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Ka Muhpak US Gamthu Pawlkhat. Agelh: Awn Za Pau

Ka Muhpak US Gamthu Pawlkhat
Agelh: Awn Za Pau

Nisuahna leh Nitumna Kilamdanna
   America ka paima in kuama phawkkhak khol hetloh thu kidotna aa, kua mah in a hel ngei khol hetloh uh, singkung nam tuamtuam bang singkungteng a po zen tam, eilam ate tawh akibang keek nam cih ka theihnop gige pen khat ahihi. US 50 states lakah state (27) val ka pai khin zo ta a, abupi in  Mountain Region leh Iowa State akipan akitang pheiphei leilu lamteng New York State, Pensylvania State cihte pawl lo buang akhung lam teng ka pha nai kei hi. Ka paina lamdung tengah ka khuadak kawikawi a, eilam a tawh kibang singkung lopa lakah, taaksing leh lopa/gampa bekmah ka tam muh hi.

   New York khuasungah a suan tawm mah uh hi’n cin, vanghsing ih cih a paaksante Kawlpau in Seinpannyi acihte kung golpipi ka mu a, a paak laitak ahihi. Gamlak a po guakung ka mu mahmah kei hi. Nahtang kung leh haikung zong ka mukha mahmah kei hi. Florida State ah thankung (palm tree) leh a suan tawm uh taaksing pokhawm ngelhngalh khawng ka mu hi. Ei lam a vau sing ih cih Kawl pau in swedaw acih eilam ah khuakhal nisat hun lai mahmah a, a paak vaukungte a kisuan tawm vive khuasung khawngah kimu thei hi.

   Tua lo ei lam a, ateh pulh ngei lo sialsawlsing, gelsing, limsing cih bang namte ka mukha mahmah kei hi. Amau gamah taaksing nam tuamtuam (Pine Family), Cypress Family sung a om ateh hiam sengsang mahmah singkung pawl khat leh Magnolia Family sung a om Southern Magnolia, Sweetbay Magnolia, kici a teh a peek gol leh a sah piante lo buang a tehpulh nam vive ahihi.

   Atung a ka gen ei lam singte tawh ka teh theihloh gamsung apo akungbup a, ateh pulh ngeilo (evergreen) singkung namkhat leh taaksing nam tuamtuamte lobuang a khempeuh in a tehpulh nam (deciduous) vive hi a, November kha akipan a teh pulh dingin kithawi in November kha bei December kha sungin pulh siangin Winter hun phalbi hun tung pahhi. Mualtung elvn: 3000’ tungsiah ah ahonhon a po taaksing nam tuamtuam tam mahmah hi.

   Taaksing nam tuamtuam Pine family sungah: USA ii nisuahna lam a po, Balsam Fir, Fraser Fir, Tamarack, Red Spruce, White Spruce, Black Spruce, Jack Pine, Shortleaf Pine, Slash Pine, Longleaf Pine, Table Mountain Pine, Red Pine, Pitch Pine, Eastern White Pine, Scots Pine, Loblolly Pine, Virginia Pine, Carolina Hemlock, cihte hi a, nisuahna lam ah nam 18 tak om hi.

   Nitumna lam ahi California, Oregon, Washington State dung suk tengah: Pacific Silver Fir, Bristlecone Fir, White Fir, Grand Fir, Alpine Fir, Californian Red Fir, Noble Fir, Subalpine Larch, Western Larch, Brewer’s Weeping Spruce, Engelmann’s Spruce, White Spruce, Black Spruce, Colorado or Blue Spruce, Sitk Spruce, Whitebark Pine, Colorado Pine, Knobcone Pine, Mexican Pinyon, Lodgepole Pine, Pinyon, Apache Pine, Limber Pine, Jeffrey Pine, Sugar Pine, Intermountain Bristlecone Pine, Singleleaf Pinyon, Western White Pine, Bishop Pine, Ponderosa Pine, Parry Pinyon, Monterey Pine, Digger Pine, Southwestern White Pine, Torrey Pine, Bigcone Douglas Fir, Douglas Fir, Western Hemlock, Mountain Hemlock cih akipan nitumna lamah nam 43  bang kikhen thuahthuah lai a,  nisuahna lam a nam 18 tawh gawm leng nam 60 val bang hi zen hi. Redwood kici sing agol mahmah leh a khanto mahmahte akung mam heha vive zong kimu thei hi.

   Taaksing nam tuamtuam a theihsa nam tampi hizahta lakah ei gam a po namkhatte koite taktak pawl hi ding hiam cih zong ka gen cian thei meel kei mai hi. Kawl gamah amah leh amah a po nam khat khawng bekmah ih gam ih lei ah ih nei a, hih lamah a sanna amun amual leh a khuahun tawh kizui in taaksing nam tampi kimu thei hi. A honhon in aciing aciing in etlawm takin po ngelhngalh hi. A kuamah peuh in pheng phuk hetlo in amah leh amah in khangto sak ngilhngelh uh a, a gam a lei a guam a mual tawh etlawm sak mahmah uhhi.

   Tua lo siah, elevation 3,000 nuai a po singkungte pen a khempeuh phial mahin a teh pulh nam vive mah hi a, a teh pulhlo a om sunsunte pen amah leh amah a, a po hi peuhmah lo in akisuan tawm vive ahihi. Ni suahna leh nitumna, leitung langkhat leh langkhat tuak ahih mah bangin atunga kong gelh taak sing nam pawl khat leh gampa lopate lo buang ei lamah akibat pih singkung a om hetlo zaw hi mai hi.

   Ateh pulh namte pen nam  tampi mah om a, ei nisuahna lam a po singkungte khat zong tawh kibang lo hi. Walnut family sung a om singkung nam tuamtuam, Beech family kici sung a oak tree nam tuamtuam, Rose family sung a kihel a paak hoih thei mahmah leh a gah nei singkung nam, Willow family sung a kihel singkung pawl khat leh  Maple family sungah lah singkung atehte a meel kikhelkhel singkung nam tampi adil adil in na om phengphang lai mawk a, a tehpulh nam vive hi khin phial hi.

   Atehte a pulh maa in ani ani in ameel atuamtuam in hong kikheelkheel hi. Amasa in singgah min ding aa kithawi bangin a tehte hong ang hiuhiau masa hi. Tua zawh ciangin hong puang hiuhiau hi. Tua zawh teh aisan meel bangin hong eng sim deda hi. A sawtteh coffee meel bangin hong dupsan silsial in etlawm mahmah hi. A singteh meel puak dan uh pen singkung khat leh khat kibang kim hetlo a, a meel a tuamtuam kihelh bilbialin galva gamlapi pan kigalmuh thei kawikawi hi. Pawl khatte hong ang phot aa, tua zawh teh hong au in hong pulh lel hi. Pawl khatte a dum mel pan hong san hiauhiau in tua zawh the coffee meel hong sun aa hong pulh hi. 

   Singkung khat tung bekbek ah a tehte a meel kikheel dan kituak lo in ateh meel a tuamtuam pua thei lai mawk hi. Singkung pawl khatte leuleu teh a kung bup in a tehte a ausan tawh a aukaan tawh a dup san a, a eng lee-laa tawh November khasungin a meel tuamtuamin kikhen a muhna peuh in ih mit hong la thei mahmah hi.

   Tua zawhteh huih dam zong limh nunh thei mahmah a singtehte ani ani in pulh cihtakin pulhpulh ta hi. Tua pen Fall or Autumn kici hi. December kha sungin atehte pulh siang kiuhkeuh in akungkeu tawh kibang linlian hi. Taaksing leh adang ateh pulh ngei lo singnam khatte lo buang sing khempeuh ateh khat zong om lo in ahiang ka semsam vive bek kimu thei hi.
Fall landscape

 Winter landscape

    Tua sing hiang ka simsemte nuai a po lopate zong dum sitset zo nawn lo in puangkan heuhau ta aa, kim leh paam akimu thei gamkuam khempeuh a beisa kha thum hun sung tawh kibang nawn peuhmah lo hi. Tua hun laitakin singkung lopa khempeuh a hing tawh kibang lo in sehnel tung aa naupangte kimawlna singhiang keu kisuan tawm vive tawh kibang hi.
   Vuuk zong a munmunah kia ta a, singkung lopa khempeuh vuuk in tuamnelh thei zelzel hi. Tua bang hun ciangin mun khempeuh vuuk in tuamcip ahih manin mun khempeuh kaang pheuphau khin aa pat puanbu tawh kikhuh nelh ahih kei leh naupangte kimawlna vut kang pheuphau lak aa kisuan tawm singkung vive tawh kibang hi.


Monaco Park Apartment aa ka om lai uh vuuk kiat hun khat

Khua Lum Ciangin Singkungte Sel Kik
   Mikang pau in Spring kici March kha pan May kha sungah Phalbi hun hong bei hi. June – July – August sung pen khua khal hun hi leuleu hi. Spring hun pan kipan in khua hong lum ciangin, atehpulh singkung khempeuh hongsel din kithawi leuleu hi. Singkung pawl khatte a masa in akungbup in hong paak ziaizuai hi. Akung bup in paak zeizai ahih manin paak meel a tuamtuam, a san a kang, a naai eng cih bang bangin meel tamtuam tawh kihelh dimdiam a et lawm pha mahmah leuleu hi.

   Tua zawh teh ateh leh agah kitonin hong selkhawm hong gah khawm hi. Pawl khatte leuleu teh ateh bekmah a selpah pawl khat om leuleu hi. Spring hun pat sawng teng akipan Summer bei kuan dong singkung lopa khempeuh dum sitset leh  nim dildial ki-thuah khawm aa, etlawm silsial mahmah hun ahihi.

   US gam pen khua hun kikheel baih mahmah hi. Kum khat leh kum khat zong kibang peuhmah lo hi. Atung a singkung te bang pen March kha bei kuan ciang a, paak ding a kithawi a om patpat hangin, khua hong lum baih peuh leh March kha laizang khawng in paak dingin hong kipan khin mawk hi.

   Hih hun sungah singkung lopa nim dildial dum sitset aa etlawm mahmah hun hi tase leh,  April pan September kha ciang kha 6 hun sung pen pingpei/sumpei kipei hun, huihsia guahsia nun hun leh zuk hunin kiciamteh hi. Tua hun sung tengah “tornado prone areas” kici a tam vei pha deuh pingpeipi/sumpeipi kipei theihna munte ah a nuai aa khuapi leh gamte kihel hi.

Cities:                States:               
01. Oklahoma City, OK                    01. Kansas
02. Huntsville, AL                            02. Oklahoma         
03. Topeka, KS                                          03. Texas 
04. Tulsa, OK                                             04. Alabama
05. Shreveport, LA                           05. Nebraska
06. Nashville, TN                              06. Arkansas
07. Wichita Falls, TX                        07. Iowa
08. Wichita, KS                                          08. Louisiana
09. Birmingham, AL                         09. Missouri
10. Lincoln, NE                                          10. Indiana


   Ahih hangin a taktak ciangin khuahun zong kum khat leh kum khat kibang kilkel lo in kikheelkheel niloh aa, gen kholh theih taktakna om nawn lo mai hi. 2013 kum November 17 ni in Illinois, Indiana leh Michigan state kim teng ah huihpi nak nun mahmahin, Washington, Illinois sungteng bangah nasia nun mahmah in inn tampi a suksiat banah mihing zong 8 tak si hi. 

   Ei Kawlgam tawh kileh bulh linlian pen, ei lamah Summer pen ih gam a keu mahmah san laitak ahihi. Hi lamah Summer kici June, July, August pen singkung lopa khem peuh hing sitset dum sitset a om hun laitak leh guah lah a utlai peuh in zu hi. A khua hun pen eilam mah bangin a sat mahmah hun ahih hangin agam uh keu gemgam cih om lo a, singkung lopa khempeuh ahing sitset hun adum dildial hun laitak hi zaw kik bilbel hi. Khuasung mun khempeuhah tui buakna ding a baihsa in kikoih khin hi. Tua ahih ziakin innmai teng khempeuh leh lamdung khempeuh lopa hoihtakin kimeet mai dikdek in eng dildial a lungnop huai mahmah hi.


Spring landscape


Summer Landscape

Khua Hun Zong Kilamdang Mahmah
   Ih Kawlgamah Tuuk, Phalbi, Khuakhal (Rainy, Cold, Summer) ci in khuahun thum bek ih nei a, khuahun a kikhen dan zong kilangh sitset hi. Hi lamah Spring, Summer, Autumn or Fall, Winter ci in khuahun nam li nei uhhi. Spring: March to May, Summer: June to August, Autumn/Fall (Fall pen Americante kamzat dan hi a singteh kiat/pulh hun a cihna mah hi pah ding hi.): September to November, Winter: December to February ahi a, khuahun nam li tak om hi.

