang ahih kei leh tua sepna pen tawpsan ding in thukhen zum ah ngen thei ding hi.

Tua bang nawngkaisak theihna ding in zong gamsung thukham gelhna pen ICCPR i ngimna leh leitung bup santheih thu hi ding hi



Article (18) ICCPR

(A) Mi khempeuh in suakta tak a ngaihsut theihna, suakta tak a up theihna, suakta tak a biak piak theihna te nei hi. Hih thuzui in ei deihtel biakna leh upna ah suakta tak in kisuan theihna, mimal (or) midang te tawh kipawl in a hizong in, a simtham in ahizong in i biakna leh upna thute suakta tak a sinsakna, biakpiakna, zuihna, phuhkhiatna te nei thei hi.

(B) Kua mahpeuh a ma biakna leh upna te a siasak (nusia) ding in kisawl teitei kei hen.

(C) Mipi bitna ding, thukham vaihawmna ding, mipi cidamna ding, mipi gamtat hoihna ding leh midang te suahtakna te venbitna ding in thukham tawh khaktanna cih loh mikhat i biakna, upna te tangkona ding suahtakna pen kikhak tan theilo hi.

(D) Hih laipi dongta gam sung a teng nu leh pa, naucing (kem) te in a mau ta leh nau te pen a mau upna tawh kituak in biakna vai leh gamtat khohekna tawh kisai siamsinna, biakna suahtakna te zahtak ding in mawhpuakna nei uhhi. Hih thu in a kikhak tan theilo, bang hun peuh a zong a kizukkik theilo hamphatna ahihi.

Hilhcianna:

Article (18)

(A) Biakna phuhna leh kisuanna in i up i san biakna pan a dang biakna ah kisuanna (or) biakna lui tawpsanna, biakna (upna) deihtelna ah suakta tak a deihtelna bulphuh ding cihna ahihi. Kumpi te phalna tawh biakna kiphut te in ICCPR sung a om hamphatna te susia kha lo ding hi. Tua bang phalna tawh kiphuh khia biakna ah a bialo mite zong khentuam lo ding hi.

(B) Upna khatpeuh nusia ding in thagum hanta zangin vauna, tua upna neih man in dai pua lam ah nawhkhiatna leh khentuamna te neihloh ding ahihi.

Biakna leh upna te hang a nengniamna leh khentuamna te beina ding thu tangko (The Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion (or) Belief) kam honna sung ah

" suakta tak a ngaihsutna, lunggelna, upna leh biakna te simmawh kosiatna in mihing te susia thei gal pen lam khat a hih kei leh lamdang khat pan in piangsak thei ahih man in santheih huai thu hilo hi". ci'n kigelh hi.

Suakta tak a biakpiakna, upnate zahtakna ding, theihsiamna neihna ding sangkhan (tawisang) ding kisam a, UN thugui pi te tawh kituak lo thute beisak ding kisam hi.

Hih Article (18) sung a hamphatna te i deihna in:-

(i) Mipi biakna leh biak inn lamna ding mun ngah theihna:

(ii) Man ngenlo a deihsakna tawh thupha bawl nasem pawlpi phuh khiatna:

(iii) Piakkhiatna te khon theihna leh zon theihna:

(iv)A kisapna munte ah biakna (or)upna thutawh kisai sinsakna, cialpi bawlna te neithei ding hi.

(v) Biakna tawh kisai khawmpi te suakta tak a bawl theihna:

(vi)Biakna leh upna tawh kisai gamsung gampua ah kizop pih neih theihna:

(C) Khaktanna bawlna ah :-

(a) Thukham zui in semding hi.

(b) Mipi bitna ding, thukham vaihawmna kipna ding, cidamna ding, gamtatna leh midang te hamphatna kepbitna ding ngimna hi ding:

(c )Khentuamna, nawlkhinna, gakcipna leh a dang bawlsiat utman ngimna te hi lo ding:

Kumpi te in khentuamna leh bawlsiatna beina ding ngimna tawh na sepna ah thukham tawh kituak in sem ding hi. "Gamtat hoih" cih kammal i khiatna pen genciat ding baihlo hi. Leitung kiukhat a gamtatna hoih a kiciamteh khat in kiumong khat ah a hoihlo leh a kilawm lo pi hi thei hi. Cihnopna in minam a tuam mah bang in ngeina zong tuamciat a, tua ngeina kisin sakna ah minam khat a ding a kilawm leh a hoih khat pen minam dang te a ding in hoih khin khollo thei hi. Mihing hamphatna komoiti (HRC) in a genna ah “gamtat hoihna ding in biakna leh upna tawh lamlah sinsakna ah zuihding thukham bawlna ah minam te i ngeina te bulphuh lo in tua biakna leh upna i thugui pi te bulphuh ding hi" ci hi

Article (18) (4)

Naupang te pen nu leh pa, naucing (kem) tu te santheih biakna thute bek kihilh ding hi. A nu leh pa, naucing (kem) te i deihna te tawh kituak lo biakna thute hilh teitei na kinei kei hen. Tua ban ah naupang te in midang te tawh kitheih siamna, lungduaina, itna leh midang te i biakna leh upna te suaktakna te tung ah zahtakna lungsim a neih theihna ding in thu hilh ding hi.



