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ZOMI (ORIGIN, CULTURE, RELIGION, EDUCATION) Gelh - Dr. Hau Za Cin, Taipei

Thupatna:

Zomi, Pasian in minam khat dinga a tuamkhenna Sengam pan tuni ciang ah kum tulthum pha ta hi (1027BC – 2006AD). Sengam pan Kabaw zanggam ah kikhinsuk in kum zagiat val teeng uh a. Tua pan mualtung khua Khampat ah kum zanga val tengin Mawngpi suan uh a, Cimnuai ah kum sawmnga, Geeltui ah kum za, tua pan Tedim sat in, Kam Hau ukpi sep laitakin mikangte Zogam hong tung, hong sim uh hi. Laipian Pau Cin Hau in maangmu in Zomite lai neih masakna pen hi a, Biakna thak neihna, Lai sim kipatna ahih laitak in Christian missionary masa pen Rev. Arthur E. Carson te nupa Zogam hong tunga, tua ni-a kipan Zomite leitung hong kilamdang in Zomi thak hong pianga Zomite mit hong keuh hi. Nuntakna thak neiin, ngaihsutna thak tawh leitung tuancil dingin kalsuan kipan hi.

I. ZOMI PIANNA (ZOMI CREATION)

1.1. Zomi pianna thu: A kipat cilin Pasian in vantung leh leitung a piangsak hi (Piancilna 1:1). Ni, Kha, Aksi, Tuipi, Ganhing, Lopa, Huih, adang na khempeuh a bawl khit ciangin a uk, kem a khoi dingin Amah lim leh meel sun in mihing bawl a, tua ah Zomite kipatna pianna thu ahi hi. Pasian in, “Eima lim, eimah hong sunin mihing bawl ni. Tuipi ngasate tung, huihlak vasate tung, ganhingte tung, leh leitunga a bokvakte khempeuh tungah ukna neisak ni,” a ci hi. Amah in mihing piangsak a, pasal leh numei a piangsak hi. Pasian in amaute thupha pia a, amaute tungah, “Ci pha-in tampi pha un la, leitung dimin zo un. Tuipi ngasate tung, leitungah a gamtang, a nungtate khempeuh tungah ukna nei ta un,” a ci hi. Pasian in, “En un, leitung maitang khempeuhah a om, tang a piangsak kungnote khempeuh leh a gah sungah tang a om singkung khempeuh note tungah kong pia khinta hi. Tuate an-in na nei ding uh hi,” a ci hi. Tua mah bangin a piang pah hi. Pasian in a bawlsate khempeuh en a, hoih sa mahmah hi (Piancilna 1:1 - 31). Mi masa pen Adam pen Zomite pa hi a, a zi Evi pen Zomite nu hi.

Khang tampi hong pai zawh ciangin Adam leh Evi suan pan tuni a Zomi pen hong ka khia a, a sanggam dangte mah bangin Zomi in zong ngeina leh biakna nei in, inkuan khat, minam khat a hihna kilahna dingin ngeina kician khat nei hi. Tua pen Adam suan leitung mi khempeuh neih a hi hi. Pawlkhat in Zomi cih pen mualtungmi cihna hi ci uh a, ahi zongin Zomite bek mualtung ah teeng hi lo hi. Tua manin Zomi cih pen mualtungmi cihna hilo a, Zhou ukpipa suante ihih mana Zomi ihi zaw hi.

a). “Ei teng khawlkhawm, a tuam omlo, vannuai ci peuh
Khul a piang, laigui kizomte hi ngeingei hang e”
b). “Laigui kizomte hi ngei ngei a, tunsung khat pan
Piang hi ngeingei, piang hi ngeingei e”

Zogam zaina (Zogam : Zogam pen sim leh mal teha a dung lam pen Equator mal lamah latitude 21.56 degree leh 24.30 degree kikala om hi a, tai (mile) 250 khawnga sau-in kituat hi. Sak leh khang a vai pen longitude 92.16 degree leh 94.20 degree kikal hi-in, tai (mile) 220 khawnga zai-in kituat hi.

Zogam sing leh sa (Zogam flora and fauna): Zogam khua hun pen hoih mahmah ahih manin singkung lopa leh nuntaakna a nei ganhing nam tuamtuam tawh kidim hi. Zogam ah taaksing, ngeisok kung leh gua tuamtuam tam mahmah hi. Tua lo Dol, Hiang, Tei, Mawng, Vau leh Vong singkungte zong pha mahmah hi. Paak nam tuamtuam - Ngeisok, Palpi, Heisa, Zozam, Tumtai, Phuitong, Lingpaak tuamtuamte a hunhunin paakin Zogam etlawmsak mahmah hi. Sahang tuamtuam, Vom, Gamsial, Ngal, Sazuk leh Zawng nam tuamtuamte teenna gam hi a, vasa nam tuamtuam - Vaphual, Tawlawk, Mu, Gamak, Vagik, Va-ak, Vaki, Simbu, Baibek, Pengpelepte tam mahmahna ahi hi.

Hih bangin Pasian in Zogamah Zomite nuntaak nadinga kisap teng a kicingin koih ahih manin Zo minamte pen minam hampha mahmah ahi hi. Tua ahih manin hih gam pen itna leh zahtaakna tawh a kep ding Zo minamte mawhpuakna ahi hi.

II. ZOMI KIPATNA LEH HUNLUI (ZOMI ORIGIN AND HISTORY)

2.1. Zomi kipat khiatna: Adam pan khang tampi a phak zawhciangin Sengam ah Zomi ukpi Ji Fa, "Zhou Wu Wang" (Zomite Ukpipa Wu a cihna, Wang = Ukpipa, Kumpi, King cihna hi) in vaihawm hi. Zhou inkuan ukpi sepsung (Zhou Dynasty) kum zagiat a hi hi (1027 – 221BC). Hih inkuan pan Zomi a piang hi. “Zomi na hih uh leh ‘Zhou suan’ na hi ding uh hi. ‘Zhou Ming’ (Chinese) cih ciangin ‘Zhou mite’ cihna hi (ming = mi)” ciin Dr. Tommy Tsai Po-Yu, National Taiwan University, Taipei in hong hilh hi. Zhou Ming cih pen lai ineih ciangin Zomi ciin ki at ziau hi ding hi.