   Rainy season a koih loh hangin guah bel zu veve hi. A lim zuk ngialteh tam thei peuhmah solnawn hi. Ahi zongin guahzuk hun cih tuan om meello in hih khuahun li sungah a utlai peuh in zu hi. A diakdiak in Oregon State bangah Rainy season akoihloh hangin guah a tam ngial ciangin kum khat in ni 300 guahzu hi tazen hi. Amau State ah a tamzaw ateh pulh ngei lo taaksing nam tuamtuam bekbek po ta leuleu a, kum tawn kha tawn in agam uh nim dildial den hi.

   Mun khempeuhah huihpi guahpi uang phadiak hi. Natural disaster kici, Hurricane, Typhoon, Tornado, Cyclone, Ice Storm, Hail Storm, Snow Storm, Sand Storm, Dust Storm, Thunder Storm, Lightning, Freezing Rain, Torrential Rain cihte akipan khuahun sia mahmah uang mahmah phadiak a, Kawlgam bang a, pheek khat leh thopuan khat tawh do zawh ding bang hi peuhmah pal lo hi. A lauhuai mahmah tornado pian hun pen kumsial in May to September kha sungteng khawng hi phadiak hi. Hih hun sungah guah a zuk loh ciangin sat cihtak in sa a, ko omna Tulsa bang ka tun zawh uh kum thum kum (2011, July kha) sungin 117F dongdong sa mawk hi. Kawlgam khua hun pen hih lam khua hun tawh tehkak leng nopcih tak mah a, a nuam ahihi.

   Ahih hangin TV sungah khua hun tawh kisai genna wheather channel a tuam vilvel in nei a, US gamsungbup khua hun a gen kholhnate (weather forcast) pen kician law mahmah hi. Nipi khatsung a genkholh pen kipelh hetlo takpi hi. A lauhuai huihsia guahsia a om hun ciangin sumpei/pingpei om leh a nawknawkna ding munte TV channel khempeuh  ah leh Radio sungah kul asak bangbangin  genkhol in ahun a phatt in kihemsak khol uhhi. Ih mobile phone sung na lengah “alarm” hong ging sak lai mawk uhhi.

   Ka khualzinna ka tuntunna ah ka kim ka pam teng ka muh kawmkawm ka et kawmkawm mah in khua ka ngaihsunsun hi. Agam uh khangto lua kisa in gam khat khantohna ding a, akisam masa bulpi (infra-structure) teng a akisapna mun tengah a kimin kicing piikpeek in bawl khin zo uhhi. A kisam bulpite ka cih ciangin gentehna in ei tel pak dingin mawtaw lampite nisuahna nitumna leh leilu leitaw zuan a kicingtak a, a ziik khit piikpeek gaihnate ih gen nopna ahihi. Tua banah a kisapna munmunah electric meivak tungsak bek tham lohin, anhuan nading bek hi lo, innsung lumsak nading ahih kei leh a vot sak nading nadongin a kul bangbang in akisam zahzah deih hunhun in kipia thei ziauziau lai mawk hi.

  Tua a bawlsate uh akisiat leh a puahpuah ding bek in sam hi. A kul nak leh a milip khanzia tawh kituak in a kulna sansan ah akul bangbang in a hunlap in lambeh toto lailai ding uhhi. A taktak in ci leng leitung panglang tuak ah a kiteng hi bek a, eimau kiang mahmah zong aa, sun leh zan kikhel tangtang a hong taang ni leh khate’ nuai a nasem silbawlte mah ahi uhhi. A mau mah tawh ih neihkhawm ni leh khate a tum hun in tum in a suah hun in hong suak hi.

   Ahi zongin atung a ka gensa amah bangin a mau gam leh lei pen khantoh cihtak in khangto in ei nisuahna lam tawh tehkak ding bang hi peuhmah lo hi. Mihing tektek a piang buang ei gam ei lei nisuahna lam gamte bang hangin hi zahta in kizekai deuh se ahiam..? Khanglui lai in ih pu ih pate’n Ni leh Kha siam cih kammal pen, gam hau gam nuamsate acihnopna in a kilimzat mahmah bangmah in, amau hoh Ni leh Kha in siam tuam pha diak takpi sese hi de hiam?.. ci in ka khuak sungah ngaihsutna tuamtuam hong phulkhia daudau thei hi.

Kum Khat In Nih Vei A Nai (Ahun) Uh Khinn
Kum sialin nih veita a nai uh khinn hi. October bei kuan November kha ciangin zingsang nai 7:00 AM in khua zing lai mawk hi. Tua ahih manin khuavak – nisuah – nitum – khuamial hun tawh kituak dingin a hun uh kinungkin sak kik aa, nai khat kinungkinsak hi. Tua mah bangin khua khal kipat nisau hong kipat March kha ciangin ni tom lai aa, a nungkin sak pen nai khat mah manlang sak leuleu hi. USA pen ei gam tawh tehna in equator saklam ah sangto zaw ahih manin ni tom hun leh ni sau hun kilamdang lua zaw ahih man ahihi. (Gtn: 2013 kum in November ni 2 ni in nai 1 nungkin sak aa, 2014 March kha ni 9 ni a kipan, tua nungkin nai khat pen nai 1 manlang – nai khat maikhin leuleu hi.)

Vuuk Kiatciang Kibuai Mahmah
   Vuuk hongkiat ciangin zankhat thu in 0.5ft - 2ft bang sahin na kia thei a, vuuk ziikkhiatna sette tawh lampite a sun a zan tenlo in vuuk nawtkhiatna sette tawh na nawkkhia man pahpah uhhi. Tua hi kei leh sawtveipipi lampi ah mawtaw a pai thei lo ding ahihi. Tua ka cih pen ko omna Oklahoma State sung agen ka hi a, Washington DC, New York khawng ah a limkiat ngial ciangin  3ft - 4ft dongdong sah mawk hi. US gam nisuahna lam tuipi gei dung teng ah (east coast) kumsialin vuuk sah tak in kia pha diak hi.

   Tua bang vuuk kiat hun ciangin vuukkiatna a munmun ah vanleeng tualte vuuk in tuam nelh ahih manin, vanleeng tu thei lo in a vuuk khempeuh a hepkhiat khit dikdek ciang bek in tu sak thei pan hi. Vuuk pen a sahna tawh kizui in ahun laak kul a, ahi zongin amau gamah vuuk nawtkhiatna sette (snow plow) tawh a sun a zanin nawtkhia pahpah ahih manin vanleng tual pen sawt veipi kikhak lua cih omlo hi.

   Vuukkiat khit ciangin temperature kah tuan kei peuh leh tuisuak tuanlo in a nilkhiatsa vuukte lamgei ah kiciang euau hi. Sawtveipi tuisuak kei leh a sawtteh khua alum hangin tuisuak thei nawn lo mawk a, leitang mah bangin mawtaw tawh nawnin a pua lamah buakkhiat kul hi. Ahih hangin US te pen ahauh mahmah bang mahin vuuk kiatkiatna ah sun tawh zan tawh vuuk nilkhia uh a, akizang mahmah lam thupite sauveipi kikhak cih bang om khol lo hi.

   Nargis Cyclone huihpi hong nun lai in Yangon a singpukte a hah siang kiuhkeuh zawh dong kha guk pan kum khat phial beek sawt ding hi. Tua zong adiakdiakin Public Works leh Irrigation Deparment panin amau set neih teng a mau nasep awl liang in akisepsak takteh akizo zo pan ahihi. Hih lai ah tua bang zah mah a, ahahtaak vuukkiate theihloh kalkal in na hah khin man pahpah hi. A vuuk guak bek pen naal khollo napi’n a vuuk tuisuak pen a khalh kik ciangin mawtaw cih thadah mihing zong kipai theilo in naal mahmah hi. Inn pawl khatte bang a mawtaw buk uh a paina neukha kham pian leh kah zo nawn lo in lamgei khawngah zantam sak tengtang uhhi.

   Guah kha khat sung phial a zuksangin vuuk in lampi ni nih ni thum sung a tuamcip pen lampi kisia zaw hi. Guah bangzahta in a zuk hangin a guahtui lamtungah kivung lo in luangkhia pahpah hi. Vuuk in ni thum ni li lampi tung atuam ciangin anuai lamah a tuisuak masasa tuite apua lamah luangkhia thei vat lo in a nuai lampi tungah tawmtawm in pailet in lutsuk (seeping) ahih manin lampi tung a tuivung mah tawh kibanga, vuuk in lampi siasak mahmah hi. Vuukte a tuisuak baihna dingin ci-al kibuak sawnsawn ahih manin atuisuak masasa al lailai a, mawtaw lampi maitang pen oltak in sia sak zo pha mahmah hi.

Khuahun In  Mihing Lungsim Hong Kheelkheel
   Kawl gam ah kum khat in khuahun thum ih nei hi. Equator kim aa teengte in khua hun khat bek mah nei ci in ih ciamteh hi. Kum khat sungin khuahun kikheelna a om loh mah bangin kim le pam singkung lopa zong kikheelna meel om lo pah hi. Kim leh paam thaksuah ngei lo hi. Kim leh pam a kikheel loh mah bangin, lungsim zong thaksuah ngei lo pah meek ding hi.

   Hih nitumna lam ah kum khat in khuahun li nei aa, khuahun kikheel sialsial in kim leh paam singkung lopate zong kikheel pah lianlian hi. Khua dam lua, khua ul lua, huih sia guah sia a tam hun leh, khua hun a nop mahmah hun cih bangin kikheel kawikawi hi. Tua khuahunte kikheel huhau in ih thuakna leh ih muhna tawh kizui in ih ngaihsutna zong kikheel kawikawi hi.

    Tua ahih manin, laigelh siam la phuak siam tektek ahih hangin, khuahun khat bek a nei gammite sangin, khuahun thum leh li a nei, gammite ii laigelh leh laphuakte aa’ pen kicing zaw, thukbun zaw leh zaknophuai zaw limlim dingin ka ngaihsun hi. Cihnopna ah tua bang aa laigelh siam laigelh minthang, la phuak siam la sak siam a suah theihna dingin a khua hun leh a kiim a paam  in pahpih mahmah hi a ci nuam ih hihi.

    Tua bek tham lohin khuahunte huhau in, leitungah laphuak minthang, laigelh minthang ih cihte hong piangkhia bek zong hi lo in, tua khuahunte pan kidalkholh theih nadingin vanzat ding kisam tuamtuamte hong phuang hong bawltawm (create/invent) thei pah uhhi. Khua hun kilamdang mahmah leh khuahun siate kigin kidal nadingin ahunhun in kiging khol uh ahih manin, a ngaihsutna sung uah kikhualkholhna lungsim vom den uhhi. Mailam ah a piang thei ding thute ngaihsun in kiging sa in om uhhi.

   Tua hi aa, a bangkim aa minthang a khangtote limlim pen, a khuahun  uh hangin a kiim a pam akinak kheelkheelna, nitumna lam gamte mahah, a tam zaw hong piangkhia hi ci in upna ka nei hi. Tua ahih manin, nisuahna lamte sangin nakpi tak a, a khantoh zawkna uh zong a tuateng huhau hang’ mah ahi teelteel tam ci-in ka ngaihsutna sungah hong phulkhia datdat hi.

America Te Mah Di’n Pha
   Kawlgamah nuam akisa lo penpen mun khempeuh, khuapi khempeuh ah meitha kicinglo in khuamial sung vive ah ki-om hi. Mei kicing pikpek in pia zo hi leh sum nei sum hauta dingin akhangto gamte nuntak dan zong enhluat ding ahi khin sam kei hi.

   US ah ahih leh mei tawh kisai innkang meikang leh huihpi guahpi suksiat ahih kei nak leh ka tunzawh meisia cih om ngei nai lo hi. Amau lam pan vaii tuamtuam hang tawh minute khat minute nih mei paisak lohna ding khat om leh ahun aphat in hong zasak tangtang masa uhhi.

   Innkuan khat a om nak leh innbuk lobuk cih neuseekna om tuan lo in mi omomna ah mei atun lohna omlo hi. A saapman a bill piak ding akihtak manin a hon kei leh cihloh buang mi omna inn khempeuhah a lum a vot piakna, tuikhal koihna, anhuanna stove, amah leh a mah a puansawpna, dalkuang siikkeu sabuai teem sawpna ding, mei awina ding inn sim ah gas tawh kithuah chimney, khut tawh kuangsilna, na khempeuh kicingtakin kikoih dimhdemh hi. A zawng a hau, a za neu a za gol kibang hi. Hih kan a innsung nazat behlap thuah ding om kasa nawn kei hi.

   Kawl gamah 1970 khit a kilam Russian Federation te embassy zumpi gei ah (nidang lai in Soviet Union ahih kei leh a sau in USSR – United Soviet Socialist Republic kici) ka om ngei uh a, a mawtaw te a pusuah leh a tum kik ciangin, a kong khakpi uh pen mihing hon kul lo in agal pan honna (remote control)tawh a hon ziauziau uh pen lamdang kisa mahmah hi. Tua bek mah akimu masa a kithei masa pen ahihi.