Article (19) ICCPR

(A) Mi khempeuh in a nawngkaisak omlo in a mau ngaihsutna te suakta tak in pulak theihna nei hi

(B) Mi khempeuh in suakta tak in genkhiat theihna nei hi. Hih thu in gamgi omlo in thu leh la, ngaihsutna tuamtuam te suakta tak a zon theihna, san theihna, hawpsawm theihna te pen kam tawh ahi zong in, lai tawh gelh in ahi zong in, limlahna leh ei deih pen vanzat (media) pan sem thei hi

(C) Hih Article khenvui (2) a kigelh hamphatna te zatna ah sepding mawhpuakna tawh kizom pah hi. Tua ahih man in kisapna munte ah thukham tawh kituak in khaktanna kinei kha thei hi. Tua bang nasepna ah:-

(i) Midang te hamphatna leh vaang zahtakna hang in ahi zong in:

(ii) Minam bitna, thukham vaihawmna, mipi cidamna leh gamtat hoihna ding a kisem nate hang hi ding hi.

Hilhcianna:

Suakta tak a genkhiat theihna i cih in minam khantonna ding, gam khantohna ding a kisam pen ahihi. Suakta tak a genkhiat theihna in a manlo pi midangte thugenna, a min leh vaang uh kosiatna hi lo ding hi. Septheihna (Phalna) ah sepding leh seploh ding i bukkim siam ding kisam hi. Minam kihuatna ding a tangkona pen hamphatna (rights) khat in kisang lo hi.

Gam kumpi te in a kisapna zui in hih anuai a thute tawh kisai khaktanna neithei uhhi.

(i) Midang te hamphatna, vang te vengbitna ding:

(ii) Minam leh gam bitna ding:

(iii)Mipi cidamna (or) gamtat hoihna ding:

(iv)Gambup kilemna leh muanna omna ding cih thu te ahihi.

Thu kizakna suahtakna pansan in mimal khat ciat i suahtakna leh hamphatna pen bang ci hiam cih kigen thei hi. Thu kizakna pan kumpi nasem te'n a nasep te uh mipi tungah hilhcianna ding leh kumpi te thulet thuguipi (policy) te dotna kinei thei hi.



Article (20) ICCPR

(1) Gal pianna ding a galphot tangkona te thukham tawh khaktan ding hi.

(2) Minam, beh leh phung, biakna te muhsiatna ding hanthot thugenna te thukham tawh khaktan ding hi.

Hilhcianna:

UN i ngimna thuguipi te in :-

(1) kilemna vengbitna ding leh ngahna ding,

(2) gam khat leh gamkhat kitanau na a khan semsem na ding,

(3) leitung bup kipawl khawm a nasep khop theihna'ng cih te hi a, tua te tungtawn in UNO kiciamna (charter) ah eima pumpi kidalna ding cih loh thagum zang a gamtatna te kikham hi. Gal piangsak thei ding hanthotna in UNO i ngimna te siasak in thukham pua lam gamtatna ahih man in gam khat leh gam khat kibuluhna piangsak hanthotna te khaktan ahihi. Gam khat leh gamkhat kikal a buaina te zong thudam ladam tawh saiveng ding in UNO in hanthon hi.

UN kiphuh khitciang in gal piang semsem in galvan zong hoih semsem a nisim cihphial in kidona te ah mihing luang leh ban bei zong tawmlo hi. Thagum zang lo in thudam tawh UNO in bang na sem in bang mun ah lawhcin na nei hiam?

Leitung bup minam kipawlna thucin sai innpi (UNGA) in a vanglian thuneihna nei kumpi khat hilo hi. UNO kivaipuak zia zui in UNGA thu khensatna te ah Leitung bup bitna muanna sai kawnsi (UNSC) thu kimpihna ngahkhit ciang bek in maban kisawn thei ahihi. Tua UNSC ah tawntung dongta gam (permanent member) pen gam(5) om te lak pan gam (1) thukim lo in veto thuneihna zang leh tua thu khensatna pen mainawt thei nawn lo hi.