2.2. Sen gam om lai thu: BC 1757 pawl in Xia ukpipa in mipite itna leh hehpihna tawh uk lo in, gitloh na leh ki phatsak natawh uk a hih manin Shang Dynasty uk na hongpiang hi. "Shang" ukpipa in khuakim ah hausa upa koih lo ahih manin, Zomite in ol takin a ukna BC 1027 in sutkhia hi. BC 1046 -1043 hun tak ciangin Zomi ukpipa Ji Fa in a uk ciangin khuakim ah hausa upa koihkim a hih manin kuamah in ukpi zaa sutzo pak lo hi. Zomite uksung in khangto mahmah uh a, ki-ukzia zum nasepzia, khat leh khat kizahtakzia, lo khoh singpuak na leh sumbawl paiibawlnate ah khangto mahmah uh hi. Hih hun pen Sengam khantoh mahmah hun hi. Sente miciim Con Fu Cius in siangthona, huahna, dikna leh pilna, khat leh khat kithupi simna, nupa ki kal, lawm leh gual kikal, ulian uneu kikal ah kizahtakzia, inkuansung ki zahtakzia, inkuansung nuntakzia, beh leh phung kiit zia dingte, kimakaihna, innluahna, sahawmziate kician takin hilh hi. Tua a hilhziate Zomite in ‘i ngeina’ (Zomi culture or tradition) i cihcihte ahi hi. "Zhou Wu Wang" hong khanga kipan in kipum khatna hong khanga a mah pen VANTUNG TAPA (Son of Heaven) kici liang hi. Vantung pan hong kumsuk kumpipa hi dingin ummawh uh hi. Hun hong paito zel in Ji Fa inkuan sungah vaihawm ding khang kisam a, Ping Wang ukpipa (BC 770 – 720) hun panin Zomi vaihawmna pen a minbek hita a, Ji Fa inkuan zahtakna omnawnlo in, vaihawm upate in kumpi bangin vaihawmgawp uh ahih manin BC 221 ciangin Hui Wang khut panin Qin Shi Huang in Zomi vaihawmna suhsak hi.

2.3. Sen gam pan Chindwin luidung ah: Tuabanga Zomite ukpi sepna a kisuhsak ciangin ukpi thakte in ‘Great Wall’ lam ding hong kipan a, mihing nasem dingin zang uh hi. Hih nasep gimhuai leh ukpi hihna a khahsuah uh nuamsa loin Sengam nusia in leitaw lam zuan in suahtakna dingin na paikhia uh hi. BC 4 hun ciangin Szechwan kim ah tengin Pagyi khua sat uh a, AD 6 ciangin Chindwin luidung ah tengin Dahpa leh Penglamte hunlai AD 108 kiimin Pugam leh Pupa khua na sat uh hi. AD 600 ciangin Ji Fa suan sungpan Thet mite Zomi suak hi.

2.4. Chindwin pan tuni ciang: AD 800 hun in Khampat khua satin hun sawtpi teeng uh hi. Khampat khua pen zang leh kham kipehna, kham kipatna ahih manin ‘Khampat’ a kici hi. Mualtunggam genna 'Kham' cih kammal pen Zomite bekin nei hi. AD 1300 in Ciimnuai satto in, 1350 ciangin Zomi nungak melhoih Leng Tong Hoih pen Ava mangpi zi in na om hi. 1450 AD in Thang Ho, Lian Do, Galngam, Hangsai, Cing Khup, Ngam Bawmte Ciimnuai leh Geeltui ah teeng uh hi (Ciimnuai a sa kibak Geeltui ah kithuk ciin upate in kammal na nei uh hi). Kabaw luidung pan kham kahtoh, Khampat, Cimnuai leh Geeltui hun pan Tedim khuasat (1570), Kam Hau hong khan’ (1840), mikangte hong pai (1886), Pasian thu hong tun (1899), lai ineih (1900) tan zong eimau beh hausa, khuasat leh ukpite makai-in kizangin ki-uk ciat a, Zomi Nam Ni (February 20, 1948) ciangin tua ki-ukna bei in Zomite a suakta minam ihi ta hi. Kabaw Valley pan a paitoh na vuah Tuingou leh Thangmualte kantan to in Ciimnuai ah khul a tuak uh hi. Tua lai pan suakta taktak kisakna neita uh ahih manin amau leh amau ukpi ding kisehtawm in ‘khul a piang’ na kici uh hi.

2.5. Nam tuamtuam tawh ten khawmna: Ciimnuai pen Phaileng leh Saizang kikal Tedim pan taisawm a gamla ah om hi. Tua laiah Zomi nam tuamtuam na tengkhawm uh a, mihing hong tam ciangin Sengam pan a hihngei uh loneihna zong hong hamsa ahih manin amautenna mun leh gam ciat ah ki-ukna tuam neihin, a bawngbawng in hong kikhen uh hi. Tuate tuni a - sihzang, galte, gangte, paite, simte, thadou, vaiphei, zoute, lusei, khelma, baite, rangkhols, langrong, aimual, anal, chiru, lamkang, kolken, kom, chote, hmar, tedim, sailo, ngawn minamte ahi hi.

2.6. Zomi kumpi in ciamteh: Zomi lak pan laipil masa, Mandalay University, Burma ah Lecturer a sem ngei, Rev. S.T. Hau Go in ‘Zopi (highland) ah i teen manin Zomi a kici hilo in, i pianna pi leh pute Zo ahih manin amau min kepna in Zomi aki ci ihi hi. Zopi sung I tenma, luipi dung zangsungah I tenlaiin zong Zomi ikici zo hi’ ciin na ciamteh hi. Pu Thawng Khaw Hau ‘Zo Khang Simna Laibu’ leh Captain K. A. Khup Za Thang ‘Zo Suan Khang Simna Laibu (Genealogy of the Zo Race of Burma)’ laibu sungah Zomite kipatna pen Zo hi ciin kiciamteh a; Dr. Vum Kho Hau ‘A Profile of Burma Frontier Man’ laibu leh Dr. Vum Son ‘Zo History’ in zong Zomite kipatna Zo hi ciin na ciamteh uh hi.

