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2015 August kipat lam aa I tuahkhaak mincim (landslide or debris flow) tawh kisai ahangding kaihkhopna.

2015 August kipat lam aa I tuahkhaak mincim (landslide or debris flow) tawh kisai ahangding kaihkhopna

Hang Khan Lian
August, 10, 2015, Singapore
Thupatna

2015 July khabei leh August kha kipat lam in adiakdiak Zogam ah nipikhat taang guahciin na dungzui in luineu, lui, gun tuite thakhatthu in ong khang in, luidung khempeuh nawk kek genloh lei kidawh khempeuh tai, zunglot, nawk khia in, khua leh khua kikawmna lampi teng cim, lo tampi sia ban ah khua tampi cim, khang, kia in Zogam bup dongtuahna lianpi ong tungsak hi.

(Hih khuahun siatna hang in supna, baaina bangzah om cih a kikansaan laitak ahihi)

Hibang thu ong piankhiatna ahang ding I kaihkhop ciang ahithei ding teng hih anuai aa bang hiding hi.

1. I Zogam lei tang mahmah kiplo
2. Mual leh guamte (lei lup zia) khamh lua (topography, very steep slope)
3. Khuahun sia (Extreme weather condition)
4. Singkung lopa bei (deforestration)
6. Lampi kipheng zik ( road construction)
7. Zin ling (earthquakes)
8. Suanglaakna (quarry)
1. Zogam leitang (Geology of the area)
Zogam leitang icih ciangin Zogam kilamna lei (soil), suang (rock) leh tuate agennuam ihihi.

Lei (Soil)

Zogam ah I lei ngiat pen zangsung dan aa kumsim aa kibehlap hizawlo in kumsim guahtui nawk bang, mualbaang lei ahihman in sah lo ban ah, suanglai suang icih phyllites, slate te pan aa ong piang suangmuat (weathering) icihte, hawl lei tawh kilam ahihi. Asahna mun ah 3ft ciang bangbek hi in, tua nangawn lei taak nam hilohi. Guahtui tu leh tawm vei sungin leisung lutsuk pan vingveng nam, akhangsa aa om ahihi.

Tua bang lei, suangmuat (weathering rock)te nuai ah, a kitamzan (crushed, fragmented) phyllites or slate suangzawl (bed rock) hi-in, kitamzan khin ahihman in a kip hetlo hilaihi.

Tui kawt leh nal mahmah, pawm tawh thuah lai ahihman in tolh khiat ding a kigingsa den aa om tawh kibanghi.

2. Topography/ physical features of the area Zogam

I leimai tang en lehang mual leh guam mawkmawk bekzong hilo, khamh (steep slope, slope angle >45 degree) mahmah bek hilo tuipi maitang pan 4000ft – 6000ft (above sea level) ahihman in, galet in ahoih phial hang aphual ah ken baang (scarp) cihding ahihi. Va khoih kha lehang a nuailam, luitaw lam a zuan lianding ahi kingkiang aa om hikhinzo hi. I khoih khaak loh hang zong a mathu leh ama’ thu aa tolh niloh, a tolhtolh ngei na hilaihi.

3. Extreme weather condition

Leitung mipil te’n I khua hun sia semsem hi ci uh aa, khat veivei guahtui tamlua, khat veivei keu lua, huihpi guahpi ki pei tengtung thei cihte leh a diakdiak in Elnino acih tuipi lumna tawm a kahna in leitung mun tuamtuam ah khuahun zehphi sak hi.

Zogam leitangh tung ah hih khuahun sia ong tunciang, I leitang in thuak zo mahmah lohi. Ama’ thu aa luitawng zuan nuam a menmen kimlai guahtui um aa bel aa buak ong batciang, ni kizom aa ong zuk ciang, leisung ah lut, suangzawl tawh kituak, lutsuak zo nawnlo, khawl, kicing, vung, a tung aa leiteng buancim suaksak, (phukhia tuisamh phul) luitawng zuatpih (debris flow), Zogam teng nawk kek hiziauhi.

2015, tutung in Zogam aa guahzu nikhat >8” inches (>200mm) bang himawk ahihman in Zogam mual leh guam, lei leh suang aa ding tamlua khin zohi.