UN in thu leh la a kituak lo leh ci tuamtuam nei gam te tawh kiphuh khia ahihi. Thukim milmialna tawh bang mah kisem thei lo hi. Tua hi a, a tang pi a gen in UNO mawhna hilo hi. UNGA nasep ding a khaktan mihing hamphatna a palsat dongta gamte i mawhna ahihi.

Tua a hih leh UN in bang thuneihna nei nawn ding ahi hiam?

UNO kiciamna (charter) khenpi (7) na ah kilemna lingsak thute, kilemna susia thute leh gamkek buluhna thute ah nakpi tak a nasep theihna ding thuneihna pen Leitung bup bitna muanna sai kawnsi (UNSC) ki-ap hi. Leitung bup kilemna leh bitna thute a susia thei ding thu a piang hun ciangin UNSC in hih a nuai a na te a banban in sem thei ding hi.

Kalbi (step) (1) Akihel kha gam thuneite kiangah thudam ladam in sai veng ding ngen ding: A zenzen in a lawhcin kei leh-

Kalbi (step) (2) Tua thubuai tawh kisai ah gam kumpi te zuih ding thute kician tak in thukhun sak ding: A zenzen in a kilawh cin kei leh:-

Kalbi (step) (3) Thubuai tawh kisai kha gamte in tua buaina gam te tung ah galvan zang lo in sai veng na ding hanthon ding, galvan lo tawh nasep na lampi te tawh sai veng ding hanthotna leh ngetna neiding (Gentehna: sumlei sum zuakna pan khaktanna, (kumpi) gam palai kizopna tawpsanna): A zenzen in hih bang sepna tawh lawhcing lo in buaina lian semsem in gamkek buluhna zah a lian ding dinmun a tun leh :-

Kalbi (step) (4) Thu buainei gamte in a mau bek (or) kipawl khawm in a hizong in a mau kivenna ding in na sem thei uhhi. Tua bang sepna in gamkek buluhte hawlkhiat kikna ding a gam dang te kiang ah huhna ngetna ahihi. Tua bangna sepna a kilang pan leh:-

Kalbi (step) (5) Leitung bup kilemna kep cingna ding leh ngahkikna ding UNSC in a kisapna zui in huihkhua galkap (air force), tuitaw galkap (navy) leh leilam galkap (army /land force) te zang in sem thei hi.

UN in thu buai nei gam te deihna leh cialna te a om ciang bek in va kigolh lut pan hi. Hih mun ah "gal" kici in leitung bup a buaisak galpi hi a, "kilemna" kici in leitung bup kilemna ahihi. Gam khat i gamgi dung a buaina in lian semsem leh tua gam bek tawk kisai nawnlo in a kisai kha mun leh mual kilemna (regional peace) leh bitna a lingsak khak ciang in UNO in nasem thei pan hi.

Gam kumpi te in gam bup thuneihna sang pen ( Sovereingty Power) mittaw sialkhau let in gam dang te kiang ah no tawh kisai te bek sem un a ci thei hiam?

UN kiciamna (Charter) thukhil (article 2 (7)) sung ah i gam sung thukham sep theihna huam sung a om buaina te ah UNO kigolh lut in na sep theihna ding thuneihna kipia lo cih a kigelh hang in Vienna thu tangkona Article (4) sungah mihing hamphatna te sangkhanna ding leh vengbitna ding pen leitung bup tawh kisai thu ahihi. ( I gam sung a om mipi te hamphatna leh suahtakna te a khaktan gamte in "thuneihna sangpen (sovereingty) " cih kammal tawh paulam piak ding hi thei nawn lo hi.

Mihing hamphatna in gamgi neilo a hihmah bang in tua hang a piang thute zong gam khat bek in supna, metna hi lo hi. Minam vai khentuamna namkim beina ding leitung bup thukimna laipi (ICERD) nuai ah kumpi te in minam khentuamna beina ding in panla ding hi. A diak in hih a nuai a thute pen khialhna in ciamteh in gawtna pia ding hi. Tuate in:-

"Minam muhsiatna ding hanthotna, minam, beh leh phung kibang lo te muhdahna hang in thagum zatna, minam vai a khengval a nasepna ding panpihna piakna te" ahihi.

Article (21) ICCPR

Thudam tawh kikaih khop theihna pen thukim theihpihna piak ding ahihi. Midang te hamphatna leh suahtakna, thukham vaihawmna, mipi cidamna, mipi bitna (lungmuanna) , gamtatna hoihna ding ngimna a Democracy tawh kisai thukham zui a khaktan na cih loh hih ham phatna te kikhak tan thei lo ding hi.