   USA ah zum lianpipi leh store lianpipi a, kong khakte cih thadah innsim ah a mawtaw buk honnate tangkhuasei in a na zang khin pikpek na hi mawk uhhi. A inn gei uah electric mei (bulb) te bang a kiangah ih tun bek ciang a, hong taang pan seisai vive kibulh hi.

   Khuapi sung ahizongin khua neu khua ta sungah ahi zongin akisapna khempeuhah inn khat peuhpeuh meikang patau tuak kha leh a phelhna ding tuimuk (fire hydrant) mun khempeuhah kikoih khin dimdem hi. Mei kat ciangin tuikhuk pan tui thun dihdih cih om lo in, tua tuimukte tawh bulh pah in a hun lapin meiphelhte in phelh thei pah ziauziau hi.
   Tua hi a, atung kong pulaak khiatsa innsung khat a kisam vanzat khempeuh pen kicingtak a akoih dimdemte akipan thupi mahmah ka sa a, Americate mah din kilawm kasa hi.

Ka Upmawh Zah Hi Lo
   A hi zongin Kawlgam pek aa ka huat penpen meikhuam tung a, meikhau leh telephone khau a kai neunau pen ka hua mahmah hi. A khangto nai lo a hong kiciamteh ei lam Zangkong khuasung mun khatkhat na-ngawn ah, meikhau kikhungte zang nawn lo in cable  khau leisung ah kiphum in meikhuam omnana ah kahto sak kik hi. Lamgei ah khaukai neunau omlo banah a sing a suang tawh kisukkhak  ding bangmah lungbuaina leh lauhuaina om nawnlo hi. Hun khatteh Yangon khuasung buppi ah tua bang dan vive a zang dingin zong ka upmawh gige khat ahihi.

   Kei upthu mawkmawkah zong ka ngaihsun kholkha ngei a, a khangto mahmah gamte ah leinuai vive ah meikhaute paisak ding ka sak leh US ka tun ciangin khuasung tengah meikhuam vive mah na po ngelhngalh veve hi. Tua meikhuamte tungah meikhau leh telephone khaute na kaisak neunau veve hi.

   Tua bek thamlohin a meikhuamte bang RCC (Reinforced Cement Concrete) khuam ahih keh siikkhuam bangdan a, amuanhuai vive fibre tawh kibawl khuam khawng zang inteh ka cih leh kei upmawhna bang ahi nuam ei leh, taaksing ding aa kilawm singkhuam vive na zang zaw lai uhhi. A singkhuamte pen upmawh sangin kum tampi akimang ding a, a bawl bel hi bilbel leuleu hi.

   Tua hi a, meikhuam leh meikhau pen ka upmawhna sangin thupi kasa kei zaw hi. Khuasung hotel leh zum lianpite omna lobuang akim a paam meitang ziaizuai tuan khollo hi. Lammei bang zong kicing takin mun khempeuhah kivaak khin tuanlo a mun khatkhatte ah zing sim khialkhual veve hi. Tua mahmah semm zong ka upmawh zah na hi taktak lo hi.

   A innte a tam zaw meikhuk (chimney) omna teng leh kisilna buk omna tengah 4.5 inches a sah leisek peuh tawh um niangnuang uhhi. Adangteng sing vive tawh um uhhi. Pawlkhatte a kimkot pangteng zong leisek tawh a um uh hangin 4.5 inches bek sahsak niangnuang bek a, taih inn cih dingin cihtaak hetlo hi. Huihpi guahpi a dalna ding bek mah a, a pua lam tungtham teng leisek a ciang uh ahihi. A inn bulcin (foundation) zong kician meello in, muanhuai khollo hi. A khuam bulte leisung thukpi kito a kiphut hilo a, singkuang bang a aki-nga a kibulh dan vive ahihi. A taktak a umnate sing ka cih pong mawk hangin sing taktak zong hilo in sing tawh kibang dia bawltawm vive ahihi. A sual dawh singmeel suunte bang zong singtaktak hilo lailai hi.

   A hih hangin a innlam dan uh pen a geel siam in a zatdan a nuam theithei dingin bawl uhhi. A innlam dan uh zong ei a’tawh kibang lo hi. A inn uh apua lam kawmpeek leh a sunglam deinate aman khit phitphetteh atung khuh pan uhhi. Ei kiangah a khuam phut masa in tua zawhteh liangzawl, kawmzawl, sualkal a manlang theithei in bulhin a tung ih khuh pah cingteng hi.

   Bangzahta in guah tam tase leh innsung pan kilimzak meello in guahzuk lam zong kitheilo phial zah dongin a inn uh bitsak  hi. Ei lam a siikkangte inntung khuhna dingin zang peuhmah lo uhhi. Bawngbuk sakolbuk khawng bek ah zang uhhi. Guahzuk ciang a agin ngeih lo ding metal sheet ahih kei leh wood shingle vive naak zat hi. Akhanglui innte ah kongkhak vang lian bawllo ahih manin a innsung uh mei kihong kei leh khuavak tam ngah lo pawl khat om hi.

   Bangbang ka cih hangin ei lam aa taih inn sah mahmahte leh RCC kici siik tawn leh cement, suangsi, sehneel leh tui ih gawm ciang aa a khauh mahmahte tawh a khuam ih phut leh a sual zawl (RCC Girder) te tawh ka tuatna ka tehkakna hi bek aa, a mau lamh innte pen zinling leh guahtui bangzah in zu ta leh a kho lo ding cih bel hi lo leuleu hi. Ahi zongin Tornado kici sumpei hat mahmah ahi aa, huihpi 100 – 120 MPH bang in nung zenzen leh a thuak zo ding akilam inn tawm mahmah ding hi. Tua bang a thuak zo ding inn khat pen sum tampi tak bei kul a hih manin kua mah’n kilam kim zo peuhmah lo ding hi leuleu hi.

   Mikangte leh ei nisuahna lam ate khuavak ih deih dan zong kibang peuhmah lo hi. Mikangte lamh inn a hih nak leh kisilna buk leh maiphiatna santak tengah mei a taang mahmah lela dingin bawl uhhi. Ahih hangin lengla khan ah ei lam bangin a taang theithei dingin bawl lo zaw mawk uhhi. A meel tuamtuam tawh kikhuh sabuai tung aa ngak a hih kei leh sualtung aa, a saang a ngiam deihzah aa koih theih ding meikhuat ih ci mai diam table lamp vive zang zaw mawk uhhi. Ei lamah a taang mahmah (bright light) vive ih deih zaw aa, nitumna lam a te in, a taang milmial (dim light) vive deih zaw uhhi. Tua huhau mah a hi tam.. ni taang sesa hun bang ciangin a mit un thuaklah pha diakin mitlimlang vom vive a tam zaw in bulh pah tek mawk uhhi.

   Ahuang umnate zong a tamzaw in sing vive tawh um uhhi. Ahuang umnate pen taaksing vive hi leh kilawm zaw lai a, ahih hangin seasoning a bawl kawmin chemical khat peuh tawh gawmkhawm hamtang ahi tam.. muat baih tuak peuhmah het lo leuleu hi.   Tua dai umna tawh kisai in Americante buang din ka ngaihsut kholhna sangin gina ka sa het kei zaw tham hi. A tamzaw in leisek ahih kei leh suangsek vive mah ciang linlian dingin ka upmawh hi a, tua bang na hi hethet lo leuleu hi.

   Ka inn gei lampi ah furlong khat zong a sau lo ding lampi hong bawl uh a, Kawlte pau leh nylon kattaya hong phah uhhi. A nasepna ding uh a kisam set leh vanzat (equipment) te kicing mahmah napi'n bangteng hang ahi tam, a sep uh sangin a khawl ni uh tamzaw in man zok thei mahmah lo hi. Ka innkuanpihte kiangah America ah Kawlgam bang a, a sing a suang akisap loh banah a sepna ding uh a set a bang kicing mahmah napi’n sawt vei sem sa lua ing. Yangon City Development Committee (YCDC) te zong sang’ zekai zaw lai sa ing kaci hi.

   A nasemte pen a uk lamah mikangte kihelin a sem taktakah Mexican te vive tam a mivomte tawmciik bek mah kihel hi. Pawl khatten hong genna ah nitha tawh sem ahih manin a sawt theithei dia cilbawl a sem hinteh a ci zong lah om in khatkhatte’ leuleu in a nasep zawhsa uh a siate in en photin hoih hi acih bekteh sem pai suak thei bek hi aci zong om hi. Bangbang ahi zongin Americate buang dingin tua zong zekai lua deuh peuhmah kasa hi.

   Adang khat leuleu ah inn pan cina khat peuh gim mahmah in emergency takpi mahin a nuntakna a bei ding leh agim a thuakluat ding lung patau lunghimawh in zato kilak leh zato a tun ciangin siavuan siamate’n don vat hetlo in a ngeina mah bangin a min sazian akisam teng dong phot bawl phot phitphet in cina pen nai lang pan nai khat sung bang kiveel vetlo in ki-hici koih phot tadih hi.

   Hih thu tawh kisai pen eimite tuah mun mahmah thu ahihi. Tua mun santak ah USA buang dingin deih bang saisai ka sa kei hi. Ahi zongin a sum a paai bei ding lunghimawh lo in 911 samin cina pua ambulance te tawh ahih leh bel thakhat thu in bawl in don pah uhhi.

   Tua mahmah zong First Aid tawh kisai hi ding a, old patient a natna a theihsate lobuang test bawl huaiteng gtn. Sii etna (blood test) khawng zun etna (urine test) khawng bawl masa phot a, acina sak lungnote amuh photloh in upmawh sansat bek tawh zatui zaha pia pahpah lo zaw uhhi. Siavuante’tungah zong thu kibawlthei ahih manin a natna lungno ciantheih photloh in upmawh thu tawh zatui piak ding seh mawkmawk masa ngam lo uhhi.

   Ka innsaapna huang uh leisek tawh ki-um pen, abul kip lo kho lo in kicim ding a kithawi pen phelkhia kikin a thak hong bawl uhhi. Leisek hong cian ciangin a motar zatte  a tha khauh tuak khol hetlo hi. Kawlgamah kumpi sung a, cement ka zatdan uh pen Mangkangte ciangtansa (British Standard) vive tawh kituat a kizang hi a, amuanhuai mahmah akician mahmah na hi mawk hi. Britishte in a sem abawlte gitnat loh ding leh bilatmi hoihna (cement quality) khawng deihzah a bat loh khak ding kigin kholhna tawh tampi tak a val in a muanhuaina zah ding (safety factor) tawh kisai in  akul zah ding bek sangin a muanhuai zaw tham in na bawl uh a, kician mahmah uhhi. Thu maan thu tang tawh kisem peuh leh Kawlgamah Public Works te in muanhuai in teh ci aa a khuam a zawl a sahna a golna a sehnate (structural design) pen a muanhuai thei mahmah na hi kik bilbel hi.

Ka Iplah Mahmah Inn Lam Nang Akisam Van Bawlna
   USA ah a inn lam dan uh pen ei lam aa bizu, singkuang bawldan in bawl lel uhhi. Inn dawl khat dawlnih cih thadah dawl 10-20 cih khawngte zong Kawlgam danin a khuamte leisung thukpipi tawh kulsak lo in, mat foundation akici pheek bangin concrete a sahpi in bawl uh aa, tua tungah innkhuam dingin setzung pan aa a kibawlsa siikkhuam (steel column)te bulh ziauziau hi. A umna a sual ding leh kongkhakpi kongkhak neute leh awngbuk leh kisil bukte lah bulh ziauziau ding vive in kibawl hi.

   America ah mihing nitha man tam mahmah ahih manin, inn khat lam leng a van man zah mah a sep man bei mawk uhhi. Tua ahih manin “Do It Yourself” ci in ei leh ei aa sep theih ding zon tawm theih dingin laibu bawl zihziah hi. Tua banah inn lam nading vanzuakna companyte in mi khempeuh lettama pilna a siam tek nadingin training pia tangtang uhhi. Lettama hong tam semsem ciangin a mau leh amau in a sep theih tek ciangin a van uh a lei ding hong tam semsem uh a, a van khotna ding a vaihawmhawm uh na hi gige uhhi.

   Tuate pen ih deih bangbang kivaikhak thei kilei thei hi. Tuate khempeuh setzung (factory) pan kibawl hi in Home Depot leh LOWE Company kici saite ah kizuak euau hi. Ei Kawlgamah tua bang inn van (building material) kibawl thei hi leh ei gam ei lei tawh kituak zaw mahmah kan lai in nasep zong maliau mahmah kan zaw lai ding hi. Amau gam tawh tehkakna in ei gam pen khua hun sia luat hun om lo banah zinlinna zong a khauh lua om lo hi. Ei gam aa ih inn lamzia pen a kul zah ding sangin a muanhuai zaw mahmah na hi gige hi.