4. Singkung lopa bei

Zogam ah singkung lopa phukloh ding a gengente mu maw, mat maw, hamu maw khatpeuh khai in kingaihsunhi. Ahihna ciang zong ommahhi. Singphuk, singtom nuamlua mahmah in ci aa sing kisat hilo in, nisim anhuan nading, i inn ding, i lo ding top kulhi. Nuntakna hamsa, sumlutna omlo kawmkal ah, Sente (Chinese) thu tuamtuam theih in ong lap lai ahihman in ‘paak zong’ ci-in a paakbek hilo tua paakte pona singkunglianpi teng zial mang, phuuk mang hihang.

Ei kiang aa I phukbek hilo in Kawlzang, Kawlgam bup singkung lopa nangawn ki khuahsiang khinzohi. Hunkhat lai in leitungbup ii 80% dolkung, Kawlgam ah omhi kici aa tu’n beitahi. Abei khitciang a phukding kikhaam san hihang. Tua huzap in khuahun siasak, zehphi sakhi.

Tua gu athuak ihihi. Pawl khat in bang kisaina omhiam ici kha dinghi.
(a) Singkungpi teng om nawnlo ahihman in khua hun mansak nawnlo hi.

(b) Singkung, lopa om nawnlo ahihman in van pan aa ong kia bangbang leisung kidenna hi. Van leh lei kikal tawmvei a khawl nading om nawnlohi. Singkungpi khat ii surface area pen a po na lei maitang sang azah tampi in lianzaw aa, guahtheu khit ciang guahtuite damtak taakkik sak hi. Tuahangin guahzuk ciang singpi nuai a bel thei ihihi.

(c) “Khuapi guahzu leh sataang hal” cih khat nei hihang. Khuapi guahzu ciang in lei kawtsak nailo, lei nomsak nailo cihna ahihi. Singkung lopa ban ah lei maitang atuam singteh, lopa, singhiang muat tengin leisung lutpah ding guahtui na keem, nah up, nadal phot laihi.

(d) Lei tu khempeuh lutsuak pah vingveng in tawmvei sung in suangzawl dong tungsuak pahhi. Ground water level kahsakhi.

(e) Leitang kiplo teng a lenkhawm, a man, akaituah ding singzung om nawnlohi.

Tuahang in tukum guahciin ciang adiakdiak in, pak zonna Thangmual dungteng in thuak phadeuh hihang.

5. Lam lianpi thak zikna

Mincim atamzaw I etciang hih lamlianpi zik tawh kizom, lam lianpi hang aa piang ahihlam kician mahmahhi.

Kumpi thak in Kawlgam khantohna dingin kizop kikawmna lampi, khuakhat leh khua khat kikal lampi hoih ding ong hanciam uh aa lungdam huai mahmahhi. Khua khat leh khua khat kikal mawtaw lam lianpi kizik pah in zong nuamtakpi (asia I tuah masiah) tuamhi.

Hun tomkal sung aa sepding aa ong gel uhciang thanemna tampi omhi.
Lampite engineerte’n geel, encik manlo, kisawllo, kul kisalo, akullam phawklo, kulsak manlo, ii tualzik ahihman in, Ataktak “lampi zik” cihpen atuam khat in gen lehang amah leh amah kiptak aa omsa slope khat a va tosat, a va susia ihihi. Tua hi aa Lamlianpi ii zik ciang ii ngaihsut ding athupi mahmah khat in, “ama’ om ngeibang tawh kinai penpen aa ii omsak zawhding” ahihi.

(a) lamphung sang lua
I gensamah bangin Zogam leitang pen a kipnam hihetlo, a tolhnam hizaw ahih manin lamphung sanglua leh tolh, kicim hipahhi. Munkhat tolh khin leh banpai, kizom, kizui pah hilaihi. Munkhatkhat ah a kuambup a tolh baang, a tolh ngeikhin hilai ahihman in tua bang kuam ah lampi ii zik ciang, guahzu lopi in zong tolh hilelhi. I lei kiplo mahmah cihna ahihi. Zogam leitang lamphung 10ft-12ft ciang a valnak leh khuakhal hun a tolh kei zongin tuk hun, guahtui kiat hun tolh hamtang zaw hi. Tuasang sanzawk a kulleh cialbawl hamtang ding kisamhi.