Hilhcianna:-

Suahta tak a kikaih khop theihna in suakta tak a pulak theihna mah bang in Democracy a ding in a zungpi khat ahihi. Tua ahih man in hih hamphatna pen kikhak tan theilo hi. A zenzen in khaktanna a kineih leh zong:-

(i) Thukham tawh kituak hi ding:

(ii) Democracy zungpi a ding a kisam hih a nuai a thute tawh kituak ding hi.

Tua te in:- Lauhuaina pan lungmuanna, thukham vaihawmna,mipi cidamna leh lungsim gamtatnate ah midang hamphatna te susia ding munte ahihi.



Article (22) ICCPR

(A) Mi khempeuh in mimal metna (phattuamna) dingin midang tawh suakta tak a kizop theihna, nasem pawlpi phuhkhiat theihna leh dongta (member) mi a kihel theihna te nei hi.

(B) Mi dang te' suahtakna leh hamphatna, gam leh nam bitna, thukham vaihawmna, mipi cidamna, gamtatna te hoihna ding in Democracy tawh kisai thukham zui a khaktanna cih loh hih hamphatna te kikhak tan kei hen:

(C) Suakta tak a pawlpi phuhna leh suakta tak a cialpi bawl theihna te venbitna ding in 1948 kum a leitung bup nasem pawlpi (ILO) khawmpi lian a thu khensat thu guipite sukha ding, a tung a hamphatna a siasak thei ding leh thukham siasak thei ding nasep theihna te gam thunei te tungah hih Article in thu neihna kipia lo hi.

Mi khatpeuh in a ma utna zui in pawlpi khatpeuh dongta in lut thei ding hi.

Hilhcianna:

"Ngasa in a tam sih pih, mihing in a tam nuntak pih" cih mah bangin mihing te pen kipawl khop ciang in thahat hi. Suakta tak a pawlpi phuhna in gammite a ding in phattuamna omna ding kumpi te buaisakna tawh kipelh ding hi. Khaktan theihna ding pen Article (21) sunga kigelh bang ahihi.

Suakta tak a pawl phuh theihna i cih in:-

(i) Nasem mite leh nasem neitu mi khempeuh in pawlpi phuh theihna:

(ii) Tua pawlpi te a mau leh a mau kivaihawm theihna:

(iii) Leitung bup nasem pawlpi tawh kizom in nasep khop theihna:

(iv) Kumpi te'n pawlpi te phiatmangna leh khaktanna te seplohna:

(v) Pawlpi langpan mite pan kidalna:

(vi) Kipawl khawm a sum lei sum zuak theihna:

(vii)Deihna lahkhiat theihna:

(viii)Pawlpi in suakta tak a nasep theih nang in a kisam pen a hi mipi te mungpi suahtakna cih hamphatna phungvuhna te kihel hi.

Etkak thudang te:

(1) Sumlei sumzuakna, khotang hinkhua leh ngeina tawh kisai leitung bup thukimna laipi (ICESCR) sung ah hih a nuai a thute khaktan theihloh, kiamsak theihloh hi ci'n kigelh hi.

(i) Pawlpi tuamtuam phuh theihna:

(ii) Suakta tak a kivai hawm theihna:

(iii) I deihna te pen gamsung thukham phalna zui a sep theihna te ahihi.



Article (23) ICCPR

(1) Innkuan i cih in mihing te a ding in a etlawm leh a kisam mahmah hi a, mihing pawlpi te leh gam bup pan venbitna ngah thei ding hi.

(2) A khangcing numei leh pasal te’ i nupa suahna, inn leh lo suan theihna te pen thukim theihpih ding hi.

(3) Lawm kingai lia leh tang te i utna lungsim taktak omlo in kitenna kibawl kei hen.

(4) Hih laipi dongta gamte in lawm kingai lia leh tang te kitenna leh kikhenna te ah goutan kikim sak ding hi. Naupang kepna ding in a kibang in mawhpuakna kikim nei uh ahihna thu ki khung ding hi.

Mi khempeuh in i it i ngaihte tawh kiten theihna om hi.

A kiteng nupa te in hamphatna leh mawhpuakna kikim nei uhhi.

Hilhcianna:

Innkuan in vengbitna ngahthei ding hi.

Gam kumpi khat i piak vengbitna te in khotang hinkhua, sumlei sumzuakna, ngeina, gamleivai leh pupa tawndan te kibatloh man in a kilamdan na om thei hi. Ahi zong in vengbitna khempeuh nu leh pa (sex) kituam man in kideidan lo ding hi.

Kitenna leh Inn leh lo suanna:

Inn kuan khat suanna ding leh ta leh nau neihna ding ah midang te thukimna ngah ding zong kisam hi. A hizong ih hih thu pen mite thukimna ( nu leh pa thu omlo in) bek in kisang theilo hi.