Rev. Sowards, Secretary, American Baptist Missionary Society in 1953 kum in Zomi Baptist Convention na patpih a, 1953 in Zomi Theological College na phuan hi. 1988 ciangin Burma kumpi in Zomi ciin hong ciamteh a, Zomi National Congress zong pawlpi min khat in sang hi.

2.7. Leitung civilization in hong pha: Zomiten tanglaiin lai kinei a, savun tunga kigelh ahih manin Savun Lai, Tualsuak Lai kici hi (AD 1400). Zosuante lakah Zomi bekin ‘Lai’ cih kammal kinei hi. Tua ahih manin Zomite in tanglaiin lai nei ngei takpi i hihna leh Savun lai pen Zomite aa ngiat a hihna kilang hi. Tua savun lai pen ui in tuah mang ahih manin lai kinei nawnlo hi. Lai neilo theilo uh ahih manin thu pen lungsim leh la tawh na ciamteh uh hi. A gal mat sa mat zah uh singkhuam pang liamin ahi zongin, singkhuam dawnah sa lu gal lu suangin khau khihbawkin ahi zongin na ciamteh uh hi. Sing hiam suang hiam suiin a sa mat a gal mat uh lim bawlin zong khawmualah na phut uh hi. Pau Cin Hau lai leh Mangtual lai i neih zawh panin a lim bek hi nawn loin a thu (laimal) tawh kihelkhawm to hi.

Zomite in lai i theih cil pen Kawllai hi ding a, Zomite leh British galkapte kidona ah Mang Pum (Khuasak) kimanin Yangon thongah 1894 pan kum li a kiat sungin Mang Pum in Kawllai siam man a, Zomi sung pan lai thei masapen hi dingin kituat hi. Tua ma-in Khuasak khua mah Hang Kip in zong Kawllai siam zo a ci zong om hi. Mang Pum in 1898 kumin Khuasak khuaah Kawllai sinna sang hong hi. ABM ten Kawlzang pan hong tonpih Karen mite zangin 1902 kumin Tedimah, 1904 kumin Khuasakah, 1905 kumin Tonzangah sang (mission school) hongin Kawllai hong sinsak uh hi.

1900 kum in Pau Cin Hau Lai kici Lailui khua, Pau Cin Hau (1859-1948) in mang a muhna pan 1896-1898 kum sungin kammal khat teh laimal khat ta ahi laimal 1050 bawlkhia a, laibu-in bu guk suah hi. Laipian Lai, Zotual Lai zong kici hi. 1901 kumin khaw 13 pan mi 51 sinin siam uh a, tuate’n amau khua ciatah midang hilhsawn uh hi. Galpi Khatna sunga France pai Zomite leh innlamten lai kikhakna in a zat theih sun uh hi a, tua in Zomite lakah Zotual Lai kizeel mahmah ta hi. Tua ahih manin ABM missionary Rev. J.H. Cope in zong 1931 kumin Mualtung Thuhilhna bu bawlna-in Zotual Laiin a zang hi. Chin Hills Deputy Commissioner Lt. Col. Burne leh Rev. J.H. Cope’ malakpihna tawh 1936 kumin Thang Cin Kham, Pau Za Dong, Cin Khaw Gin leh Sian Khaw Cin ten puahpha uh a, consonant 21, vowel 16, tonal sign 20 suahin a vekin laimal 57 phasak uh hi. Tu dong Laipian Pawlpi sungah kizang lai hi.

Tulai taka i zat leh i zat suak ding zong hih tuak Mangtual Lai (or Zolai or Ni Sagih Lai) i cih pen 1908 kuma Rev. J.H. Cope (1882-1938) hong tun phetin Zomi Khristian suak masa pen Khawsak khua-a Pau Suan leh Thuam Hang te nih Hakha-ah samin Zopau kihilhsak a, tua pan Mikang laimal (Romanised script) tawh laimal hong bawlsak kipan pah ahi hi. 1919 kumin Tedim uk sunga hausa lian teng samkhawmin bang kam tawh laihilh ding cih genna pan Kam Hau kam (Tedim pau) zat dingin thukimna bawl uh hi. Rev. Cope in Zomite adingin Tedim pau leh Roman script tawh bawl laimal mah hoih pen ding hi a cih teitei ciangin Deputy Commissioner Mr. Burne tawh kimukhial dekdek heel uh hi. Zomite laimal ding Roman script tawh bawl pen Royal Asiatic Society in zong 1912 kumin hoih a sak pen thu na pulak zo hi. 1925 kum pan Zogama primary school tengah kawllai kiphiatin Tedim pau, Hakha, Falam leh Chinbok tawh laihilh hong kipan to hi. Hih bang teng hang tawh Rev. Cope pen Zomite in Sangmangpa kici a, Cope topa cih tawh min nih kitangsak hi.