   USA ah huang umna tawh kisai a sum bei ding cihna ahi zaw diam, ahih kei leh mawtaw khat peuh in taihkha thah leh kho tak a leisek tawh kiciang huang tawh akitatngawh zawk khak ding (impact & collision) a khauh luat ding adalna hoh ahi zaw tam..9”sah bang a leisek akician venvan hangin, mawtaw khat peuh in nawkkha leh akicim ziahziah dingin bawl mawk uhhi. A mortar zatte kip hetlo hi. Adeihna khat teitei omin ka um hi.

   Van tuamtuam zuakna sumbuk sai lianpi (mall) ah ka pai ciangin phalbi lai bangin khe tawh lam paina kawm ci in nai khat nai nih sung phialphial bang ka vak kawikawi a, lei ding a sawm lopi mah in van kizuak teng ka gual et (window shopping) kawikawi hi. Puansilh nikten akipan a neng a tawng na dongin Sen gam pan akibawl vive ahihi. Puansilh pawl khatte Bangladesh, India, Vietnam cih khawng zong om kawikawi hi. Mipite lei zawh ding a kizuakte ngaihsut zahin hoih lua khollo hi. Ahi zongin atam man mahmahte leizo leng ahoih mahmah bel a om lua zen hi leuleu hi.

Mang La Hoih Ih Sakte Kitam Zuak Lo
   Music tawh kisai lasiam minthangte CD, DVD kizuaknate ka muh ciangin en lo in ka om thei kei hi. Kei tangval lai leh 1970 khit aa ei Kawlgam lam a lasiam leh minthang ih sak Conway Twitty, Jim Reeves, Lobo, Dawn, The Seekers, The Searchers, Peter & Gordon, The Archies, Rolling Stones, Smokie, ABBA (Sweden), Boney M, Connie Francis, Skeeter Davis, Paul Anka, Bobby Vee, John Denver, Johny Tillotson, Frankie Avalon, Ricky Nelson, Daniel Boone, Pat Boone, Cliff Richard, Deep Purple, CCR (Creedence Clearwater Revival), Carpenters, cih a kipan Asia leh Europe sung aa minthang mahmah Denmarkte MLTR (Michael Learns To Rock) cihte pawl ka tam muh meel kei hi.

   Amau kiangah State khatsung tekah zong lasiam tam mahmah lel uh a, tuate lasak vive ih zak ngei kholloh vive na tam hi. Amau State sung a lasa siamte tawh a na lungkim hithiat lel ngeel zong tampi tak mah om a hih manin, Kawlgam a hoih ih sak te pawl pen hi lamah na kiphawk khol lo zanzan thei lai uhhi. Tua banah a mau leh amau akithupisak luatna zong a hi kha kei tam ka ci simsim hi.

   Tu lai khangte’ bel ka tam theih nawn vet kei hi. Elvis Presley, Don William, Madonna leh The Beatles bel na kizuak bilbel lai hi. John Denver zong na kizuak neknek hi. Jim Reeves bang peuhmah thei ngei lo na hiam ko gam Burma ah kideih mahmah hi cia kei khan gual ding khat ka dot leh na thei pah lian a, a late hoih thei mahmah hi a aw khum (sweet voice) ngiat hi ci zaw lai hi.

   Tua zong hi lamah CD, DVD, a kicingtakin om in teh ka cih simsim leh ngaihsut na bang hetlo in ih Kawlgam khawngah gam tuamtuam pan Mangla hoihnono a namnam in akicing zaw na hi gige hi. Vintage kici CD, VCD, DVD saite ah zong a lui tampi tak mah kizuak euau napi’n a van taktak in kicing zo tuan lo mawk hi. A taktak leitung bup a minthang mahmahte bek mah ei kiang hong tung na hi gige a la hoih nono vive a kingah zaw hi behlap hi. Ahih hangin online pan in ih deih bangbang kivaikhak thei bek thamloh in lasiam minthangte la akim phial mah in na om veve sam hi.

Ka Upmawh Sang’ Tampi Tak In Thupi Zaw
   US ah adang tampite lakah ei mit muh theih ding, thupi ka sak penpen a mawtaw lampite ahihi. American Association of Highway Officials (AASHO) te in 1924 kumin a gambup ah mawtaw lampi a ziik huaina teng geel khol in November 11, 1926 ciangin sep ding in hoihmah hi cih thukimna nei uhhi. Tua tawh hong pai toto in kum 1938 ciangin US President khempeuh lak a, galpi huhau a kitelna om thei lo ahih ziak a, term thumsung (kum 12 sung) a sem 32nd President Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1933-1945) in super-highways lampi 8 ziik dingin vaihawm kholhna nei hi.

   Tua a vaihawm kholhnate tawh kisai Bureau of Public Roads (BPR) sung pan Division of Information chief Herbert S Fairbank in abeisa lai a, mipil misiamte in akhang akhang a akituatsate leh a sazian khempeuh sutuah leemtuah in a ziik huai mawtaw lampite khempeuh hoihtak phatakin bawlpha thuahthuah a, hong kicing semsemin tua pen a sawt ciangin Interstate Highways hong piancilna leh taktunna hong suaksak hi.

   Tua zawhteh kizomtoto in 34th President Dwight David Eisenhower (1953-1961) hong khan ciangin, akum akumin a nasepna a geelnate uh hong picing semsem hi. Dwight D Eisenhower pen 1919 kum pek galkap sung a, a om lai in America gamsung bup ah khualzin kawikawi ngeisa ahihna tawh kituakin, mawtaw lampi akisapna dan amuhna hong zaizaw semsem in khua ngaihsun thei toto hi.

   Gamsung state khat leh khat kikawmna ding banah gamdang pan galte in hong sim leh kidalna ding leh do kikna ding lampi akulnana ah vang leh hoihsa hi. A tawm pen State khat leh khat kikawm mengmeng theih nang’ vaihawm hi. Kum 1956 June 29, ni in National Interstate and Defense Highways Act kipsak hi. Tua zawh akipan khawlnga cih omlo in amau mun santak tekah lampi hongziik ziahziah uh a, USA gambup lampi paina pen maimom kua mahmah bangin kikan phengphang hi. Kum 2006 kum ciangciang tarred road or paved road kigawm a sauna 6.1 million miles ziik khin bawl khin zo uh hi.

   Lampi abupi in nam thumin khen hi. Akhatna: Asau in amin Interstate Higway System, ahih kei leh olno takin Interstate Expressways/Freeways ci in min guan uhhi. Tua lampite pen Federal Government kici Central Government in tavuan la hi. Central Government ii tavuan lak pen lampi vekpi ii 4.3% hi a 48,876 miles pha hi. A nihna:- Amau gamciat aa khua khat leh khua khat kikawmna ding aa kiziik lampite hi aa  State Government in tavuan la hi. Tua alaak pen a lambup vekpi sauna ii 20.5% hi in 3,933,985 miles pha hi. A thumna:- A tung aa lampite losiah a dangteng khempeuhte pen local government kici (village, town, city, county) te sum tawh kibawl kiziik vive ahihi. Tuate pen khua khat leh khua khat kikawmna, lo lam kuanna, khuasungteng leh amau tenna gamsung ciat ah a ziikte uh ahihi.

   Eite’ theih pak dingah lampi nisuahna leh nitumna kikawmna lampi te pen nambat kopcingin pia hi. Gtn: I-44, I-40, I-66, I-244 leh leilu leitaw kawmna lampite leuleu ciangin a kopsam vive zang uhhi. Gentehna: I-1, I-35, I-45, I-75 etc. Tua lo amau gamke (state) sung tekah lampi a tuamtuam om a lampi nambat guan in a ut zah mah tampi tak om hi.

   Ka tun tungg lamin eimite khat peuh gen ka za ngei a, USA ah mawtaw lampite a khempeuhin kikhuang thei hi leh thangvan a taang tung solkha tungah tungg zo ding ci hi. Ka tuat ciangin tungg bek thamlo in khengval lua kisa in vialtampi tungg beh lai hi. Leitung leh kha pen akinaii mahmah ciangin 225,622 miles kigamla a, akihal mahmah laitakin 252,088 miles kigamla hi. Average akigamlatna 238,855 miles hi a, a diameter te zong tuat nawn tase keileng, US gambup lampi sauna vekpi 6,100,000 miles sau ci leng vial 25 veitak hi zaw lai hi.

   Tua hi a, hunkhat lai President Dwight D Eisenhower sepsung (1953-1961) in Soviet Union Chairman pipa Nikita Khruchev US va hawh ngei a, tua hun lai pekpek in thupi a sak mahmah pen US te mawtaw lampi mah nasia sa in lamdangsa mahmah hi, ci in kigen hi. Tua zawh zong khawl tuanlo a, a septoh ngelhngelh uh ahih ciangin, a mawtaw lampi ziikzawh dan pen leitung gam khempeuh lakah kuamah gam in a phak ding haksa mahmah lai in ka umhi. Gam khat cih thadah akhang to mahmah kici, Europe gambup in zong pha zo ngei hetlo maitak ding hi.

Beltway
   A mawtaw lamzawi totsaknate pen  tuahna peuhah cih bang aa ngaihsun masa lo aa, a mawk ziik kawikawi hi peuhmah lo lai in khuapi sung a tun ciangin beltway kici, a khuasungte a manlang theithei a, freeway pan a pusuah theih ziauziau nading ahi zongin local road pan a lammat theih ziauziau dingin ahi zongin, freeway (express way) a tawm pen khat leh nih kimvelsak hamtang hi. Gentehna in Washington DC bangah Capital Beltway ci in I-495 leh I-395 tawh kimvel sak hi. Tua bangmah in a dang US khuapi sim ah beltway kici khuapi sung kimkot sakin freeway lampi omsak hi.

   Khuapi sung nawkna mawtaw tam mahmahna freeway munte ah alang leh a lang tuak ah mawtaw maikim a pai theihna ding zing 5 pan zing 6-7-8 dongdong om a, avei lam nawl penpen ah “Only Pool Car” ahih kei leh HOV ci in atuamin zing khat bawl tuam uhhi. HOV acih pen “High Occupant Vehicle” a cihna hi a, mawtaw khat tungah khat sang a tam zaw a tuangte acihna ahihi. Mi khat ii vaii sangin mi nih mi thumte vaii thupi zaw ding ahih manin, a manlang nuamte pai theihna ding bek a kibawl hi a, mawtaw hawl khat bek tuannate kitawn sak lo hi.


Atlanta khuasung ‘ Freeway ‘ Lampi tungah
   Local kici khuasung a lampite pan kipai leh naii zong naii zaw tham  napi’n traffic light hangin ahun tam bei zaw hi. Datsi zong tam bei zaw hi. Tua bek thamlohin zum kah zum tuah hunah mawtaw kigaklua den ahih manin sawtvei pipi kingak kul a, zingsang tungg leh zankim zan khang in kitawn leh bel phamawh lo hi. Mawtaw akigakluat hun ciangin khuasung mun khat leh mun khat kawmna ah traffic light omlo freeway te tawnin a pai nopna san tek ah lam pialkhia in pusuak (exit) ahih kei leh sungtum pahpah uh  a kitung baih zaw tham hi.

Lampite A Kawi Zia Leh A Zai Zia ( Geometric Design)
   USA ah khua khat leh khua khat van nawnna ding ahi zongin khualzin gamvakte ahi zongin meileeng ki-limzat naii peuhmah lo hi. Khua khat leh khua khat van nawnna dingin meileeng sangin container truck kici, single body sauna 48’te highway khempeuh ah a dim a ha in vannawn in tai nainai hi. A diakdiak in Walmart, Reasors, Wallgreen cih akipan Mall kici vanzuakna a tuamtuamte van laakna in kizang pen hi. Mite pen a tam zaw vanleeng leh a mau mawtaw ciat tawh khual zin zaw uh aa, bus car tawh khualzin pen mivomte leh mikang a zawng daipamte bek mah in zui aa kitawm mahmah lai hi.


Oklahoma State Pan California paina I-40 dungteng mun khat aa kizaih hi. Lam tawntungah lamkanna leii/ lam kipaihpelhna leii (overhead bridge/ overpass bridge) om tan viuveu hi Photo by; AZPau ( Dec 27, 2012)

Container Trucks

   A tung aa van nawnna container truck kici mawtaw saupite pen single bodyte a hih leh a tam zaw 48’ sau aa, a dang pawl khatkhatte (48’+28’), (48’+48’), (28’+28’+28’) cih bangin body akisam bangin kipeh kizom sakin, van a nawnnawn zong om hi. Tua banah truck neu zaw hiat V-8 te bangin a nungah a kaih ding (trailer) tawh kizom pahpah a, a mawtaw buppi sauna pen container truckte zah mahin a tawm pen 28’ vive sau hi. Tuate khempeuh a kawi a maam a, a pai theih nading a, mawtaw lampi kibawl ahih manin a lampite zaidan leh kawi dan dingte, hoihtak pha tak engineer/designer te’ tuatsa dildel bang a kiziik kibawl vive ahihi.

