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ZOMI NAMTE GAM (THEIH HUAI ZOGAM TANGTHU TOM)

Zomite teenna Gam Lim.

Gelh - J Thang Lian Pau
A mun:  
         India mal-sak leh Burma mal-khang kici, sim leh mal zuiin Himalaya mualdung pan kipanin sim lamah Bay of Bengal tuipi pha dek in, sak leh khang zuiin Kawlzang leh India zanggam kikal sung, mualtung gam teng pen Tibeto-Burman kici khamtung minam tuamtuam in luah uh hi. Tibeto-Burman hiang khat ‘Zo minam’ ten pen Imphal zanggam pana sim lam Chittagong mualtung gam kiang dong luah in, tua pen Zogam ahi hi.

         Zo minamte pen hih lai munah a saklam Kawlzang panin kum zalom 12-na khawng panin tung in, minam khata a kipian cila kipanin Pasian in Zotate adinga a kamciam hih gam pen a luahpih leh a neihpih namdang kuamah om loin Zotate in Zo ukgam a phuhna hi a, Zogam hong piangkhia ahi hi. A gamvengte tawh lim taka gamgi khung om ngei loin, mal lamah Manipur leh Cachar gam, sim lamah Arakan leh Chittagong mualtung gam, khang lamah Tripura gam leh sak lamah Kawl-zanggam cih ten umcih hi.

         Zogam pen namdang kuamah tawh kiciau loin Zo minam tuamtuamte gam ahi hi. British ten 1890 kum pana a awp-a kipanin Ciau lui tawh khenin sak lam teng pen Chin hills vawh a, khang lam teng pen Lushai hills vawh in, mal lam teng pen Churachandpur District vawh hi. Ahi zongin hih thum ten Zogam teng huam kim zolo hi. Chin hills-ah Zomi leh Lai (Pawi) namte lian pen in, Lushai hills-ah Luseite lian pen hi. Tu-in Lushai hills-ah mihing 900,000 pawl om in, Chin hills-ah mihing 500,000 khawng leh Lamka (Churachandpur) District-ah mihing 200,000 kiim om hi. Zogam sunga khawpite pen Kawlgamah - Tedim, Tonzang, Thuklai, Kawlpi, Gunkhawm, Khampat, Tamu, Homalin, Halkha, Falam, Thantlang, Matupi, Kanpelet, Paletwa leh Mindat khuate hi. Mizoramah - Aizawl, Lunglei, Saiha, Lawngtlai, Chawngte, Champhai, Kolasib, Serchhip leh Mamit khuate hi. Lamka District-ah - Lamka, Thanlon, Singngat, Parbung (Tipaimukh) leh Henglep khuate ahi hi.

A zaina:  
          Zogam pen sim leh mal teha a dung lam pen Equator mal lamah latitude 21.56 degree leh 24.30 degree kikala om hi a, tai (mile) 250 khawnga sau-in kituat hi. Sak leh khang teha a vai pen longitude 92.16 degree leh 94.20 degree kikal hi-in, tai (mile) 220 khawnga zai-in kituat hi. Mual leh guam tawh kidim, a kantan lampi kician om lo ahih manin mile in ahi zongin, kilometre in ahi zongin a zaina teh ding haksa mahmah hi. Lushai hills pen 21,087 sq kms in zai in, Chin hills pen 14,000 sq miles in zai in, Lamka District pen 4,570 sq. km. in zai ahi hi. Hih thum in a huam khak loh Zogam zaipi om lai hi. Zo minamte luah gam teng khempeuh zaina pen sq. km. 1,24,500 pawl hi ding hi.

A leitang:  
          Dr. Vum Son, Geologist muhna panin, Zogam leitang pen moi mahmah lai hi. A suangte pen Mikang pau-a ‘sandstone leh slate’ nam pian vive hi in, guahtui leh hawktui in a nawt`mai theih namte hi. Leitangte zong kip lo a, guahtui lut thei in, men cim baih mahmah hi. Leitang uham dan tehna-ah Lushai hills leitang pen Corezoic Era hun kici tu-ma kum then (million) 10-15 lai khawnga piang danin kituat hi. Lushai hills sangin Chin hills leitang pen taak zawin ham zaw pek hi, kici hi. Zogam leitang leh Switzerland-a Alps mual leitang ‘flysch’ tawh kisun mahmah ahih manin pawlkhat in Zogam leitang pen ‘Zo flysch’ ci uh hi. Zogam leitang sungah ninerals tampi tak a om ding ki-um hi. Kawlzang tawh kidepna Gullu Mual-ah Chromate leh Nickel tampi omin kimu hi. Linestone leh suangphek (slate) zong tampi mah om hi, kici hi.