2.8. Tuma kum zakhat sung a tom in: Kum 1904 Zomite palik tum cilna hi a Zomi palik kiphuan in, sila kiphiat hi. 1914 Tedimah Zolai tawh Thukizakna kihawm pan hi. Muizawl khua, Pau Khen in siah a piaknop loh manin Falam gamah lal dingin kisawl. 1915 Zokam tawh Lungdamna Matthai bu kikhen. 1917 Piantit (France) gam pai ding mi 1000 Tedim pan ding khia. London hawh. 1921 Chin Hills Census, Tedim uk (Tonzang tawh) sungah inn 5045 leh Mihing 36,048 om. Zogamah ann hoih lo ahih manin, Lusei gamah mi tampi tak peem, sang khempeuh ah Zolai hilh ding thukim. 1923 Zomi 300,000 sung panin 2,351 in lai sim thei. 1925 Zolai sin kipan in kawllai kiphiat. 1931 Pa Pau Cin Hau lai tawh Mualtung thuhilhna kikhen. Hau Za Cin Pau in Matric zo, a zo masa pen. 1932 Zokam Thuciam Thak kikhen. Mikang a do Zomi makai Pu Suang Khaw Kam, Magwe khuapi-ah si. 1946 S.T. Hau Go in M.A (Madras) zo; Chin Hills pan a masa pen. 1947 Tedimah High School kiphuan. THUKITUAHNA cih thukizakna kipan. Zo Education Board kiphuan. Tedim ah Lai Siangtho Sang kiphuan. Siamsinpawlpi (SSPP) January 13 niin Suangpi khua-ah kiphut. 1948 ZBC sungah TBA, FBA, HBA kiphuan. Zo zum Rangoon-ah kiphuan. Hill Chin Students' Union Rangoonah kiphuan. Zogam ukpiten mipi deihna zuiin ukpi za nusia, Zomi Nam Ni hong piang. 1950 Sia S.T. Hau Go in MRE, Colgate Rochester Theological College, USA pan zo. 1952 ZBC (Zomi Baptist Convention) kiphuan. LUNGVAKNA cih thukizakna kiphuan. Dr.Vum Khaw Hau in Ph.D. ngah. Chin State-ah biakna lam khanlawhna tung. 1977 Tedim Lai Siangtho kizo.

Piancit paina thu: Leitung galpi khatna kici Germany leh England (France leh USA in England panpih hi) kidona ah Zomite zong England galkapte panpih dingin May 25, 1917 ni-in Piantit (France) gam pai ding mi 1000 Tedim pan ding khia a, Ocober kha in tung in, tuipi tungah a si 21 te France gamah kiphum hi. France pan London zong hawh in, kumpi inn zong en uh hi. France-ah Ukpiapa Hau Cin Khup in mi tampi paisak zo ahih manin kumpinu in minphatna KSM pia hi. France gam zinte hong ciah uh ciangin sum tampi hong pua uh ahih manin zi a deihdeih uh tel uh hi kici hi.

Panglong Agreement I cihcih pen: February 12, 1947 ni-a kawlgam ah omdinga Zomi Hausa leh a Upate in suai a kaihna uh pen Panglong Agreement kici hi. Mipi vaihawmna zui dingin, kumpi in Hausa leh upate vaihawmna pan a khawlman uh sum pia ding cih thukimna hi. Hih kikhopna ah Hausa leh upa mi 5000 val kihelin, thukim na suaikai uh hi.

Zomi Nam Ni: Pu Thawng Za Khup in February 20, 1948 niin Zomite Hausa leh upate khutsung pan suahtakna dingin thusung a, mi 5000 in deihin, mi 17 in deih lo hi. A tamzaw thukimna bangin tuani panin Hausa leh Upa khutsung pan Zomite suakta a, amau leh amau vaihawm ding telin, democratic form of governance zang uh hi. Tua ni pen Zomite suahtakna ni, Zomi Nam Ni (Zomi National Day) ciin kiciamteh hi. October 9, 1950 niin Kawlgam kumpi in National Holiday in hong ciamteh sak hi.

III. ZOMI NGEINA (ZOMI CULTURE)

Sangmang J. H Cope in a genna ah Zomite nuntakna pen mikangte hong tunma pek in zong zahtak huai mahmahta hi ci hi. Ahi zongin mualtunga teng Zomite ngeina pen namdang hong lutte in dausak a, siasak hi ciin a laibu ‘Awakening of the Northern Chins’ ah at hi. There are evidences that these people once had a higher civilization. This is seen from the fact that they are completely clothed and do not appear ever to have been headhunters or cannibals. There is even a tradition of a written language. They differ from many Hill tribes in that violent crime is rare polygamy not very common, women more respected, and warfare carried on less brutally than in many Hill districts.... After reaching the Hills they quickly spread out in little villages in the narrow valley and many dialects soon developed.

3.1. Nik leh puan silhna thu: Zomite pen khi ok, kawnggak gak, tukbel tep ihi hi. 1904 kum in Zomite khitang Wate khuapi gei ah kito khia hi. Hih in Zomite leh kawlte hun khat laiin kiteengkhawm hi cih hong lak hi. 1971 kumin S. B. Kham Tin Zam Vungh in Sabani khua, Sagaing Division ah Zomite khitang leh tukbel tampi tokhia hi.
Zomite van neih lak ah khuang, zam, dak, pengkul, gosem, phit, sialki, hihte pawihun lehgualnopna, dah hun ciang zong a kizang ahi hi. Zomite ngeina a kilawm mahmah pen ‘kilawm’ hi. Nasep ciang kilawm, kiseppih, ni khat a khat lo ah kuanin, a zingciang a khatzaw lo ah sem kik. Tua pen nungak leh tangval kingaite bangin nuam a sak mahmah uh hi. Sunkhua a nasem khawm cih pen maw. Sawn - kelsawn, akgiasawn, vaphual sawn, kibah hi. Nik leh puan kitenma in mawngkhak numei in teng uh hi. Gal leh sa tawh kidelh tawntung ahih man un thaulawng thupi mahmah hi. Thauvui kohna dingni sialki kizang a, a kuahna thungip dingin vompi kawngvun kizang hi. Thangsiah kilim zat a, tumkhau leh khaugui, tangval khau tawh kisiah hi. Sakhi, ngal, sazuk, sahang cih bang awk zel hi. Sakuh leh saneu dangte matna ding pena neu deuh kisiah hi. Ngasa matna dingin ngawi kidawh a, gu kideng hi. Salian mante in haipi tawi thei a, mipi maiah kipahtawi hi.