Mawtaw Tam Cihtak In Tam
   US gamsung ka khualzin ni loh lai aa, ka ngaihsut giugiau lamdang ka sak mahmah khat zong bang ahiam cih leh.. mawtaw a tam dan ahihi. Ka paina freeway khempeuhah sun khuavak zan khawvak in mawtaw akuan a ciah tatsat mahmah lo hi. Lam khempeuhah tua bang dan vive ahihi.

   Lampi ah mawtaw a tam mah ding ahihi, banghang hiam cih leh akisit tel ciangin Americante a khua tui ah 40% bek om in tua lo 60% pen gamsung gampua ah khualzin in nitum uh ci hi. Khangham piteek puteek zawhiatte vanleeng tawh khualzin in khangno piante pen mawtaw vive tawh khualzin hi. Mawtaw pai ziahziahte a tuang nih kan tuang lo hi. Bicycle zat a zang uh hi a khat vive bek a tuang ahihi.

   Khua tawh kinaii ciang in hongtam semsem in miiksi kuagei mah tawh kibang hi. Tua kawmkal ah zum citeng, vanzuakna mall, zato leh adang mawtaw khawlna (car parking) innpua leh innsung (indoor & outdoor parking) tengah mawtaw dim mitmet hi. Tua banah a inntekah mawtaw a tawm pen khat leh nih om cingteng lai mawk hi. Mawtaw zuakna sai ah a thak bekbek zuakna ahi a, alui zuakna ah ahi zongin mawtaw adim a ha in om minmen lai mawk hi.

   Tua hi a, mawtaw ahauh dan pen kigen thei lo hi. 2007 kum a sazian om bang hi leh USA ah motor vehicles 247 million tak omhi. Tua lakah 136 million cars, 110 million trucks, 1 million buses ahihi. Tua mawtaw teng khat leh khat 20ft–50 ft kihalin equator dungzui in leitung kimkot leh mawtaw vekpi sauna 3.9 million miles sau ding a,
I-40 (Inter-state Free Way No 40  Photo: by;  AZPau – December 27, 2012 )

I – 40 Lamdung - Photo by AZPau December 27, 2012
leitung kimkot sauna a sau penpenna munah teh leng 24900 miles sau a, mawtawte pen vial 157 bang kithuap lai ding ahihi.

I – 40 lamdung mun khatkhatah vuuk kia in lamdung tengah vuuk na kang pheuphau hi
Photo;  By AZPau December 28, 2012

   Kician theih khol kei na ven mawtawte zat bekbek nikhat in 378 million gallons bang ahihi. Tua hi a, kei mit a ka muh pakin US te pen mawtaw hauh acih in hau in datsi, diesel lah zat acih in zang hi. Ka upmawh sangin tampi takin mawtaw na hau zaw tham uhhi.

   A lampite lah nisuahna leh nitumna, saklam khang lamah manawhin a zingzing in kikhenin nga benna ngen kiphan bangin kikan phengphangin mawtaw pai nading aa theihsa lampi tam mahmah napi’n, tua lampite tungah mawtaw a dimin pai khin mawk ahih manin, a sawt lo in express highways/free ways na lengah mawtaw kigak (jammed) mahmah ta ding hi.
   Mawtaw khatta mi khat bek in a zang ahih manin a sawt het lo in lampi teng mawtaw dimta ding hi. A sawtteh bus service tampi a koih kul ding hi. Tu laitak in a meilengte a zat dan uh pen khual gamla mahmah kikal vannawnna vanpuakna bek takpi in zang hi. A meilengte lah wagon (atuai) za pan za nih za thum val phialphial na-ngawn mah a kizomsak hi a, sau thei lua peuhmah hi. A khawlnop ciang aa a brake zawh zah ding tawh kituakin a wagon phazah a ciangtan uh ahihi. Tuate a kai dingin meileng setlu kul asak bangin lu nih leh lu thum cih bangin kaisak/sawn hi.
The San Diego Freeway (north bound) approaching Ventura Blvd, CA
Photo by AZPau (November 5, 2008)

Los Angeles khuasung mun khat Photo by AZPau (December 31, 2012)

JUDGE HARRY PREGERSON INTERCHANGE: L.A., Calif.

Mawtaw tam mahmahna Lamkabom ah mawtaw akikhol loh nading in hih bangin a dawldawlin lampi or leii dawh in khen khia uhhi.Leitung ah a lamdang penpen lamka bom hi. ( The Craziest Intersection in the World)

   Tu zo kum 50 - 60 ma peuhmah in meileng vive tawh van nawn ding leh mihonpite kikawmna ding mipua meileeng tampi zat theihna ding meileng leh meileng lampi a kibawlkholh kei leh lampi dungteng leh a innteng a khua sung tengah mawtaw dim mitmet takpi ding hi.

US Gam Mite Hauh Dan leh Nopsak Dan
   A sum a paai a hau bek hi lo in ngaihsut zong siam ka sa mahmah hi. Khualzinna peuhah ahih kei leh zan tampipi tamna camping paina ah, a utna peuh ah lup theih ziauziau kawikawi na dingin ‘campers’ kici in inn khat a kisam teng mah thuah in peinei inn bawl uh a, lei ding ahi aa kawm ding ahi zongin a baihsa in kikoih zihziah hi. Nupa khat ai, nupa khat leh ta nih ta thum tawh ahi zongin ami phazah zui in a kisam bangin deih bangbang a lian a neu ki-ngah hi.

   Tuate pen US te’n truck a cih uh double cab ahih kei leh extra cab te tawh kai uhhi. A inn a lian a neu tawh kizui in V6/V8 te zang uhhi. Tua banah bualtui a hih kei leh gundung khawngah a zat dingin set tawh kithuah (speed boat)te a neu a lian lei ding ahih kei leh kawm ding om euau aa, tuate mawtaw tawh kai a hih kei leh mawtaw tungah pua uh in khualzin ziauziau uhhi. Picnic paina vacation kici lungnop tawldamna ding aa khualzinna ah kizang hi. Inn leh huang tawh kithuah mi citheite veeng kiim ah va pai leng, mawtaw peinei inn nono leh set tawh kithuah gunkuang cih khawng innhuang sungah kikoih lemlam hi.

Vanleng A Hauh Dan
Vanleng pen a bawl masak lai in a muk ah a engine koih a tua tawh pangka (propeller) koih hi. Tua zawh ciangin a kha ah koih uhhi. Tu hun leuleu ciangin a mei lamah koih ta leuleu uhhi. Vanleng engine zong ei mi menmente teltheih vat ding ahi lo, Radial Engine, Rotary Engine, Turbine powered Engine, Jet Engine, Rocket Engine, Wankel Engine, Precooled jet Engine, Electric Engine cih bangin a tuamtuam bawl khin tham uhhi. Tu laitak aa ih zat vanleengte hun khat sung zat kul sa hi kei leh Pacific tuipi nai 13 val bang a sawt pen nai 3- 4- 5 a sawt bek dingin bawl thei khin mahmah lel ding hi. Electric Engine tawh a leng a cihte pen tu laitak aa gal sung a a hawl om lo a a lensak gal vanleengte pen electric power tawh a lengleng ding a, a bawl ahihi.

A muk a engine kikoih vanlengte

   Hih Atlanta International Airport pen USA bek hi lo in leitung bupah vanleeng a tam penpen tukna leh lenkhiatna ahih mah bangin vanleeng tuang mihing zong a tam penna vanleeng tual ahihi. Leitung bup khualzinna a kizang vanleengte leh US gam sung teng bek aa khualzinte zat dingin, vanleng tungah kahna leh tuahna kongpi gate 207 tak nei hi. Ni khat in tua vanleeng tukna a nawk mi 260,000 sangin tam zaw aa, a tu leh a leengkhia (flights) kigawm 950,119 tak pha hi. .

   Hih flights awn khat dektak a pha ih cih lakah gamdang pan a hong tu tam lo in hih USA sung pan aa gam sung teng khualzinte puak kawikawi na aa kizang vanleeng vive hi zaw hi.

   Tua bek tham lohin leitung bup vanleeng tu a tam pen 10 lakah, Atlanta, Chicago, Los Angeles, leh Dallas khuapite kihel lailai ahih manin America ah vanleeng a tam dan ding kisansat thei pah hi.
Airbus A380
Leitung aa mi pua vanleeng a lian penpenhi a,  mi 525 ciang pua thei hi. A vaii a zai theithei in kibawl banah atung aa tuangt’e tutna dingin dawl nih kibawl hi. Jet engine 4 kibulh hi. January 2014 ciangciang akivaikhak sa 304 hi aa, tua lakah 123 kipia khin zo pan hi. Emerates te vaikhak bekbek pen 140 tak ahihi. Tua vanleeng pen France, UK, Germany leh Spainte kipawl aa, a bawl uhhi. A bawl company pen Airbus te’ mah hi pah aa France gam sungah a phualpi koih uhhii

Engine a mei lam a kikoih Macdonnell Doughlas MD - 80


Leitung ah vanleeng tam a tukna penpen Atlanta International Airport (USA)

   World Trade Center vanleeng nih in a nawk hun laitakin (9/11), US vantungah vanleeng vekpi kigawm 6000 bang a leeng laitakin om hi ci uhhi. Kum 2000 kum a sazian bawlna ah Air Carrier kici passenger pua vanleeng vekpi 8055 nei uhhi. General Aviation ci in vantung aa, a lengthei khempeuh helicopter leh khat leh nih bek tuanna vanleeng neute na dongin a sim uh ciangin 217,533 nei uhhi. Galkap vanleeng (Millitary Flight) tawh kigawm May 17, 2007 ni in USA gamsung bekbek ah hun khatin vantungah vanleeng 8000 pan 13000 a leeng laitak hi ding hi ci uhhi. Kum 2005 kum ciangciang vanleng tukna tualpi 14,801 nei khin uhhi.

   Thu dang khatah February 20, 2008 ni in nikhat in 40,000 flights om hi ci hi. Flight khat pen khua khat pan khua khat a kawmna pen flight khat hi pah hi. Vanleeng khat khat vei a len khiat (take-off) leh a tuk kik (landing) kikal pen flight khat a sim pah ahihi. Gentehna in LA pan Chicago direct a len leh gamla mahmah ahih hangin flight khat bek mahin kisim hi. Tulsa pan Oklahoma city zong anai mahmah hangin flight khat mah ahihi. Tua banah vanlengte a bawl zawh a zat aa kipan bang tan vei kimang suaksuak ding cih pen vantung aa, a len hun sawt(flight hour) tawh kituat lo zaw in, vanleng a lenkhiat leh a tuk (take off and landing) bangzah vei pha ta cih tawh ciaptehna leh zathuai nawn lo cih khensatna nei zaw uhhi.

   Atung a ih pulaaksa mah bangin vanlengte en gige leng a muk dawn aa engine kikoih, a kha tung a engine kikoih leh a meidawn lam a engine kikoih nam thum om hi. Helicoter te leuleu teh a pum laizang tung san takah a phei lam a propeller (pangka) kipei ding in kikoih hi.

   Vanleng a bawl masak lai in a muk vive ah koih hi. A sawtsawt ciangin a kha tungah koih hi.  Airbus –A 380te bang inh a kha tungah engine 4 tak koih in a vanleng tungah mi a tam theithei tuanna dingin dawl nih in bawl uhhi. Boeing 787 Dreamliner leuleu ciang in a kha gel tuakah engine gol mahmah khat koih in passenger tampi tuanna dingin a dung sausak diadua uhhi. Koi muanhuai zaw cih ih thei kei hi. Nung lam ciang aa kizang ding vanleng a manlang te ah a engine pen a mei lam vive a kikoih tam zaw meek hi.

   Mai lamah vantung kawhawm paina (spacecraft) bek hi lo in, leitungbup gam khat leh gam khat kikawmna mi pua valeengte na dongin khual gamla mahmahte ah, a manlang theithei ding deihna tawh jet engine munah rocket engine zat dingin zong gelna kinei khin zo hi. Tua hi leh Pacific leh Atlantic tuipite bang hun tomno sungin  kikantan zo ta ding hi.. kici hi.

   Kua mah in akician in vanleeng khempeuh a gol a neu sazian leh a sia a hoihlai akicingin ki-ngah kim zo lo a, a maan taktak kithei khin zo sam lo in upmawh sansat vive zong ahihi. Ahih hangin leitung bupah vanleng Boeing 737 te’ a vanleeng nei companyte’n limtak a tuat uh ciangin banghun banghun hi leh vantung a leng 1,554 pha a, 4.9 seconds sungin khat lengkhia ahih kei leh khat tu lian hi ci hi. Tua pen leitung bupah 737 Boeing vanleengte bek acihna ahihi. Bangbang ahi zongin migam mileite hauhdan pen ka ngaihsut zah sangin a zah tampitakin na hauzaw pha mahmah uhhi.