A lim amel:  
           Zogam pen a vekpi phialin mual leh guam vive tawh kidimin singkung lopa namcin in bawmin hing dildial hi. Mualsang dawnte mei in bawm dimdem zel ahih manin lunglenhuai mahmah hi. Mualsang dawnte pan ciktui phul in, mualdung leh mualdung kikalah luino luipi in luang sialsial hi. Zogamah mun zang tam loin mual leh mual kikala mun zang tawmtawm omte buh ciinna in kizang in, Zogam bupah Champhai zanglei zai pen hi. Mual leh guam kawmkalah tuili no cikcik om kawikawi in, a gol pen Ciau lui tunga 'Lih' leh Chhimtuipui-a 'Palak' li ahi hi. Mizo tual biakna-ah misi khua lampi in Lihli tawn hi, ci-in ki-um hi. Zogam bup sunga mun nuam pen Tedim uksunga om 'Len Nupa' hi in, Mizo ten 'Buannel' ci hi.

Khua hun:  
           Zogam pen leitung bupa khawhun hoihna pen pawl ahi hi. Equator leh Tropic of Cancer totna sana om hi in, Mikang pau a ‘Sub-Tropical’ gam a cihte ahih hangin ‘Tropical Gam’ kici ziau zaw hi. Nitang leh guahtui hoih muh in, a singkung a lopate tawh kilem mahmah hi. Khua lum lua loin vot zong vot lua lo ahih manin sing leh khai ciin theih loh om lo hi. Phalbi hun sung pen November kha leh February kha kikal hi in, khawkhal hun sung pen March kha leh May kha kikal hi hi. Tuk sung sawt penin June kha panin October kha dong awh hi. A pongpi in Zogam khawhun pen Phalbi laiin 1 degree C leh 15 degree C kikal pawl hi in, khal laiin 20 degree C leh 30 degree C kikal pawl ahi hi. Guahtui hoih mahmah in, a pongpi in kum khat sungin guahtui kia zah inche 200 khawng pha hi.

Mualte:  
            Zogam sungah mualsang tampi tak om a, a minthang diak nih pen khang tangthu panin Thangmual leh Lentang ahi hi. Zogam bupa mual sang teng pen Chin hills-ah om in, a sanna pen Khawnu Vum/Mt. Victoria (Feet 10,400) leh a nihna Tedim uksunga om Thuam Vum/Kenedy Peak (feet 9,000) ahi hi. Lushai hills-a mual sannna pen Chhimtuipui District-a om Phawngpui Vum (feet 7,100/ 2157 m.) leh a nihna Sialkaltanga om Lengteng Vum (feet 7,050) ahi hi. Lamka District-a mual sang pen Thangching Vum (1999m) ahi hi. Tua lo, mualsang minthang dangte in Chin hills-ah -Thangmual, Innbuk mual, Lunmual, Bawipa mual, Awtaraw mual, Lentang, Takmual, Suangvum mual leh Khumvum mual ahi hi. Lushai hills-ah - Surtlang, Lurhtlang, Zopui Tlang, Sialkaltang, Sakawrhmuituaitlang, Reiek Tlang leh Dahpa mual ahi hi. Lamka District-ah – Lentang, Hiangkot Tang, Lungthul Tang, Kaihlam Tang leh Vangai Tangte ahi hi.

Luite:  
            Zogam mualkuam teng lui tawh kidim in, Gun lui minthang pen hi. Meitei Gun a ci zong om hi. Gun lui pen Manipur gam pan kipanin Tedim uksung tengah sim lam manawhin luang in, Pawite gam panin sak lam nanawhin Mitta luipi tawh kimat in, tua panin Tuikang gun (Chindwin) sungah lut hi. Lui minthangte pen Chin hills ah - Gun, Kaladan, Bawinu, Ciau, Sialtang, Mitta leh Lemro-te ahi hi. Lushai hills ah - Tlawng, Chhimtuipui (Koladyne), Khawthlangtuipui, Tuirial, Tuipui, Tuivai, Tuirini, Serlui, Tuichang, Mat luite minthang mahmah hi. Lamka District sungah Tuivai, Tuivel, Tuitha, Tuilak, Tuisa, Tuili, Tuizang, Tuikui, Tuilian, Ngazam lui, Tuipi, Lanva luite luang hi.