Numeite in a sam uh phek in, phek thum phasak uh a, a liangko nih tuakah kaisak uh hi. Bilvut in bilbah bah uh hi. Khi ok in, nik kawg ah gak uh hi. Christian suak khit ciangin Nipini a silh ding leh nasepna a silh ding puan nei tuam uh hi. Numei khempeuh in siamgan, khauphan thei in, pasal khempeuh in thau kap thei uh hi. Pasalte in nangphan in, bawmphan uh a, ciang leh lawhte phan uh hi. Siksek khempeuh pasal nasep hi a, tem, hei, tu, tei khempeuh a tavuan hi. Inlam leh gawlbawl khempeuh pasal in sem hi. Zomite in ansuk khekna dingin Tui-annsu bawlkhia uh hi. Ni leh kha leh aksite na en in a tangthu na theihsawm uh a, aksi tai leh aksi kiate zong na ciamteh uh hi. Aksi kihei dan, khabei, khalik, khadete in hun na ciamteh uh a, phalbi leh khawkhal zong nisuak dan in na ciamteh uh hi. Khuapang a san leh khua pha ding ciin na genkhol thei uh hi.

3.2. Inkuan: Kitenna pen a ki thupi ngaihsut hi a, a hoih pen mah kizong ciat hi. A melhoih, a migi, a siam, a pil, a tei mah mo dingin nute in na deih uh a, a hangsan, a thahat, a kivate mah nute in makpa dingin na deih uh hi. Numei man pen a kitengding inkuan nihte thukimna bang hi a, a kitendan leh a kitenhun khempeuh amau khut ah om hi. Tagah leh meigong a om leh Zomite in limtak in na khoi in na keem uh hi. Angkawmna leh khialhna a om leh hausa leh up ate in thukhen uh a, ki thahna pen kigawtna in kizang ngei lo hi (capital punishment was never in practice).

3.3. Nupa suah dan: Kitenna pen a ki thupi ngaihsut hi a, a hoih pen mah kizong ciat hi. A melhoih, a migi, a siam, a pil, a tei mah mo dingin nute in na deih uh a, a hangsan, a thahat, a kivate mah nute in makpa dingin na deih uh hi. Numei man pen a kitengding inkuan nihte thukimna bang hi a, a kitendan leh a kitenhun khempeuh amau khut ah om hi. Tagah leh meigong a om leh Zomite in limtak in na khoi in na keem uh hi. Angkawmna leh khialhna a om leh hausa leh up ate in thukhen uh a, ki thahna pen kigawtna in kizang ngei lo hi (capital punishment was never in practice).

3.4. Sivuina: Mi a sih ciangin vui pah lo in siluang nithum bang kikoih hi. Siampi in phuisam in, zu mop a, kawsah sa go in, a si pen thupi takin a kha khia uh hi. Gal ai sa ai ahih leh a luang kizawng in dai ah kisia a, a sa a muat khit, a tolh khit ciangin a guhkeu la in han ah a phum uh hi. Dai ah a ki koih sungteng a nuai ah meipi kikhul a, a sithu a luan kang baihna ding cihna hi. Tua veh dingin nupite daihawh in, tua siluang kiangah va kap thei zel uh hi.

3.5. Mithupite: Mi minthang tampi lak pan Galngam leh Hangsai, Leng Tong Hoih, Khup Cing leh Ngam Bawm, Lian Do leh Thang Ho, Mauzuang te unau,
Tangthu minthang lak ah Dahpa, Sangak leh akpi, Aksinelkai, vanleng nungak,

3.6. Lo neihna: Buh leh taang pen anntak kici a, vaimim, bal, kawlkai leh be pen kial ann kici se hi. Gankhawi lak pan Sial thupi pen a, kel leh ui leh akte pen nektawm dingin kizang hi. Bawng pen a nawi nekdingin kikhawi a, Sial pen moman dingin kipia thei hi.

Zomite ukpi sep hun sung in lo neihna pen limtakin kibawl a, kumpi in zong hansuah hi. Gam pen kumpi gam hi a, mipite in loneihna ding a gam a zat ciangin sehkua suah sehkhat pen ukpipa kiangah sung uh hi. Tua pan in ukpipa in kial hun leh haksat hunin mipite panpih kik hi. Nasepna ding in suankang sik na zang uh a, galdona ding leh tu leh hei bawlna in zong na zang uh hi.

3.7. Khuasung ki ukna: Khuasung vaihawmna leh kiukna pen hausa leh a upate in sem a, thukhenna zong amau khut ah om hi. Hausa pen inkuan in kiluah toto a, a pa laih thei ding a om kei leh a tanaute khat in Hausa semtosuak hi. Upa pen Hausapa in amuan deuhdeuh a tel, a seh hi. Gam leh lei pen Hausapa khut ah om a, Zogam sunga Hausa khempeuh a thuneihna uh kikim khin hi. Hausa in vaihawm ahih manin nasem lo a, khuamite in siah sung uh hi. Hausapa vaihawmpih dingin upa, siampi, tangau, siksek,

3.8. Sawm: Tangvalte giah khawmna dingin Sawm kinei a, Sawm upa in khangnote pattah in thuhilhna nei zel hi. Tua lai ah kidemna tuamtuam kanteh, leilamkan, tai kidem, suangpum lot, kibuan, tei khawh, kisukheek,

3.9. Pawi tuamtuam: Pawi tuamtuam Sialsawm pawi, Khuado Pawi, Ton, Gal ai, Sa ai. Zangta lam, lamngui, dak lam, phit lam cih bangin kinei hi.

Zomi numei te khutsiam a pianga ahi uh a, khaukhek, khauphan leh siamgan a siam ahi uh hi. A kizepna neihtung uh mawngkhak hi a, khauhual numeite in a kawng vuah khai in a tut uh ciang a sel uh liah hi bek hi. Tua pan pat kikhek in puan kibawl hi. Puanbu, tual puan, nikphei, puandum, puanlaisan kizang hi.

3.10. Kitaitehnate: Gal ai, sa ai hih ding, mim za taangza kho hih ding kidem uh a, kumsim buh leh vaimim, bal, kawlkai leh mehteh mehgah kumkhat kham ding neih ding hanciam uh hi. A hatna teng khempeuh uh tawh tua sem in a hun tamzaw uh nasepna in na zang uh hi. Pilna sin leh kidemnate pen nasep loh sung hun awng ah hih bek uh hi.