Amah leh amah akipua, kanglingliang aa om kimlai I ziktan ciang atung aa teng puading a sutat suak ihihman in a tung aa teng ong kiasuk, akicimsuk ahihlam phawk lehang I kidop danding kithei pahhi. Ataktak Zogam ah lamlianpi zikhuailohi. Azaina 36ft lampi ngah nading lam phung in mualdawn ciang aphaakloh phamawh ahihman in deihngam huailo hi.

(a) Guah tui ong kiat ciang tui luan nading hawkguam mel omlo,
Tuiluan nading hawklam ziklo limlim ihihman in tui in lamdung tawn, lamdung ah kicing tua tengmah sunglut pah in lamphung, lamnuai kicimsak, phukeek hipahhi. Guahtui peuhmah hawklam tawn aa amanlang thei penpen aa aluan khiat nading I lamzik zah mah in thupi ahihlam phawkkhalo hihang.

(b) hawkguam kibawl sunsun kigina bawllo, tui luang zahding leh hawklam kituaklo,
Hawklam I bawlciang hawktui in a lei anekzawh nawnloh nading akip, akho theithei aa bawlding ban ah leinen, suangthem, nin in akhaak zawhloh ding aa bawlding, tuiluang peuhmah koltak suakta tak aa aluan theih nading aa bawlding himah taleh, hawkguam bawl nading sum (budget) tuam kiatlo ahihman in lam kizik thak peuhmah hawkguam om mello hilaihi.

(c) hawk aluan ngeina ah luang saklo, 
Guahzuk ciang hawktui in leitung piancil aa kipan a tot ngeina khat a omsa ahihi. Mihingte in lampi I zik aa, inn I lam zong in hih lei’ pianzia ii palsat khaakleh ki elpuak lian ahihman in mun leh mual in pua zolohi. Lamdung aa I hawklam bawl khempeuh a luan ngeina hawkguam ah khia pahpah lehang buaina a om hetlo ding kimlai, zik theih hitah ci aa lampi bek ii thupi sakciang, hawktuite ngeina I lumlet sak ciang I gam I lei hibang ciang a tung ahihi.

(d) leizik khiat (cuttings) teng kithang buak, lamnuai, lamkhang ah kibua ziau,
Lampi khat a kizik nakleh tua lampi nuai khempeuh gamsia, bangmah pozo nawnlo, bangmah aa kizang thei nawnlo suaksak hihang. Lei tawh khiat teng lamkhang ah buasuk ziau, gam leh lei, singkung lopa kepding phawk nawnlo, lampi omding bek thupi salua kha hihang. Tua I zikkhiat teng guahtui ong kiatciang tolh khat kisuah in tuateng in alawm, agual ding nazot beh, nakaihbeh in mincim sang a siahuai zaw hawklom (debris flow) icihte ong piang ahihi.

(e) Leilup zia et kul
Zogam ah mun tam simsim mincim bang, akia bang, atolh bang ahihi. Hihmunte a leilup zia en lehang leikip nawnlo ahihlam kician mahmahhi. Hibang munte ah lampi, lei, inn I lamding ciang kidop mahmah kul sem hi. Atolh, akia, acimbaang leitang kip nawnlo hi. Totloh a phamawh ahihleh khuam lianpi phut aa lei dawh namte, (sum tambei taleh) hanciam huaihi.

6. Zin
Khamtung gam pen Himalaya mual I a zom aa ong piang ahihi. Himalaya mual kuam, Khamtung gam, Rakhine mualdung cihte pen mipilte muhna ah, Eurasian lei phengpi (Eurasian plate) leh Indian lei phengpi (Indian plate) nih kinawkna (convergent) pan aa ong piangkhia mual leh guam ahihi. Ama’ thu aa om Eurasian Plate pen leitawm lam pan aa ong kuanto Indian Plate in ong phuttoh ciang, (15cm/year), Indian Plate leisung lam ah tumsuk in, a kiphutma aa tuipi taw aa leidat teng a kil ah kitatna pan hih mualteng ong pianghi ci uhhi. Tuni dong khawlsawm nailo uh ahihman in atat sim, akinawk, akigawi sim in zin ling hipahhi. 