Suakta tak a deihtelna:

Lawm kingai te zuthawl piakna kinei masa ding uhhi. Tua khit ciang in kitenna pia thei mite mai leh moliah ( mo nung zui ) te mai ah a mau mimal thukimna genkhia ding hi. Thusiah khat in kitenna bawlna mun ah mo nu (or) mo pa khat zawzaw a pai theih lohna a om leh a ma aitang in midang palai khat in semthei hi.

Goutan leh mawhpuakna kikimna:

Hih in inn leh lo, innsung vanzat, naupangte siamsinna, neih leh lam te zatna zekna cih bang in sep theihna kikim ahihi. Gam kumpi te in kitenna leh kikhenna te ah a langtuak in hamphatna leh mawhpuakna a kikim in nei uh a hihna pen thukham bawl ding kisam hi. Kikhenna hun ah pasal te cinlahna te maisakna pia in, numei te cinlahna te ah mawhsiat in khenna (makna) pen hih thu palsat ahihi.



Article (24) ICCPR

(A) Naupang te pen minam, ci leh sa, a nu a pa, biakna, beh leh phung, neih leh lam, gamleivai leh lunggelnate hang tawh khentuamna omlo in a khang cing nailo hun ah a ngah ding ua kilawm venbitna te a mau innkuan sung leh gambup pan in ngah thei ding uhhi.

(B) Naupangte a suahkhit uh ciang in min phuak in gambup nau min khumna laibu sung a minpia ding hi.

(C) Naupang no khempeuh gam mi khat suah theihna nei hi.

Naupang khempeuh in ngaihsakna leh kintak a etkolna ngah thei ding uhhi.

Hilhcianna:

(A) ICCPR in naupang te kepcing zia ding tawh kisai in thukhun pawlkhat nei hi. (Gentehna:- Article (6) ah naupang te thahna pen kiphal lo hi. Article (10) sungah thong inn ah picing te tawh koih khawm loh ding leh Article (14) sungah thusitna ah mipi mai thusit loh ding) Bang teng a hizong in hih thute sepna ding ah bang ci sep ding cih ICCPR in genlo hi. Gamsung a om naupang te kisapna zui in kumpi te in a hoih thei pen ding a gel ding ahihi. Tua bang sepna ah naupang suakcil sihna, tha a piangsak an kham zawhlohna te kiamna ding kihel ding hi.

(B) Min khumna laibu in naupang gukna leh zuakna te a beina ding ngimna nei ahihi. Tua banah hih min khumna pen naupangte nu leh pa in kitenna kician a neih leh neihloh thu tawk kisailo ding hi.

(C) Naupangte gam leh lei neihloh man in mihing pawlpi te leh kumpi te etkolna a kiamna ding pan ven ding ahihi. Tua ban ah naupangte zong gammi ngah theihna pen mi khempeuh a ding a hihna lahna zong ahihi.

Naupangte hamphatna tawh kisai thukimna laipi (Convention of Child Rigths - CRC)

Hih laipi sungah naupang te a ding a kisam hamphatna te thupi sak hi. Laipi dongta gam te in naupang te hamphatna vengbitna ah a nuai a bang in sep ding hanthawn hi.

(1) Naupangte lungsim leh pumpi natsakna leh nawlkhinna, zahmawh tawh kisai nopnehna leh metbawlna pan venbitna ding:

(2) A cidam lo naupangte kem ding, cidamna leh siamsinnate ah lapsangna ding:

(3) Naupangte vengbitna ding sepna, cidamna tawh kisai khanlawh sakna, nausuak cil a si a tawm zawk na ding gelna:

(4) Siamsinna pen a man omlo in sinsan teitei ding hi:

(5) Sum leh pai vai ah zawhthohna (zekhemna) tawh metbawl loh ding:

(6) Zahmawh tawh kisai in zawhthoh bawlna leh naupang te kicing takna ding a siasak thei sumzonna te pan venbitna:

(7) Kum (15) nuai lam naupang mite galkap ding a kaihkhopna pan khaktanna:

Gambup kumpi te in hih laipi sung a om thute mipi te tungah kitheih nang in sem ding hi.

Vienna Thu tangko:

1995 kum malam a leitung gamte in kipsakna suai a kaih khit naupang te hamphatna tawh kisai thukimna laipi (CRC) sung a thute zui ding in Article (21) sungah hanthawn hi. Naupang te venbitna pilvang tak in sepna ah:-" Numei note, tagah naupang te, a vakthap naupang te, sumzonna ding a zahmawh a ki zatsak mite (kizuakna, pumpi zuakna),AIDS nei naupang note, galtai leh lal kawikawi naupang note, gal kidona hang a haksatna thuak naupang note, mat leh hen na thuak naupang note leh kial leh tak, khua hun siatna hang a haksatna thuak naupangte" vai thu ngaihsut masak a neih ding hanthon hi.