Sing leh sa:  
          Zogam khawhun pen hoih mahmah ahih manin singkung lopa leh nuntaakna a nei ganhing nam tuamtuam tawh kidim hi. Zogam ah taaksing, neisok kung leh gua tuamtuam tam mahmah hi. Tua lo Dol, Hiang, Tei, Mawng, Vau leh Vong singkungte zong pha mahmah hi. Paak nam tuamtuam - Neisok, Palpi, Heisa, Zozam, Tuntai, Phuitong, Lingpaak tuamtuamte a hunhunin paakin Zogam etlawmsak mahmah hi. Sahang tuamtuam, Vom, Gamsial, Ngal, Sazuk leh Zawng nam tuamtuamte teenna gam hi a, vasa nam tuamtuam - Vaphual, Tawlawk, Mu, Gamak, Vagik, Va-ak, Vaki, Simbu, Baibek, Phengphelepte tam mahmahna ahi hi.
Hih bangin Pasian in Zogamah Zomite nuntaak nadinga kisap teng a kicingin koih ahih manin Zo minamte pen minam hampha mahmah ahi hi. Tua ahih manin hih gam pen itna leh zahtaakna tawh a kep ding Zo minamte mawhpuakna ahi hi.

ZOMI NAMTE

            Zomite in ‘Zosuante’ i cih, Mizo ten ‘Zo hnahthlak’ a cih teng pen British kumpi in hong awp-ma in amau hong ciaptehna-ah ‘wild hill tribes’ ci-in, i gam pen ‘un-administered area’, ci uh hi. Zosuan laka nitumna lam a tung masate pen Bengali leh Assamese ten ‘Kuki’ ci-in na ciamteh uh a, hih pen Mikang lai tawh a kiciaptehna 1792 kum hi ding hi. British kumpi in 1872 kuma Mizoram lak a kipat ciangin, tua lai taka Lusei kampau tam pen a hihna tawh a gam pen ‘Lushai Hills’ vawh pah hi. Kawlgam lamah ahih leh ‘Chin’ ci-in hong ciamteh hi. Ahi zongin ‘Chin’ cih kammal pen bang cihna, koi pan hong kipan, bang huna hong piang cih pen kankhiatna taktak om nai lo hi. Lam khat panin Zo minamte Chin hong kicihna pen Kawlte hong lawhna a kikawm maw? ahih kei leh Mikang galkap ten Chin hills-a Hausa a tuak masak pen uh Pu Khaw Cin min tapsaka ‘Khaw Cin hills/ Cin hills’ a ci zong hi zaw kha thei hi. Bang teng hi ta leh, Chin pen tu huna Myanmar a kici gam lama om teng hong kitangsak zaw deuh in, India gam lama om teng pen Lushai ahih kei leh Kuki, cih kitangsak zaw deuh hi. Mikangte in Zo minam teng pen mi khat sa khata hong muhna tawh lom khata hong lawhnop uh ciangin ‘Chin-Kuki’ cih bang, ‘Chin-Lushai’ cih bang, ‘Chin-Lushai-Kuki’ cih bang zang uh hi. Tua ahih manin British kumpi in Zo minamte tenna teng uk nadinga 1896 kuma a bawl thukhun zong ‘Chin Hills Regulation Act’ vawh ziau hi. Hih thukhun pen Chin hills baanah Lushaite, Kukite leh Nagate teenna teng huamsak in kizang hi.

            Mikangte in Chin, Kuki, Lushai ci-a hong ciapteh uh hangin amau mah in, “Amau pen Chin hiam, Kuki hiam kici het lo mah uh hi ven,” hong ci kik veve uh hi. J.G Scott in a laibu, ‘Burma’ cihah, “The names Kuki and Chin are not national, and like others, the people do not accept the name given to them by the Burmese and ourselves; they do not call themselves Chins and they equally flout the name of Kuki which their Assamese and Bengali neighbours use. They call themselves Zhou or Shu, and in other parts Yo (Zo) or Lai” ci-in, Dr. G.A. Grierson leh midangte muhna mah tawh kituakin na gelh hi. Bertram S. Carey leh H.N. Tuck ten zong Zote, Thadote leh Guite thu a gelhkhopna-ah “These Zos, Thados and Guites are called by the Manipuri’s Kuki or Khongjais, who only made their acquaintance after they had migrated north, but the people call themselves by the name of Zo (Yo)” ci-in na ciamteh uh hi. Guite Innpipa Pu Go Khaw Thang zong, “Go Khaw Thang, who, as already related, was seized by the Manipuris in the course of the Lushai expedition of 1871-72, was the Zo Chief of Mualpi,” ci-in Zo hausa mah na ci uh hi. Mikangte in Chin, Kuki in hong ciapteh uh hangin amau mahin ei le ei pen Chin peuh, Kuki peuh i kicih loh lam hong tel mahmah uh hi. Mikangte in Chin-Lushai-Kuki hong cih hang, amau mahin ei-le-ei pen ‘Zo’ kici uh hong cih mah bangin, tu panin hih sungah ‘Zo minam’ ci-in kizang ta ding hi.