IV. ZOMI BIAKNA (ZOMI RELIGION)

Zomite in ‘theih loh pasian’ na bia uh a, dawi na ‘thoih’ uh hi. ‘Dawi bia’ hilo in ‘dawi thoih’ minam ahi uh hi. ‘Bia’ cih ciang ‘thupha zong, zahtakna pia, amai ah, a thuneihna ah ki ap’ hi a, ‘thoih’ cih ciang ‘a lungkimna dinga khembawl, lungkimsak, mai et, lungsim leh pumpi ki ap lo’ hi. A lungsim vuah a lian penpen ‘dawi’ hilo in ‘theih loh pasian’ hi masa a, tua pen ‘theih Pasian’ ahih dongin kibia a, kingeina seh hi. Ahang pen natna a ngah uh ciangin ‘dawite hong bawl hi’ ci uh a, tuahphatna a ngah uh ciangin ‘dawite hong piak hi’ ci lo uh hi, ‘hong siam khat om hi’ ci uh a, tua pen ‘lungzai’ zong kici hi. Sih zawh ciang ‘gun gal’ kah ding uh a, tua ah a paisa it leh ngaihteng kim ding hi, gi bang kikhen om nawnlo in lei a thupina leh pahtawina a ngah khempeuh tawh tua mun ah nuamsa ding uh hi cih um uh hi. Tua man in ‘gun gal khuamun nuam’ ah nuamsa-a a nuntak theihna ding in leitung a nuntak sungin mi tungnung hih sawm in, ton leh ai sa in hanciam uh hi. Tua ‘gun’ pen Tuikangpi hi a ci pawl om a, Rih hi a ci pawl om hi. Lui khat ah a leitung nuntakna silsiangin ‘gun gal khua’ ah mithak in lut hi cih um uh hi. Muh bat loh ah munthak, khuathak khat om a tua ah a paisate kituah khawm kik ding cih lametna na nei uh hi.

American Baptist Missionaryte in Zomite lam tampi ah hong pattah uh a, tua manin Zomite in mangkangte na ci liang uh hi. Ki thupi sim mahmah a, a lampai dan, a kizep dan, a tutdan, a pau dan, a om dan peuhmah thupi kisa in zong limtak in kiciing pah hi. A mau hun sungin a mang khempeuh lah Zomi hetlo mikangte vive hi takpi ahih manin ‘mangkangte’ a ki cih pen a kithupi simna hi a, tuni tan in bei tuan lo hi. Sangin phuan in pilna hong sinsak uh a, cidamna hong sem in, lokhawh dan leh kizep dan hong sinsak uh hi.

Christian suahna hangin ngeina pawi peuhmah biakna pawi in khek a, dawi thoihna taute Pasian biakna tau suak sak in, dawi thoihna ding khempeuh Topa phatna leh biakna in kizang ta hi. Zu nun Khuadote Zeisu sih leh pian Lungdambawl Pawi hun in khek ta a, sia leh pha theihna hong khang in, hanla, gal la, sa aih la khempeuh Pasian biakna la suakzo hi. Ngeina la leh ngeina laamte haivai in ki ngaihsun a, dawithoih hanga a kitang khempeuh kisiangsak in khanglui biakna ciin ki nusia hiai hiai hi. (Kuppihna: Ngeina, Pawi, Lam, La, leh a dangdangte hong mangngilh sak uh, hong zuunsak loh uh pen Zomite ngeina leh pawite a deihloh man uh, a huat man uh hilo in Christian i suah ding a deihluat na uh hi zaw ding a, hong siatsak nop man uh hi lo dingin ka um hi).

Kitenna mo vanken leh mo man tamluate zong hong zuun pih kei vua, a siangtho kitenna ahih ding, ki it tak a nungta ding cihte hong zatpih zaw uh hi. Nupa ki khenna limlim deih lo in, siangtho kitenna lo zong khalna na kipia hi. Tua banga pattahna tawh Zomite a mit uh hong keuh in leitung khuavak ciantak a mu in tuni in mailam tangtak a delh in ama insung, khuasung, gamsung leh leitung bup ah Zeisu tangthu a tangko kote hita hi.

Christian suak zawh ciangin cidamna leh siangthona lim ngaihsut in, khawlni peuhpeuh in biakin ah kikhawm in puan hoih penpen silh uh a, siangtho na pen Pasian dan hi cih tel pah uh hi. Tua manin cidamna leh siangthona nakpi in khang hi. Zeisu pan a hong pai maisak na in ‘phu kilakna’ beisak a, zu dawn kikham in niangtui leh niangphan ki limdawn a, ngeina hoihte biakna sungah damdam in ki seng hi. Christian suahna in dawi leh kau lauhna pan in Zomite suakta sakta a, kithoihna sa leh sum leh pai tampipi beite om nawnlo hi.

4.1. Khanglui biakna: Sengam pan a paikhiat un bang biakna zui hiam cih kithei lo hi. Ahi zongin biak khat nei uh a, ‘theih loh pasian’ na ci uh hi. Dawi bia lo uh a, singbul uangtum bialo uh hi. Ni leh kha zong bia lo uh hi. Dawi leh kaute in cina sak hi dingin um uh ahih manin lungkimsakna dingin na thoih uh hi. Thoih cih ciangin anpia, antah, gilvah sak, lungkimsak cihna hi. Thupha a deih manin bia lo uh hi. Thupha ngahna dingin ‘theih loh pasian’ kiangah kithoih uh hi. Sengam pan a zatsa uh hi ding hi. Chindwin luidung, Khampat, Ciimnuai, Geeltui, Tedim a tun tan un zong biaknaten a zang lailai uh hi.

4.2. Pau Cin Hau biakna: 1900 kumin Biakna thak piang hi. Pau Cin Hau in Maang mu in, Pasian in a muhsak bangin biakna phuan a, lai tawh pia pah ahih manin Laipianpa kici in, Laipian Pawlpi zong kici hi. Tuni in hih biakna a zui omlai hi.