A nuai a thute dalna ding na sepna ah nakpi tak a panlak ding zong kisam hi:-

" Naupang note thahna, nat leh sat ngah theihna mun ah naupang no te nasep sawlna, naupang te zuakna, numei no te sum zonna ding a zahmawh zuaksakna, naupang te lim kilawm lo lahna, zahmawh tawh kisai nopnehna leh a dang lampi tuamtuam tawh gawtna" ahihi. (Article (48)

Article (25) ICCPR

Gam mi khempeuh in:-

(A) Tangpi tangta in kumpi nasep na ah ei ma pumpi a hizong in, suakta tak leh siangtho tak a kitelna pan a ngah palai mite tung pan a hizong in kihel in nasem thei ding hi.

(B) A khangcing mi khempeuh in eima deihna zui in a suakta leh siangtho kitelna ah kivawk lut theihna leh simtham mee (vote) piak theihna neiciat hi.

(C ) Ei gam sungah tangpi tangta leh kumpi nasep na munte ah a kibang in sep theihna nei ciat hi.

Mi khempeuh in i tenna gam sung gamleivai nasep na ah kihel theihna neiciat hi.

Hilhcianna:

Hih in thuman lo pi tawh khaktanna, mi pawlkhat bek liatsak ding khamna ahihi. Khaktanna te zong a nuai a thu leh la mun te bek ah kibawl ding hi.

(i)Kumpi na sepna ah galvan tawi mite a ding in mun piakna:

(ii) Mipi deihtel palai te thunei tu te'n hepkhiatna:

(iii) Damsung panmun len ding a ciaptehna munte bek ah kisem thei ding hi.



Article (26) ICCPR

Mi khempeuh pen thukham mai ah kikim kibang vek hi a, khentuamna omlo in thukham i venbitna a kikim in ngah thei ciat ding hi. Minam, ci leh sa, paukam, biakna, gamleivai leh lunggel upna khatpeuh, khanggui, beh leh phung, neih leh lam, nampi namneu leh thu dang khatpeuh tawh khentuamna thuakna te pan kumpi te' vengbit na a kikim in ngah thei ciat ding hi.

Mikhempeuh in khentuam deidanna te ah thukham venbitna ngahthei ding hi.



Hilhcianna

Hih Article in mi khenkhat leh pawl khat bek deihsak tuamna khak cip hi. 1978 kum a minam leh mi namvai vei luatna tawh kisai thu tangko na sungah;

"Kumpi te’n zong hih Article 26 sung a thute bulphuh in thukham gelh ding uhhi. Minam leh namphung khatpeuh in ci leh sa, nu leh pa (sex), minam, beh leh phung leh khanggui khat leh khat pianna khang thu ah vanglian vang neu, sang hi niam hi, cih thute thu guipi in zat luatna pen mihing vang, mihing vai a lungsim neihna leh gamtat khohekna te tawh kileh bulh bik bek hi.”

"Khang tangthu sung ah a ki banglo thunei tute i go leh gamh hoihlote hang in sumzon na, khotang hinkhua, gamleivai, ngeina te ah kikim lohna (kibuk tuahlohna) leh kikhiat luatna hang a piang minamvai khentuamna in khial hi"

A tom in cileng - minam leh namphung khat in a dang te sang in vangpha zaw hi cihna pen thu bul leh bal nei lo bek hilo in tua thu meilet a minam vai veina zong thudik lampi hilo hi.



Article (27) ICCPR

Minam, biakna, pau ki banglo minamte tenna gam leh munte a teng mite in a dang minam te tawh ngeina kisim tuah theihna a hizong in , biakna leh paute zat theihna, hilh theihna te khaktan in kikham theilo ding hi.

Minam tawmte in zong a mau zia leh tong, lim leh ciaptehna te tawh minam dang te bang in tangdin thei ding hi.

Hilhcianna.

Minam tawmte tawh kisai leitung bup thukim in ciaptehna a om nai loh hang in hih mun a, a deihna in :

(i) Namdang te tawh kibanglo ding.

(ii) Namdang te thuneihna khazakna nuai a om lo ding.

(iii) Amau te in zia leh tong, lim leh ciaptehna leh ngeinate a tuam in kepcing utna nei minam hi ding.

(iv) Nam dangte sang in mihing malzah tawmzaw ding.

Tua mah bang in hih sung a venbitna piakding mite in ngeina kibang (paipi), biakna, lai mungpi leh pau (a tangpi) kibang zang te hi ding hi. Hih bang venbitna hang in tua minam tawmte lak ah ngeina, biakna, lai leh pau, khotang hinkhua, zia leh tongte khangcing sak in khangto sak ding hi. Tua bang mah in mihing honpi nuntakna zong khangto sak ding hi.