            Zo minamte pen minam thu kante in Mongolian mite suan… Tibeto-Burman laka mi…” hiin gen uh a, hih pen kipom kim thei tek hi leh kilawm hi. ‘Mongol’ pen minam min hi in, ‘Mongolian’ pen zepna kammal (adjective) hi a, ‘Mongolia’ cih pen a gam min genna in kizang hi. ‘Mongoloid’ cih leuleu pen ‘Mongol’ minam suan leh khak teng genna in kizang hi. Tua hi a, Zo minamte pen mel leh sa tawh kizuiin Leitung minam lompi thum om laka Mongoloid minam hiang khat hi in, kampau tawh kizuia Mongoloid minam lompi thum laka Tibeto-Burman hiang khat i hi hi.

            Zo minamte pen i bul i phung taktak (ethnic origin) a kikankhia nai lo ahih hangin ei pen Tibet gam tawnin Sengam pan Kawlzangah tungin, tua panin tu-a i omna tengah a kizeel hi hang, cih pen i pom thei tek hi. Pu Vum Son’ muhna-ah i minam min ‘Zo’ cih pen ‘Zo’ kici mi khat’ suante i hih man hi, ci hi. Tua i pu i pate gam pen Sengam ah ei tawh i kibatpih Tibet mite, Kawl, Naga, Meitei, Bodo, Kachin, Lahute tawh teengkhawm hi. Sengam panin Jesuh suahma pekin sim lamah kitaikhia in, Jesuh suah khit kum za khawng ciangin Chindwin gam kuam tengah kiteeng ta hi, ci hi.

          Kawlzang panin Zo minamte pen AD 1000 kum pawl panin nitumna lam khamtung gamah tai kipan ta dingin kituat hi. Khamtung gama a tai, pawlkhatte in Ciimnuai khua sat uh a, tuate pen tulai taka ‘Zomi’ a kici Tedim gam, Tonzang gam, Manipur gam leh Mizoram donga teeng, Ciimnuai-a piang a kici teng hi. Ciimnuai khua mun pen tulai taka Saizang khua khang ahi hi. Pawl khatte in Sunthla khua kiangah Lailun khua sat uh a, tuate pen tulai taka ‘Lai’ a kici- Falam, Haka leh Thantlang mite hi-in, Lailuna piang zong kici uh hi. Pawl khatte in Sumpui munah Bochung khua sat uh a, tuate pen Lusei suan minam tuamtuamte hi-in, tua panin tulai taka Mizoram kici-ah kizeel uh hi.

            A tai lote Zo minam pawlkhatte Yaw gamah thaam suak uh a, Kawlte tawh kiciau uh ahih manin Kawl bang buang, Zo bang buang kha suak uh hi. Kawlte in ‘Zo’ pen ‘Yaw’ ci-in gelh uh ahih manin ‘Yaw mi’ a suak uh hi. Zo minamte khamtung lamah a lomin a tai-ma in khamtung gamah Khumi/Khamite na tung zo uh hih tuak hi. Asho-te pen khamtung kah loin Kawlzang leh Arakan zang lam zuan uh hi. Cho-te pen bangci lal uh hiam cih kithei lo hi.

            Hih bangin Zo minamte pen namdangte in a tuamtuama hong ciaptehna uh hang ahi zongin, i lalna lampi zawi kibat lohna hangin ahi zongin, tu-in lom tuamtuamin kikhenin nam tampi i kisuah hi. Hih banga lom tuamtuama i omna pen nidanga minam khat hi napi damdama a kikhenkhen maw, ahih kei leh nidanga minam tuam tek kihi napi damdama a kigawmgawm maw? cih pen ngaihsuthuaipi khat suak hi. 

Lai gelh pa J Thang Lian Pau.

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Item Reviewed: ZOMI NAMTE GAM (THEIH HUAI ZOGAM TANGTHU TOM) Description: Rating: 5 Reviewed By: Cinpu Zomi
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