Library leh Museum
   USA pen sawtvei ki-om semsemin a thu kithei semsem leh athupitna tampi tak kimuh sannsann behbeh a, thupi kisa semsem hi. Washington DC ka pai lai un a kumpi inn liante a thupi hi bek a, innsang mahmah inn hoih mahmah cih zong om lo hi. Ahi zongin American kumpite kepcing museum a tuamtuam library a tuamtuamte inn lian mahmah sung vive ah kikoih hi.
   Ka paipih ka tangvalte gel lakah a uzaw pen Muanpi in; ‘ Pa Pau aw, hih DC sung a museumte leh library sung a, laibute hoihtakin gual simin limtak kantel lecin kum 125 sung zongin na man naii mahmah kei ding hi..’ hong cih ciangin, museum ah ettheih ding van atuamtuam bangzah in tam a, library ah laibu zong bangzah in tam cih kisansat thei pah hi.

Aneng Atawng Abawl Loh Om Lo
   A tunga kong pulaaksa mah bangin laibu a cih lah anam a tuamtuam om in ei khuak ciangciang tawh phawk khak zawh loh thu tuamtuam kigelhna laibu tam mahmah hi. Tua lo mihing zattheih na kici khempeuh a neng a tawngin a bawl nai loh bangmah om nawnlo cih zah ding ahihi. Gentehna in set tawh kisai vanzat (tools), lettamate zat ding vanzat a tuamtuam phimbil dawn dongin a bawlloh peuhmah omlo hi mawk hi. Ankuang ankeu a kipan design nam a tuamtuam tawh bawl uhhi. Zahmawh thu gen leng a s a z na ngawn tawh kisai khempeuh nadong aa, a bawl zihziah hi khin ta lawmlawm uh hi.

   Mi khempeuh in ama kivakhna tawh kisai na lamdang a bawl theihna dingin hanciam niloh tek uhhi. Tua bangin a hanciamna pan ama bawlkhiat van  a kideih a kilei laiteng akum tawn a kha tawn in a siamna man ngah ahih manin na lamdang na hoih a bawl thei dingin a ommuan uh in ngaihsun tangtang uh a, a bangkim in khangto mahmah uh cih ding ahihi.

Sente’n Hauh Lawh
   Atung aa ka gente khempeuh banah puansilh niikten na dongin, Sen gam (Red China) pan vive kibawl ahihi. Tua huhau in Sente’n pilna a ngah lawh banah hauh lawh lailai uhhi. US a tengte in nasep ngah loh lawh uhhi. Gam hi tanta pan aa, a bawl uh van pen US sungah bawl hi leh tu aa azuak zah sangin tampitak a tamzaw in a zuak uh kul hi. Banghang hiam cih leh a sep tha man pen Sengam ah tawm zaw mahmah tham ahih man ahihi.

   Tua ahih manin US gamsungah nasep tampi mun awng tampi hong piankhiatna ding leh sumzian sikh mihaute sup lah sup lawh lo dingin, US gamsung teekhteekh mah ah, setzung tampi a diakdiak in US gammi laithei laisiam a laaihawl (middle class) te nasep ngah theihtheihna dingin, lambeh thuahthuah dingin a naak ngaihsut mahmah sann laitak uh ahihi.

Lampite Minvawh Dan
   Kawlgamah lampi min vawhna namthum bekin kikhen hi. Road, Street leh lane bek ih nei hi. Hih lamah nam tampi in kikhen hi. Traffic light omlo a a manlang theithei akihawlna lampi pen express-way ahih kei leh free-way ci uhhi.

   Gentehna in ko omna Tulsa khuapi bangah Lam lianpite pen Leilu Leitaw dungzui ahi zongin, tua mah bangin Nitumna leh Nisuahna dungzui in kiziik hi. Tua Leilu Leitaw dung zui aa, a kiziik lam lian a hi aa lam neu ahi zongin Avenue cih kammal limzat uhhi. Gentehna in:  South Havard Ave, S Memorial Drive ahih kei leh Road or Boulevard  cih khawng zong zang kawikawi zaw uhhi. Gtn: SW California Blvd,  N Sheridan Road cih akipan. Tua lam lian tawh ki-dungzui (parallel) aa kiziikte pen South 69th East Ave, North 72nd West Ave cih bangin a lam omna mun tawh kizui in kigelh hi.

   A tung aa Leilu Leitaw dungzui aa kiziik tawh akituntuah aa Nitumna leh Nisuahna dungzui lampite pen 2nd Street, 77th Place, 3rd Court, Harmony Lane, Willow Ridge Way ci in nam tampi tak zang lai hi. A mai ah a mun tawh kizui in N, S, E, W, NE, NW, SE, SW cih bangin kiguang thuahthuah hi. Boulevard, Road, Drive, Avenue, Street, Place, Lane, Court, Way cih bangin lampi nambat vive kiguan hamtang hi lo a, min khat peuh zong bulhin zang kawikawi uhhi.

   Tua hi a, lai-ip tungah address ih gelh ciangin limtak mah a en a, khial hetlo a gelh tangtang kul hi. Neukha kibang kei in kipelhkha peuhmah leh laihawmte’n akhial kha hin teh ci in kan bawl tangtang nawn lo in laikhakpa kiang puakkik pahpah uhhi. Zip code bang peuhmah pen athupi mahmah semm ahihi.

Ngaihsut Na Bang Het Kei!
   Kawlgamah Mikang pau ka zat ding hun kei nasep tawh kizui in athu in hong pia peuhmah lo aa, ka Mangpau zat hun pen tawm pha mahmah hi. A kizang ngei peuhmah lo hi zaw hi. Japan ka pai lai ka omsung ka zat bekmah ahihi. Tua hi a, Mikang pau a pauna gamkhat tung peuhmah leng kha thum sungin siam ngap pha mahmah pah ing ka cih phuauphuau vial leh ka tun taktak ciangin tua bang na hi deksuai lo hi.

   Adiakdiakin Tulsa khua bang a Zomite tam mahmahna khua ah Mangpau pau ding hun omlo hi. Khang no lai sangkah ding a pai cih lah ki-hi lo lailai a, innkuan tawh kithuah ngitnget lailai ka hih manin, midang tawh kiho hun ding zong om lo hi. Kumtam khitteh akitung pan ahih tawh lungsim leh khuakte zong manlang nawn lo hi. Ciapteh theihna khuak hat nawn lo in kampau mukpau zong kinal zialzial nawn peuhmah lo hi.

   USA ah New York khuapi sung leh Los Angeles China town cih pian khuapi mahmah khuate lo buangah Yangon bang aa, lamdungteng aa innsai kihong cih bang om lo hi. Lam dungah mawtaw lo buang khe tawh mi vak mi ciah kimu lo hi. Kawlgam bang danin ih veeng ih paam ah nupi papi piteek puteek numei naupang ciak lialua in kiho ziahziah kipau latlat ding a, tua teng kizaza ding ka sak leh tua bang ahi nuam ei leh kuamah zong ki-mukha ngei meel lo hi.

   Inn akici khempeuh kongkhakpi leh padinpauh kuamah in hong deda lo uhhi. Sun tawh zan tawh kikhakcip hi. Phalbi hunin kihong leh khuadam in huihvot honglut hi. Khua lum ciangin huihlum hong lut hi. Tua banah thopi, thovaii, thosi zong hong lutthei hi. Tua huhau in inn honsa in kikoih lo hi. Avot leh asa (aircondition & heater)  vive akizat man ahihi.

   A nasepna a pai ding ciangin a mawtaw tungah a kah laitak muhpak zual cih loh, veeng leh pam tawh ki-muh ding na leng haksa hi. Van zuakna saipite ah van lei tam mahmah napi’n, kiho leh zong a gei a omte nawngkai sak nuam lo ahih manin, a mau zakkhop lian bekin kiho uhhi. Ei lam bang a khat leh khat kiho pih zakzak cih bang omlo hi. Mi vomte lo buang anuih uh leh zong nui lala nui uat-uat cih bang na om lo mai hi.

   Kawlgam bang hi lo in nasepna sungah akisawk zakzak, limlang a ki-enen, tadinsa simsim, an nene pawl cih omlo in sun khuavak a mau sepkhop ding tek a omsa ahih manin manlah thei mahmah uhhi.

   Sangnaupang ahi zongin nasepna ah a hi zongin naseppih mikangte tawh kihona a om kei ngal leh Mangpau hun ding om tuan lo hi. A diakdiakin USA ah mikang pau a siam lo Hispanic te zong a lom a tangin tampitak mah na om euau hi. Ei Zomite nasepna diakdiak ah tua bang mite tawh kithuah uh a, amau lah amau pau bekmah in kiho in Mangpau pau hun ding zong om lo lailai hi.
   Tua hi a, kha thum sungin Mang pau siam pah ning ka cih pen ka tun taktak teh tua bang na hi kilkel lo hi. Kha thum cih thadah kum sawmthum na sawt zongin sinthuah kan thuah kei peuh lecin bangmah a kithei tuan nawn ding zong hi lo mai hi.

   Hih lam pai ding ahi zong mikang pau kisin nuamte’n Kawlgamah Mangpau (English speaking) kah in kisinsin kulzaw hi. Hi lamah akhong sang kah theihna a om kei leh sum tawh kah ni cileng kiman het lo in sum tampi bei zaw tham hi. Yangon khawngah pilna deih bangbang oltak a kingah zaw ahih gige zawk lam hih ka laibu sung pan kong theisak nuam kong hanthawn nuam hi. Nidang a ei mi Mangpau sinnuamte’n touristte sabeng ding bang a, a zonzon lai bang lo in tuhun ciangin tourist tam mahmah ta ding hi.

Mikangte Anneek Uh
   Zomite anneek tuidawn tawh kisai namdangte tawh kibang lo aa, ih tuamdan mahmahna pen gatamtui ih neek ahihi. Kawlte leuleu teh ngapi leh nganpyayi mah hi pah ding hi. Kala te hi leh zasan leh masala hi ding hi. America te anneek dan zong ka ngaihsutsut ciangin bawngsa, bawngnawi pan a piang thawhbat (butter) eipau in bang ih citam bawngnawi pan mah akibawl cheese nakneek mahmah uhhi. Bawngsa, bawngthau, bawngnawi, tawh kisai vive anneekna khempeuhah kihel hi. A meeh bawlna khempeuhah cheese kihel kei leh a ne thei lo zah dong hi. Ice cream a kipan chocolate leh a moh neek khempeuh zong a khum vive tam hi. Tua hi a, Mikangte anneek pen bawng thau bawng nawi pan a piang cheese leh a khum akici khempeuh naaknek mahmah uhhi.

   A zawng a hau a kua mah peuh in ‘an manlang’ ih ci pah diam (fast food) vive tamneek uh a, cheese burger akipan burger a tuamtuam leh cocacola, pepsi cihte pawl mah kilim nek pen hi. Ei lamah mehtui ih hawp tangin amau juice leh coke, pepsi te vive tawh meh tangtang mawk uhhi. Nidang in ci-al tamzat lo ka sak leh sa-em vive (BBQ) leh sa-ngoi (hotdog) khawng nakneek ta buang a, al thei mahmah hi. Potato chips/French chips te semsem zong al thei mahmah hi. A kuamah peuh in anhuan hun ding na leng akicingin nei lo tek ahih manin a kibawlsa mehbung mohbung sabung, a thoh a microwave tawh sat sak bek ding a kizuak an thoh vive zang uh a, a anneekna sung khempeuhah muat baih lohna ding akipan a zaa (chemicals) kihel den banah, sodium kici civui vive mah kisawh ahih manin ih pumpi a’dingin hoih kim khol lo hi.

   A anneek a tuidawn hangteng mah ai tam, US gambup ah 90% mah a thau vive in ka mu hi. Mehteh mehgah zong ei theih pak dingin ankungte leh ateh agahte agol theithei alian theithei dingin eklei za ih cih (chemical admixture) atuamtuam zatpi in zang pha mahmah uh a, lothangsan, lothangkaang, aalu, mantasante bang peuhmah pen tennis ball zong sangin golzaw in baseball ciacia ngentang pha a, Sen nannan bang peuhmah ankamteh kung ciacia pha mawk hi. A gol zaw tham hi zaw zek lai hi.

   Anteh theipuam cihte khempeuh eilam ate sangin a zahkhat a zahnih phialphial bangin a pum ahi zongin a kung ahi zongin golzaw tham hi. Tuate sawtveipi akineek ciangin tuasung a chemicalte hangin zong mite tungah pumpi thauna leh liatna hong pia hi ding hi ci in ka um hi. Cheese leh butter vive a tam zat hangin zong athau tam mahmah ahi kei nam ci in upmawh huai kasa hi.

   Ama ngeina bang aa a ciinh uh singgah thei puam mehteh mehgah aktui aktak akipan a tuam in zuak uh aa, a man zong tam zaw pah hi. Tua te pen a ngeina bang a kicing, kikhawi kibawlte hi aa ‘organic nam’ ci in min phuak uhhi. Mihau mi nuamsate in tua bang namte vive lei in ne zaw uhhi.