A dang etkak thute:

1. Nambup beimang ding ngimna tawh thahna pan venna leh gawtna piak ding thukimna laipi (Convention of the Prevention and Punishment of the Crimes of Genocide, GC)

Hih pen 1946 November 10 ni a thu khensat No. 96 (1) leh 1948 kum a kizo siang thukimna zui in leitung bup thukham nuai a leitung bup tawh kisai khialhna in UN in ciapteh hi.

Thu khensat No. 96 (1) sung ah: -

Nambup beimang ding ngimna tawh thahna cih kammal tawh kisai: -

"Buaina khempeuh phial ah minam tawmte pen nambup beimang na ding a thahna ah thang antah in kizang (hi thei) zel hi." (Minority Rights.)

GC sung a nambup cimang ding a thahna kammal i khiatna in-

(i) Tangpi tangta thahna.

(ii) Mipi te lungsim leh pumpi gentheih natsakna.

(iii) Tangpi tangta, mihon khenkhat te i pumpi nuntakna siatna ding ngimna tawh na sepna:

(iv) Nau suksiatna :

(v) Naupang te pimangna (kidnapping= gukmangna) te huam kha hi.

Hih mun ah minam khat, namphung (minam tawm) biakna khatpeuh a vekpi in ahi zong in, sehkhen khat ahi zong in suksiatna leh suksiat ding ngimna a gen nuam ahi hi.

Nambup beimang ding a thahna in leitung bup tawh kisai khialhna (International Crimes) hi a, a palsat mimal, kumpi leh pawlpi te thusit in thaman piakding ahi hi. Hih bang khialhna neite a kituak thaman a kipiak theihna dingin gam kumpi te in UN ah a kisam huhna ngen thei ding hi.

2. Siamsinna munah khentuamna langpanna laipi (Convention against Discrimanation in Education)

Hih laipi in minamte a dingin a mau pianken kampau leh lai tawh pilna a sin theihna ding uh lampi honsakna a hihi. Naupang khat pen naupang dangte tawh tan kikim in siamsinna neisak ding hi. Siamsinna kibatna in minam tawmte khantohna lam ah masuan theihna ding kongpi a hihi.

3. Minam vai khentuamna namkim beina ding tawh kisai leitung bup thukimna laipi

International Convention on the Elimination of all form of Racial Discrimanation -ICERD)

Gam kumpi in hih laipi (ICERD) ah letmat a thuh khit uh ciang in minam muh siatna (huatna) a piangsak thei ding lunggel upna, kammal te leh na sepna te pen khialhna (crimes) a ciapteh ding mawhpuakna nei uhhi. Tua mah bangin minam te kikal ah ki-itna, kitheih siamna te a khan na ding lam tuamtuam tawh pan a lak ding uh mawhpuakna nei uh hi.

4. Suahtakna ngah gamte sung a tualsuak minam leh namphung te tawh kisai thukimna laipi (Convention concerning Indigenous and Tribal people in Independent Countries- CITIC)

Namphung (minam tawm) te in gamkhat sung a mihing honpi tawh kisai ( te i sehkhen khat) a hih uh hangin a maute i ngeina, pu leh pa tawndan, kampau te pen gambup huamsung a om minam te tawh kibang lo hi. Hih laipi zui in leitung bup thukham nuai ah minam tawh kisai mimal deihtel khensat theihna ( self-determination) pen a mau te a ding in zat phal hilo hi.

Tualsuak minam (Indiginous people) i cih in :

(i) Gamkek buluhte tunma hun, tang lai hun a kipan tua mun a teng minamte:

(ii) A mau leh a mau gamkek buluh te o'pkhumma hun in minam (picing) khat a kingaihsun mite:

(iii) Kua mah peuh i vaihawm khumna thuaklo a kingaih sun mite:

(iv) A maute i ngeina, ngeina paizia (ngeina thukham) te a kipan thu khenzia te a mau tenna mun leh mual a kizat suakna ding in khangthakte tungah thu kiluah suksak mite; ci'n kilet khia hi.

Leitang vai buaina:

Leitung bup ah tualsuak minamte tuahkhak (phutkhak) buaina in leitang vai ahihi. Pupa gou leh gamh leitangte khahsuahna, tanglai pek a kipan a neih det uh leisung gamsung sumpiang van supnate hang in tualsuak minam te'n nuntakna kisiatna, ngeina manthatna cih thu te phukha hamtang uh hi.

International Labour Organization (ILO- 196 ) ah a nuai a bangin gelh hi.