4.3. Christian suahna: Laipian Pawlpi a pianzawh tawh kiton phial in Zomite kiangah Christian biakna zong hong tung a, a sawt lo in lai tawh hong kithuah pah hi. Carson in kum nga a sepzawh, kum 1904 ni in Christian suak masa Thuam Hang leh Pau Suan hi.

4.4. Zogam missionary te: USA pan Zogam ading misionary masa pen Arthur E. Carson March 15, 1899 niin Zogam a zi Laura L. Hardin tawh hong tungin, April 1908 niin si a, Dr. East in vui hi. Dr. E. H. East pen March 21, 1902 in hong tunga, October 3, 1910 in ciah kik hi. John Herbert Cope December 21, 1908 niin Haka hong tunga, September 29, 1910 in Tedim hong tung hi. Biakin masa pen February 17, 1906 niin Khuasak ah hong a, Topa ankuang masa pen tua lai ah kilui hi. Thuciam Thak bu 1936 in kikhen a, June 11, 1938 niin leitung nusia hi. Carson tawh hankhuk kizom in Haka ah kiphum hi.

Franklin O. Nelson pen December 2, 1939 ni in Tedim hong tung a, Tedim ah Lai Siangtho sang 1947 kum in phuan hi. Gamsung buaina hangin February 23, 1951 niin ciah a, hong pai kikna ding phalna ngah nawn lo hi. Robert Johnson leh a zi Elizabeth Johnson April 21, 1941 niin hong tung a, 1966 kum in ciah a, hong paikik ding uh kumpi phallo uh hi. Tua zawh ciangin Zogam a Christian biakna pen Zomite makaihna khut ah kiap a, tuni dongin kizang suak hi. 1921 kum in sia masa pen Sia Vial Nang ki kipsak hi.

V. ZOMI LAISIMNA (ZOMI EDUCATION)

5.1. Lai neihna: Savun lai i neih pen uipi gilkial in hong neksak ahih manin sawtpi zawh kum 1899 ciangin Pau Cin Hau lai kinei kik pan hi. Tua pen Zotuallai kici in kum 1922 ciangin Roman lai tawh Cope Topa in hong laihsak a ‘Zolai’ kici in, kum 1932 ciangin Zolai tawh Thuciam Thak masa pen kikhen hi. 1970 Paite pau tawh Laisiangthou buppi kizo. 1977 Tedim Lai Siangtho kizo.

5.2. Tualsuak Lai Hun (AD 1400 malam): Zomiten tanglaiin lai kinei a, savun tunga kigelh ahih manin Savun Lai (or Tualsuak Lai) kici hi. A hun pen a tangthu pan Zomite Kawlgam pan Khamtung i peem cil lai ahih manin AD 1400 malam hi ding hi. Zosuante lakah Zomi bekin ‘Lai’ cih kammal kinei a, Pawiten Kawlpau kawmin Sa ci uh a, Luseiten vaipau kawmin Lehkha ci uh hi. Tua ahih manin Zomite in tanglaiin lai nei ngei takpi i hihna leh Savun lai pen Zomite a ahihna kilang hi. Tua savun lai pen ui in tuah mang ahih manin lai kinei nawnlo hi, kici hi.

5.3. Tuallim Lai Hun (AD 1900 malam): Khanglui huna i pu i pate in lai neilo theilo uh ahih manin thu pen lungsim leh la tawh na ciamteh uh hi. A gal mat sa mat zah uh singkhuam dawnah sa lu gal lu suangin khau khihbawkin ahi zah na ciamteh uh hi. Suang hiam suiin a sa mat a gal mat uh lim bawlin zong khawmualah na phut uh hi. Pau Cin Hau lai i neih zawh panin a lim bek hi nawn loin a thu tawh kihelkhawm to hi. Tu dongin kimu thei omlai hi.

5.4. Zotual Lai Hun (AD 1900-1930): 1900 kum pawlin Pau Cin Hau Lai or Laipian Lai or Zotual Lai kici Lailui khua, Pau Cin Hau (1859-1948) in mang a muhna pan 1896-1898 kum sungin kammal khatteh laimal khat ta ahi laimal 1050 bawlkhia a, laibu-in bu guk suah hi. 1901 kumin khaw 13 pan mi 51 sinin siam uh a, tuaten amau khua ciatah midang hilhsawn uh hi. Galpi Khatna sunga France pai Zomite leh innlam ten lai kikhakna in a zat theih sun uh hi a, tua in Zomite lakah Zotual lai kizeel mahmah ta hi. Tua ahih manin ABM missionary Rev. J. H. Cope in zong 1931 kumin Mualtung Thuhilhna bu bawlna-in Zotual lai na zang hi. Chin Hills Deputy Commissioner Lt. Col. Burne leh Rev. J.H. Cope’ malakpihna tawh 1936 kumin Thang Cin Kham, Pau Za Dong, Cin Khaw Gin leh Sian Khaw Cin ten puahpha uh a, consonant 21, vowel 16, tonal sign 20 suahin a vekin laimal 57 phasak uh hi. Tudong Laipian Pawlpi sungah kizang lai hi. 1981-1997 sungin Kawlzangah Zotual lai sinna 30 vei kibawl a, tua-ah sia 38 in hilhin mi 1833 in siamna certificate ngah uh hi. Zotual lai pen 1900-1930 kikal sungin lim kizat bel a, tu dong Laipian pawlpi sungah kizang suak hi.