   Piteek puteek a khansau teng bek mah thau lo in gawng dingdiang geuh uhhi. Akul zah sang a, a thau zaw tham a tawm pen 75% hi in ka um hi. University Campus khawng lobuang, a khuasung tengah meelhoih tha hoih zong tawm mahmah uhhi. A mi zawng tata a thau mahmah bungleh hi zaw hi. Ei Kawlgam Yangon khuapi bangmah ahau pian a cithei zaw hiat teng khua nawl lamah inn hoih vive mah tawh teng zaw uhhi.

   Mehlimza (Kawlpau in Achohmongh or hih lamah MSG - Monosodium Glutamate kici) nak zatlua mahmah hi kei leh leitungah Senmeh mah a lim pen leh a siangtho pen in ka ngaihsun hi. Kawlmeh zong sathau tamsak lua kei in, Kawlpau in “yaypyan-sikyan” ahih kei leh “kar-la-tha-chiet” khawng hi leh ih neek ciangin zong liimin cidamna zong tawh kituak pha mahmah hi. Atawpna ah Zo huan mah a cidam huai pen na hi zaw lai hi.

   Tu a ka gente pen kei ngaihsut tawm a ka muh ziau a zau gen ka hi a, bangmah telkanna om tuan sam lo hi. Mikangte pen tang a tuan a, a pil a siamsate ahih mah bangin, akidawm nuamte anneek kidop theih nang’in a ‘ fats or calories ‘ om zahzah ding tawh tuat in anneek tuidawn  bawl uh aa, tua bang dan a a kidammte a’dingin thau kenkanna a ki-ngah kim ding bel hi khin sam lo hi. Amau in cheese a nak zat bek hi aa, ei neek sathau (cooking oil) bang peuhmah pen  a nakzat peuhmah lo hi leuleu uh hi. Zan diak mahmah in Time Magazine sungah ka simkhakna ah Americate’ anneekna lakah sathau leh ci-al tam lua hi, ih anneekte enpha kik (revise/review) in ih puahkik ding kisam hi cin kigelh hi.

US Kumpi In Agam Mite Akep Akhoi Dan
   SSC kici (Social Security Card) hongpiak nak leh US kumpi in tavuan hongla pahdan suak hi. Hong puksisak lo ding a hong kom hong khoi hongkhual ding hi pah hi. Nasep na ngah kei leh zong nasep na ngah maciangciang an hong ngawlsak lo ding hi. Food Stamp ci in khasum tawm bek a sangte a’ding ‘poverty line’ kici, mizawng ciangtanna khat nei hi. Kha khat in mi khat bek ahih leh bangzah, mi nih leh thum a hih leh bangzah cih bangin a mi om zah leh a ngah huaizah ciangtan aa, tua zah sang’ aa tawm zaw sum lut a ngahte in kumpi huhna ki-ngen thei hi. Nasep sem kimlai hong kikhawlsak leh zong kisiau thei pah hi. Tua bek tham loh in innkuan sungah cidam lo leh na-vaak lo tha zawngkhal om leh naupang no hi ta leh uham khin hi ta leh a zawngkhal a cidam loh huhau in huhna pia lai uhhi.

   Pawlkhat sum tam sang zaw hiatte bang a nasepna pan kikhawlsak leh nasep na taan man (unemployment  allowance) ci in a san ngeizah ii a lang bang ahun khat ciangtan in kumpi in huhna piapia lai mawk hi. Tua hi a, US kumpi in a gammite pen a kem akhoi tangtang mah ahihi. Ahih hangin tua hong khoina sumte pen akua dang a’ hilo leuleu in khasum sang khempeuhin a khasum pan apiak leh, mun khat peuhah an na neek a, van na lei zongin tua na anneekna leh na vanleina khempeuh sungah mikang pau in tax kici mangmu kumpite akipia ciathciath tawh a ngah sum sung pan hong piak ahihi.

   Nasem zo nawn lo piteek puteekte an vaakna zong nei uhhi. A hat lai diakte a inn pan tek ah hong pai in kine sak hi. A hong pai zolo te amau inn tekah an phel tuun in kipuak tangtang hi. A nei zote in puteek piteek kepna inn hoih mahmahte ah kumpite huhna la lo in anupa in a hi zongin amah kia ahi zongin teng uh aa, kha khat in sum tampi pia uh hi.

Kumpi Tungah Mangmu Kipia Tangtang
   Atung a ka gensa mahbangin, sai a kilei van khempeuh ama man tekhtekh banah kumpi tung a kipiathuah mangmu (tax) tawh kigawm khin ahihi. Khasum zong tawm leh tam leh tax na kidok hi. Ahi zongin sushi zialte pawl in a sushi sai aneite tung pan sumtang tawh pawl khat in thoh ahih manin tax pia kha lo a, van a lei sialsial in bel a pia veve suak hi.

   Tua mah bangin ansai lianpi a anpuak kawikawi (delivery) semte in zong sumtangin ngah uh a, tax pia kha lo uhhi. Ahita zongin a sai neite’n tua ai ding na pia veve ding hi. Ih Kawlgam khawngah zong hih lam ate vaihawm bangmah in khauhtak leh kiciantakin hih huai mahmah hi.

   A sum lutzah takpi vive tungah mangmu kipia hi leh Kawlgam kumpi pen zong hauh cihtak a, ahau pha mahmah veve ding ahihi. Tu’n US tangpi tangtate a lung hihmawhnapi uh pen, tax a piaksa teng uh Kumpi in Iraq galsimna leh Afghanistan galsimna in zang gai uh a, tu a khangnote a teek a guaii ciangin kumpite huhna ki-ngahzo nawn kei kha leh cih lunghimawh tek uhhi.

   Ahih hangin kumpi sung a sumlut pen upmawh tuat pak leng zong minute khat minute nih sungin a million a sim sum a lut ahih manin bangmah lunghihmawh luat dingin ka ngaihsun kei hi. USA kumpipen hau cihtak a hau ahihi. Sum lah lut cihtak a lutlut ahihi.

Social Security Income Kici Pension Kha Sum
   Kawlgamah galkapte leh kumpi sung aa nasemte lo buang in pension sang lo uhhi. Kumpi nasemte zong kum tua zah ciang peuhmah na sep loh in pension kipia lo cih bangin, a mau nasepna zum tawh kisai in kiciangtan hi. USA leuleu ah koi mun koi munah na sem zongin khasum na san nak leh tax na piak tangtang kul hi. Company na kheel kawikawi zong phamawh lo hi. Na khasum sansanna peuh ah kumpi tungah tax na piak kul aa, nang tawh kisai tua sumte khempeuh na kiciamteh khin dildel hi. Pension kha sum pen nang kumpi tung aa tax  na piak zah tawh kizui in a tawm a tam kingah ding ahihi. A hi zongin ei tel theih pak dingin na nasep sung kigawm khempeuh a tawm pen kum 10 ahih kei leh na credit score 40 a cin kei leh pension pia lo vet se leuleu hi.

Supplementary Social Security Income
   A zenzen in nasep khat zong ngah ngei tase kei lecin kum 65 na cin ciangin SSI (Supplementary Social Security Income) kici sum lut nei lo, a huh a kem ding a om lo mi zawngte leh cina zawngkhalte in siau thei hi. Cidam lo poina liamna baina na neih leh na kipat nini a kipan kisiau thei hi. Suah cil a adam lo a poi lungsim man lo a zawngkhal te in zong siau thei a, a huh a kem dingte khasum zong pia beh uhhi.Tua bek tham lohin Medicare leh medicaid ci in zatui leina ding, natna atuamtuam bawlna dingin huhna a tuamtuam kingah hi. Kumpi tungah na piaksa om lo ahih manin tu a kipiate pen nang ngah dia kilawm na pension ngah ding hi lo hi. Hong huh hong kem dang ding leh sum lutna kician mahmah khat na neih leh a hunhun in hong phiat kik pah ding ahihi. Tua huhau in gammi suak khinsate in a nu a pa a u anau a sap uh ciangin, vaak zo ning khoi zo ning cih kiciamna tawh sap theihna leh phalna a ngah ahih manin, tua bangte leuleu a teek a guai hangin, piak dingin kingaihsun lo leuleu hi.

Free!   Free!!   Free!!!
   Kawlgamah Reader’s Digest leh Time Magazine ka la den a, a tawpna lamteh (2008 kum ciang) Reader’s Digest pen bu khat Ks 1500 val tung mawk hi. Time Magazine bu khat Ks 1000 kimmah tung hi. Hih lam ka tun ciangin cover price sangin 75% bang discount ki-ngah a kiman lua sa in anih tuak banah National Geographic Magazine tawh bu thum tak khasim in ka la leuleu hi. A laibu taktak kimanna pi’n lampi nampitak zongin sum hong dikna ding hong vaihawm uhhi. Free in kingah ci in letsong gentaak lo vive tawh hong zol uhhi.

   Time Magazine ahi zong Reader’s Digest ahi zongin  amau press pan a thoh laibu dangte, ni 21 sung simin la na deih kei leh hong khak kik in cih khawng tam thei mahmah hi. Reader’s Digest bang na lawmte nih letsong pia in! man tawm mahmah hi ci in kei guak bek in la thuahlo in minih letsong piak kawmna dingin a kumcin ciangin coupon tawh sum hong ngenthuah zel uhhi. Ih deih lai leh ih lawmte letsong piak ding tawh cihna in khat ai sang a tam zaw tham ding sum hong ngen thuah a, piak loh theih loh danin hong koih hi.

   Amau kiang pan a thohkhiat uh laibu bang hong puak ciangin anihna ciang ka lei a, a nungsang lam teh ka khak kik tangtang hi. Tua dan a ih khak kik giap kei leh a laibu in tamman veve hi. Hong khem cih theih ding ahih loh hangin, pilvang takin hong kinelnel  in hong khem zo dekdek hi.
   US ah Free! acih pian leh lunglutluat kullo hi. Tu hun ciangin Internet sungah ih theihnop bangbang a kisim theih manin, a laibu a lei ding tawm mahmah ta ahi tam, advertisement bekbek tamta a, article tawmkha bek kihelin laaktaak zong ka sa nawn kei hi.
  
No 9 Mahmah Deih Pen Sa’ng
   1983 kum Japan ka pai lai pekpek in zong bel phawkkhin sam na veng in, tun hi lam ka tun semsem ciangin a khangto gamte sum theih dan leh ngiansiam dan pen kici thei peumah ka sa kei hi. Huaiham mahmah zong ka sa hi. US ah sai khempeuhah vanman atungah kisuang pah ciatciat a, ei Kawlgam bangin $3.25, $5.50, $8.75 cih bang om vetlo in a cent pen 90c zong omlo lailai in 99c hi den keei hi. $10 man hi leh 2 digits hita a nopneh huailo in $9.99 in aman hong ciangtan ciangin akikhai vat tawh hong kibang hi. Ahih hangin tuat taktak leng, nak kikhaihlo lua hi.

   Ei Kawlgamah a tam zaw Ks 150, Ks 175, Ks 200 cih bang danin vanman ih sehna tam zaw  hi. Hih a khangto gam Japan leh USA ah tua dan a kiseh tawm mahmah hi. Zang ngeilo zaw mai uh a, $99.99, $159.99, $179.99, $199.99, $999.99 cihbang dan hi thithe pah lian zen hi. Tua hi a, USA gamah sumzuakna vanman ciangtanna ah “0” zang ngeilo liang uhhi. Kawl kumpi in no 9 a lunggulh mahbangin US ten zong no 9 mah deih pen uhhi.
   Ei gamah sumneen tang ih muh loh zawh a sawt mahmah bang lo in hih lam ah 1 cent pan 100 cent sumnen tang kizang mahmah lai a kikhiat veuveu lai uhhi. Sum nen pan dangka lai kheekna ding bank leh sai lianpite ah ‘vending machine’ dan in kikoih a, sum nen tampi ih neih ih kholte deih bangbangin kikhek ziauziau thei hi.

Ka Upmawh Hetloh Khat
   Leitungah kikawmna ahi zongin kithuzakna ahi zongin a kicing mahmah leh a khangto mahmah gam hi napi’n, tudong mah USA ah Sikkhauto/Laito pen kilim zat mahmah lai hi. Nisimin laikhak khia a pai aw, parcel khak ding a pai aw kitawlnga mahmah lo hi. Ahi zongin khangham kum 60 val pian vivete bek mah in Laito nak zat mahmah phadiak lai uhhi. Company te lah leiba siik hat peuhmah a khasial in leiba siikna bill leh lai a tuamtuam hong nawh tun mahmah hi. Ahi zongin internet huhau in nidang hun tawh tehna in Laito nasep pen a tawm mahmah hong hi veve ta hi. Laito lam pan sum lut tawm zaw ta ahihmanin, Laito nasem zong khiamkhiamta aa, nidang aa nipi ni lobuang nisim aa lai ahawm uh pen, August kha 2013 kum a kipan Sani ni zong lai hawm nawn lo ding ci napi a thu uh kheel kik ahi tam tu dong mah(2015) hawm suaksuak lai uhhi.