(i) Minam tawm (namphung) te leh mipi te a ding in leitang neih theihna:

(ii)A maute gam sung leikiak hauhsakna te venbitna theihna:

(iii)Tua minam te (A maute) mun leh mual suankhiatna (suhsakna) pan venna.

(iv) Thuneu thulian ah ngaihsutna kuppih ding in a maute zong sapna:

(v)Gamkek buluhna te pan a kilawm bang in venbitna leh gawtna piakding:

5. Minam, namphung, biakna, kampau tawh kisai minam tawmte mimal hamphatna thu tangko (Declaration on the Rights of Persons belonging to national (or) Ethinic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities, 1992.

Hih laipi sung ah minam tawmte hamphatna a nuai a bangin kicing tak in ki gelh hi.

(i) Ngeina te lungkim tak a sepna:

(ii) Biakna upna te zuih theihna leh hilhtheihna

(iii) Kampau te suakta tak leh tangzai tak a zatna:

(iv) Mimal in ahi zong in ,mihon in ahi zong in suakta tak a ten khopna, nawng kaisakna leh khentuamna te tawh kipelhna:

(v) Minam vai namphung (minam tawm ) tawh kisai thute khensatna ah mun leh mual huam in a hi zong in, gambup huam in a hi zongin kihel theihna te ahihi.

Gambup kumpi te in a nuai a thute panlakna ah makai ding hi.

(i) Minam tawm (namphungte) thukham mai ah khentuamna omlo in a kikim hamphatna tawh a maute hamphatna ngah theihna ding.

(ii) Minam tawm namphung ten in a mau gamtatna ah gamsung leh leitung bup san theihloh ding te sim loh a maute neih tuam ngeina tawisang theihna ding:

(iii) Minam tawm namphung te pianken kampau te hoihtak a sin theihna ding gelsakna:

(iv) Minam tawm namphung te tangthu khanggui, lai leh ngeina tawh kisai siamsinna te sinna, pholhkhiatna te ah panpihna:

(v) Minam tawm namphung te gambup khantohna ah mong (kiu) khat ah a kihel theihna ding uh lampi honsakna te ahihi.

6. Vienna Thu tangko:

"Gam kumpi te in leitung bup thukham zui in khentuamna omlo leh kikimna thuguipi bulphuh in tualsuak minam te hamphatna leh mungpi suahtakna te zahtakna ding gelna nei in a ki banglo a maute ngeina leh mihon kivai puakna manphatna te zahtak sak ding hi." Article-20

7. A lal kawikawi nasem mite leh a mau innkuan i hamphatna te venbitna ding tawh kisai leitung bup thukimna laipi ( International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrants Workers and Members of their Families)

Hih laipi sungah ICCPR sung a om hih a nuai a thute kip kho sak hi. Tua te in:-

(i) Mipi leh tangpi tangta in gamsung pan nawh khiatna pan venbitna:

(ii) Minam khentuamna omlo in khasum leh thaman, na sepna munte a kibang piakna:

(iii) Nasep thaman sum, van leh a khawlsum te uh a mau te kipatna gam ah khak theihna:

(iv) Mundang gamdang tung nasem mite ngeina tuam neihna te pen zahtak sakna cih te ahihi.

Theihding: Hih laipi pen kipsakna ding a kisam gamte i thukimna kingah nailo ahih man in hihna nei nailo hi.(kizang nailo hi.)

ICCPR laipi i Article - (28-53) sung te in mihing hamphatna komiti (HRC) i zuih ding thukham leh ukna nei kumpi te vaihawm ding zia a nonel in kilak (gelh) khia ban ah laipi dongta (state parties) gamte in mihing hamphatna tawh kisai thu pulakna piakzia ding te kigelh hi.



Theihding: Hih thute pen Kathryn English leh Adam Stapleton te i gelh " The Human Rights Handbook,1997 cih laibu pan ki tei khia a hihi
By - Tual Khan Suan.
Labels: Human Rights Issues

 Source - (c) Copyright 2011 Guite Family Network.

Zomi e-Library pan ngetna

Sum leh paai tawh nasepkhopna ding olno tak in HIH-LAI-MUN-PA'N kipiathei hi.

Hih atung a article hoihnasak na, hoihnasaklohna a hizong in na muhna te anuai a comment ah hehpihna tawh honggelhsak ve lawm. I LAIBUSAAL in article tuamtuam leh panpihna a tuamtuam te nangtungpan' hong lamenden hi.I nasepkhopna te HIH-LAI-MUN-PA'N ki-enthei hi.

  • Blogger Comments
  • Facebook Comments

0 comments:

Post a Comment

Item Reviewed: Mihing Hamphatna Khutzat bulpi - Laibu. (The Human Rights Handbook) Description: Rating: 5 Reviewed By: Cinpu Zomi
Scroll to Top