Tuma kha kua sung in Khamtung gam leh a kiim a paam ah zin 10 vei val bang ling aa I phawk om iphawkloh tamzaw kan laihi.
Hizah aa zinling mun ahihman in I leitang mahmah khangkham, pawm, kikhep (folded), kitamzan khin hi. I mual I guam kham (steep slope) lai ahihman in zinlin sim cimkhia nuam, naklin deuh leh cim, tolh khia ding dinmun aa om ihihi.

7. Quarry (Suang laakna)

Ut bang in kiphenglaak ciat aa, a la masa ding kidembawl lai hihang. Kumpi thuneite control ding ahihi.

8. Underground water

Tutung aa ituah tuikhanzia I etciang a lamdang mahmah khat omhi. Hizahta tui khan nading guah bangzah taktak zu hiamcih ahihi. Guah ciin bel ciin mahhi.Kumdang in ah ee, hizah in ciin ngeilo maw? cihhuaihi.

Atung aa I gensa teng kigawmtuah ahihi. Tawmvei sung in guah zu tamlua, kizomlua, azu zahzah thakhatthu in leisung ah lutpah, leisung alut nading a khaam, adal om nawnlo, I lampi zikte in leitang a kipua dimdiamding tosat, lamzikna pan aa leizik khiatte a tolh baang aa nusia, hawk lampi kikhaak, hawk in a totngeina tawn nawnlo, I leitang a khaangkhamsa aa om, I leitang a lenkip ding om nawnlo, tuateng in anawkciang a guhdong kheuhsuk, leinuai aa omsa tui in behlap, ong tolh, ong nawnkkeek.

Tuahangin tuikhangbek hinawnlo in buannawng hawk luang (debris flow) bangin aluanna kuam khempeuh anawkkek, I leibul teng anawkkhia ahihi. Hizah aa lei (bridge) kisia om ngeilohi.

Tuabek hilo a tun sukna zangkuam teng ah buannawng kicing sakhi. Kazak khialh kei leh munkhatkhat ah buannawng 3ft bang sah kicihi.

Atawpna ah Zogam ah mincim bek hilo in I leitang hoihteng zanggam kidenna suk cihding ahihi. Maikum ciang zanggam ah an hoih mahmah dinghi.

Hunkhat ciang Zogam pen Afghanistan bangding aa suangmuat mualbek muhkhaak in omta dinghi.

Tua ahihman in, ei lam pan I gam I lei I keptheihna lampi I zon kultahi. Kumpi thuneite’n panpih huaihi. Apil asiam, atheite thu manhuai hi.

1. Kumpi in huhna ong piatah, sum omtah ci-in I gam ilei mawk zik gawp loding. Lamzik ding company khempeuh in engineer makaihna tawh zikding. Kumpi lam pan atheite’n hoihtak encik, makaih ding.

2. Lamphung sanna pel ding. Galpi nihna WWII lai aa mangkang engineerte lampi tuni dong hoihlaihi. Kawlgam engineerte’n, makaite’n etteh taak mahmah hi. 

3. Lamzikna pan aa I tawhkhiat leitang lamkhang ah mawk paih loding. 

4. Leikipna zongding, mincim bang, minlei ah mawtaw lam, lei ziklo, lamlo ding.

5. Lamzik ciang hawklam thupi sak, gina tak bawl ding. Hawk in a totngeina hawklam lui mah tawn sak ding, mualzang dung zui khawng ah hawk mawkkhiat loding.

6. Singkung lopa, adiakdiak sing kung golsate mawkphuklo ding. Suanbeh, ciin beh ding.

7. Munzang omtah ci-in nga khuk, bual, tuikholna mawk bawllo ding. Tuabang bual, ngakhuk I bawlciang underground water level khangsak hi.

8. Leikhangkham a omleh guahtui lutloh nading vukpah ding, singno suan ding. 

9. Tuisam ong phul leh tungsiah ah zasak ding.

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Item Reviewed: 2015 August kipat lam aa I tuahkhaak mincim (landslide or debris flow) tawh kisai ahangding kaihkhopna. Description: Rating: 5 Reviewed By: Cinpu Zomi
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