5.5. Mangtual Lai Hun (AD 1908 pan): Tulai taka i zat leh i zat suak ding zong hih tuak Mangtual Lai (or Zolai or Ni Sagih Lai) i cih pen 1908 kuma Rev. J.H. Cope (1882-1938) hong tun phetin Zomi Christian suak masa pen Khawsak khua-a Pau Suan leh Thuam Hangte nih Hakha-ah samin Zopau kihilhsak a, tua pan Mikang laimal (Romannised script) tawh laimal hong bawlsak kipan pah hi. Pau Suante hilh Zopau pen Sihzang kam hi a, tua tawh 1908-1910 sungin laimai 40 a pha laisimbu bawlin, Tedimah 1911 kum pan nitaak sangah sinsak hi. Ahi zongin Rev. Cope in mikim in Sihzang kam tel khinlo cih nung muh nunawh a, tua sawng teng pau leh lai vaiah a vanglak mahmah hun ahi hi. Sangah Kawllai a kihilh zawh a kum sawma sim pha khin ta si, Pau Cin Hau Lai lah kilim zat mahmah khin ta si, tuapi maha Roman script tawh laimal hong bawlsak Rev. Cope pen bang pau tawh laihilh suak a, bang laimal zang suak ding cihah na lungbuai mahmah hi.

Tua ahih manin 1919 kumin Tedim uk sunga hausa lian teng samkhawmin bang kam tawh laihilh ding cih genpih a, Sihzang kam mah tah veve hi. Tuimui hausapa Guite Mang Za Thang in, “Ko Sihzang kam tel khinlo ung a; ko kam lah midangten tel khin tuanlo ding na hih manun Kam Hau kam (Tedim pau) hi leh kitel kim pen ding hi,” a cih leh hausa dangten bangmah genlo uh ahih manin Tedim pau zat dingin thukimna bawl uh hi. Tua zawh a sawt lo, 1922 kumin kumpite in Falam khua pen Chin Hills phualpi ahih ciang taangkam pianna dingin Chin Hills bupah Laizo (Falam) pau tawh laihilh ding cih thupiak bawl hi. Rev. Cope in Zomite adingin Tedim pau leh Roman script tawh bawl laimal mah hoih pen ding hi, ciin pan khawh a, tua hangin Chin Hills Deputy Commissioner, Mr. Burne tawh kimukhial dekdek heel uh hi. Zomite laimal ding Roman script tawh bawl pen Royal Asiatic Society in zong 1912 kumin hoih a sak pen thu na pulak zo hi. Hih tawh kisai 1920-21 sungin Falamah leh 1923, October 23 niin Maymyo Chin Education Rev. Cope pen Chin Hills-ah lai lama naseem pen hi si ahih manin a tawp a tawpah Chin Hills bup sang vai thuneihnateng (Honorary Inspector of Schools) Rev. Cope tungah ap in, a deih bangin 1925 kum pan Zogama primary school tengah Kawllai kiphiatin Tedim pau, Hakha pau, Falam pau leh Chinbok pau teng tawh laihilh hong kipan to hi. Hih bang teng hang tawh Rev. Cope pen Zomite in Sangmangpa kici a, Cope topa cih tawh min nih kitangsak hi.

VI. ZOMI MAILAM (THE ZOMI ROAD AHEAD)

6.1. Tu laitak Zomite: Tu laitak in Zomite pen leitung hun tawh kizui in gamdang ah zong zinkhia ta in, Piantit pai zawh I gamlek lai tak hi ding hi.

6.2. Mailam Zomite: Mailam Zomite pen leitung khantohna tawh kituakta ding a, pil nuntak khinta ding uh hi. Nek ding ankham ciat ding uh a,

THUKHUPNA:

Kum tulthum sung Zomite khangthu ah kum tulnih leh zanga sung ukpite ukna nuai ah nungta in kum sawmnga sung i suakta pan hi. Singbul suangbul bia nawnlo in a nungta Pasian bia in nuntakna ann Lai Siangtho sim in i laamlaam ta hi. Kam tawh tangthu kihilh sawn hi nawnlo in laitawh at in laibu in i keemcing a, gal leh sa tawh kidelh nawn lo in pilna siamna i delhzaw ta hi. Dawi leh kaute kihta nawnlo in nit ding, siangtho loh ding i lauzaw ta a, lungdam huai hi.

(This article is meant for the “Zomi Baptist Churches Silver Jubilee Souvenir, 2007” by HZC, Taipei, Taiwan, July 25, 2006)

Laibu ette

  1. J. Thang Lian Pau (editor), Zolawkta, Aizawl, www.zolawkta.com
  2. Cin Do Kham, Journal of Asian Missions, 1999, pp. 205-222.
  3. Zolus, Yangon
  4. Khup Za Go, Zo Aw Thukizakna, 1986, Guwahati.
  5. Khup Za Go, Leivui Panin, 2004, CLC, Guwahati
  6. Chin Baptist Association Silver Jubilee (1961-1986) Souvenir, Lamka
  7. B. Lalthangliana, Mizo Chanchin, 2001, Aizawl
  8. Siamsinpawl Annual Magazine, Golden Jubilee Special Issue, 1996, Lamka.
  9. Zolawkta Thukizakna Kum Thum Cinna (1994-1997), Aizawl.
  10. Zomi Inkuan Laibu, 1972, Tedim
  11. Vaphual Magazine, 2004, Delhi
  12. Robert G Johnson, History of the American Chin Mission, 1988, vol. I, Valley Forge, USA
  13. E.H.East, Burma Manuscript. Edited by C. Thang Za Tuan, Yangon, Myanmar: Christian Literature Center, 1996.
  14. The Zomis are not headhunters as some people said, R. G. Johnson reported that “The Zomi were not cannibals nor headhunters like their cousins the Nagas to the north, nor were they savage.” (“The Church in the Chin Hills”, in Burma Baptist Chronicle Edited by Maung Shwe Wa, Rangoon: Burma Baptist Convention, 1963, pp.384).
  15. The names of the first converts in Chin Hills were Pau Suan, a chief, age 27, and his wife Kham Ciang; Thuam Hang, also a chief, age 36 and his wife, age 30. These couples were baptized by E. H. East at a small stream called “Pok Loy River” at Khuasak, Northern Chin Hills on May 11, 1905.
Source ; http://hauzacin.blogspot.com/ .

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Item Reviewed: ZOMI (ORIGIN, CULTURE, RELIGION, EDUCATION) Gelh - Dr. Hau Za Cin, Taipei Description: Rating: 5 Reviewed By: Cinpu Zomi
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