   USA bup sungah zan khat bek a sawt ding Overnight Express Mail om hi. Tua zomah Priority Mail om a, nithum bek sawt hi. A tungg baih a tunghak tawh kinak sai lo zaw aa, ngah hamtang dia laikhakna “Certified Letter”cih khawng atuamtuam om thuahthuah lai hi. Na lai khak peuhmahte pen a tuntunna a tunni a tunhun a nai na tawmin ‘delivery confirmation’ tawh na khak nak leh online pan tracking no tawh ki-en kik thei hi. Tua zomah First, Second, Third Class cih bangin  ‘mailing system’ omsak laizen hi. Tua hi a, ei lamah ih Laito pen muang pha nawn lo ih hi tam, lai zong ih kikhakkhol nawn meelloh bang lo in, lai kikhak bek thamloh in van zong kikhak tangtang sansan lai uhhi. Christmas a hong tun mateng bang Laito ah van khak ding leh lai khiatna ding maill box te ah lai khia ding kigual ngelngal liang uhhi.

   A lamdang mahmah thu ah, kum simin USA gam bup ah, kum khat sungah January pan November kha bei dong van kileite sangin, December kha bekbek sung a van kilei a mal ahi a, avan man vekpi ahi zongin tam kilei zaw hi ci in ciaptehna na nei uhhi.

Insurance! Insurance!! Insurance!!!
   Kawlgam ah nasep ka lut tungg pek a kipan kumpi nasemte life insurance piak ding hong kiseh hi. Nasep ka lut tungin GP Fund (General Provident Fund) hong piasak hi. Tua zong a sawtlo in hong kiphiat hi. Life Insurance a koihsate zong a thoh kiknop uhteh genhak thei mahmah ahih manin, kua mah’n koih meello uhhi. Ken zong ka peel niloh a, ka peelzo bilbel hi. Tua lo adang insurance om meel lo mah suak lel hi. A om sunsun zong muanhuai kisa lo ahih manin, a kimanna a om lo suak hi.

   USA ah insurance acih a namkimin om hi. Life insurance, Health Insurance, Motor car insurance, House Insurance, cihte pen ih neihloh a, phamawh hi. Huihsia guahsia leh meikang patau khat in eimau inn hong susia leh hong lamsak kik tanghial ding ahihi. Tua ahih zawh kei leh zong, Window insurance, Roof insurance, Property insurance ci in a sung a na neihsa vante na leng a tuam vilvelin insurance kibawl thei lai hi.

   Na innsapna a nangma aituam a na neih van-gil van manphate zong guta buluh in na laaksakin ahi zongin, patau meikang khat a hizong, huihpi guahpi leh tui khanna hang a kipan na vante sup lawhna man lawhna tuak kha lecin cihna tawh “armakhan”- insurance kipia thei hi. Mawtaw bang zong lampi kal lakah kisia leh hong kaihsak ding hong huhpah lian dingin ‘roadside insurance’ kipia thei lai hi.

   A tawp khakna ah ih neih ih lam khempeuh insurance kipia thei hi. Na neihsa suangman pha khat peuh zong insurance kipia thei hi. Aman hong ciangtan sak ding a, nang cih theihloh thu khat peuh hangin mansuah leteh a manzah hong loh kik ding ahihi. Na mansuah kei leh lah khasim a na piak zahzah amau a, hi pah lel hi.

   Life Insurance bang pen koih zo hi leng ih sih teh ei leh ei kiguizo tanghial ding hi sam hi. US ah luang phumna dong pen a tawm penpen $ 10,000 bang bei hamtang aa kingaihsun ahihi. Tua bang a a kisam khempeuh teng insurance pia ni ci leng lah kha khat sum tampi tak a bei ding hi zel leuleu aa kua mah in kipia kim zo peuhmah lo hi. Inn neite in House Insurance leh Mawtaw neite in car insurance pen piakloh in kiphamawhsak tek hi.

   Kawlgam a huang tawh kithuah akilam taih innte pen a mau aa tawh tehna in a muanhuai mahmah na hi kik bilbel hi. Hih lamah a innte uh akilamdan (structurally) muanhuai hetlo a, sumpei hat mahmahte (tornadoe) bangin nawk kha leh ahih kei leh nai khat tai 100-120 mph ahat huihpi nung leh a thuakzo ding tawm mahmah hi. Khua hun lah sia pha mahmah ahih manin House Insurance piakloh in phamawh hi. Ka cih ciangin taih inn sangpipite (skyscrapers leh highrise building)te a gennuam ka hi kei hi. Tua te leuleu ciangin tua bang a ei hawmthawh ding bang hi peuhmah lo leuleu hi.

   Tua hi a, America ah Insurance! Insurance!! Insurance!!! mah piak tangtang kul a, kha sim a insurance bill piak mahmah zong kibuaipih  thapaai hi.
America..Land of Apportunity
   Kan zo leng puansilh nikten a mantawm a man tamna om hi. Athak vive akumkum a alaih uh hi a, tuate vive leileng $100 tungsiah vive mah man hi. Lui tase kei leh kum khat kum nihte tua za khat mante in $25 huam vive aa lei dingin a luisai ah kizuak euau hi. Kawlgamah antang a kumluite tam a mat zawk bang lo in puansilh niikten lamsang leuleu ciangin a sia hita kei leh a thak lai mahmah pipi zong a kumlui (model out) ahih nak leh man tawm bek in kizuak hi.

   Funiture cih bang khawng zong a zuakna a thaksai ah tul a sim akileite bang Estate Sale ah lei leng $100-300 kikal khawng hi lel hi. A sia lua a bang lua zong hi peuhmah lo hi. Hau tek uh nuamsa tek uh ahih manin sawtpi a zat vante ciimtak pahpah uhhi. Ei gam ei lei tawh tuatna in a vante uh a sia vat ding omlo hi. Ih zat theih ding a thupi hi pah lel aa, kisaktheihpih ding aa lei sangin zat theih ding leh a kisapna zui aa lei theih ding thupi ahih manin pilvang ding thupi hi. Pilvang leng eimi a tungthakte adingin sum tampipi bei lo a, van tampi akilei thei ahihi.

   Pilna mah thupisak pen in eima kivakhna tawh kizui in sin behbeh kul hi. Ei lam bangin MBBS, BE, cihte pen a huampi a sinna theihna hi pan a, tua sungah ei ukna ei kivakna zui in atuamin kisin thuahthuah thei hi. Gentehna in siavuante bang natna a tuamtuam lakah natna khat bek tawh kisai ahi zongin civil engineering tawh degree ngah ih cih bang zong ahuampi meeimaai a, akisin hi pan a, tua sung panin concrete engineering, foundation engineering, bridge engineering cih bangin a tuamtuam in tampi tak kikhen thuahthuah lai hi.

   Tua hi a, USA ah ei deih bangbang suakta takin kisin thei kawikawi a, pilna pen a zongte a’dingin kicing takin om zihziah hi. Tuate khempeuh gammite in kideidanna om lo in, a sum a paai na neih nak leh deih bangtak in kisin thei hi. 

   Tuate lakah ei kivakhna tawh kituak teelsiam ding thupi hi. Pilna na ngah leh na ngah bangbang hamphatna om hi. A upadi ngiat in phallo ahih manin minam deidanna a zawng ahau, kumpi nasem a za lian a za neu tawh kisai in, khat leh khat kideidanna, kisimmawhna kizawnsakna tawm mahmah hi. Khat leh khat kikhaktan theihna tam lo hi. A pil a siamten a siamna zah tawh kituakin sum tampipi ngah uhhi. Pilna leh kivakhna a thupi bawl dan pen, Siavuante letmat lo in zatui kilei mawkmawk thei lo hi. Thu lian het lo thu neu mahmahte na ngawn ah, thukhen zum akitun nak uh leh, Sitni (Lawyer/Attorney) cial lohin phamawh sak sese uh a, Sitnite mun a piak nop man tanghial ahihi.

   Tu laitak bangin mundang gamdang pan a, a lut India leh Sente bang computer pilna lam bang ah kiva thei peuhmah in minthang mahmah uh aa, ni tha nai tha sum tampi ngah pah uhhi. America a hau mahmah ih cihcihte bang, hunkhat lai a Israel or leitung gam tuamtuam pan, hong lut Jew minamte vive hi zaw hi na ci uhhi.

    Leitung a lasiam minthang mahmah Elvis Presley, Michael Jackson, Basket ball kimawlna lam a minthang Michael Jordan, Golf kimawlna lam a minthang Tiger Wood, American Football leh Boxing kimawlna khawng zongah mi minthangte in sum tampi ngah in hauhlawh tek uhhi. George Soros akici Hungary pan Jew minamte hi a, 1956 kum pekin Nazi te a thuaklahna tawh America a tung hi a, tu in leitung mihau mahmahte lakah kihelta hi. Southeast Asia, Lao gam panin Hmong kici ninam neu khat sung pan Mee Moua in State khat ah Senator  ngah hi.

   A taktak in US ah American Red Indiante lobuang innteek taktak kua mah om lo a, peemta (immigrants) vive mah akihi tek ahihi. A tua Red Indian ih cihte zong a kipat cil in Asia pan mah hong lal hi dingin ki-ummawh hi.

   Tua khit zawh ciangin tuhun UK (United Kingdom) kici England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland kici gam pan leh France, Spain, Portugal, Germany kici Europe continent pan in tangtawng pekpek in America vive na zuan uhhi. Tua lai ah mikang English suante mah a tawp khakna ah gualzo in, tuhun teh a innteek tawh akibang hi bek a, USA pen leitung minam tuamtuam kihelhzau a tenna gam minthang mahmah khat ahihi.

     Tua banah Europe pan hong pai Spainte bang na tam mahmah uh a, Central America gamte’ na zo mahmah uh hi. Mexico ih cihcih gam lian mahmah bang amau’ gam suak sakin, amau’ pau amau’ mi vive na teng uhhi. Tua bek tham lohin tua gam kim tengah leh South America gam pawl khat na dongah amau Spanish pau na theisak zo mawk uhhi. France te’ semm zong Canada leh Latin America ih cih pah lian bangmah in Central America ah Latin lai Latin pau na theisak zo uhhi.

   USA ii agam alei, lo khawhna gan khawinate pen, mikang namte suan leh khakte vive mah in gamh leh gou in na nei uh a, ahi zongin khuapi sung a, sum thalawhna tawh akivaak anungta mite pen leitungbup minam khempeuh kikimhel khin hi. US ih cih pen leitungah democracy ki-ukna adeih mi khempeuh akisuktuahna gamhoih gampha gamnuam gam khangto penpen ahihi.

   Tua mah bangin a ki-ukna a thukhunpi uh a Upadi uh hoihlua ngiat ahih ban ah a Upadi ahi Thukhunpi in uk zo dipdep ahih manin, a kua a kua kideidanna omlo in mipil misiam mi hanciam nuam mahmahte, ama tupna tungtawn in gualzo in minthanna, hauhna, liatna ki-ngah thei hi. USA gammi khat aa’ dingin leitung mundang gamdang khat peuh ah a omlo, kideidanna a khaamm mahmahna mun leh sep theih bawl theih ding zong akicingtak a, a om pikpekna, mihing khat ii tupna leh gelnate atangtung sak thei ding a gam ki-ukna, hamphatna kicinna gam (Land of Apportunity) ih cih pen  USA bek mah om hi, kici thei hi.

     A hih hangin mun khempeuh ah ei pilna ei siamna bek tawh hi khin lo leuleu in sum in thu gen a, sum lo in sang kikah zolo zel ahih manin, a gen ol in a sep taktak ciangin, gim leh tawl leh lungsim khauhna tampi tak ih thuak ih neih masak kul veve ding hi.

   Bangbang ih ci zongin a tung a kong pulaak khitsa USA gam sung a om gammi a suak khinsa mi zawng, mi hau, milian, minam a tuamtuamte’ hamphatna leh thu neihna a tuamtuamte ka ngaihsut phat mahmah ciangin hun khat lai a, ei Kawlgam a “ Burmese Way to Socialism “ akici  kum 26 sung tangciim sitset, mihing tektek liangko kikim ding, ih gam ii hauhna leh zawnna tawh kizui in gammi khempeuh in noptuamna amau san ciatah ngah thei ciat ding ci  a, ih hanciam niloh pen, tung sakzo peuhmah lo a lamkal ah ih vaii tham bang lo in, amau’ a na tungkhin leh ana zangkhin pikpek  na hih mawk veh e, ci’n nung phawk kikna ka ngah sansan hi.

American Cowboys
   Cowboys tawh kisai ih zakzak ngeisa mah bangin a taktak ei pau in sialcing bawngcingte cihna hi lel tak hi. Ei lam bang in amau kiangah mual leh guam sungah sial leh bawng kikhah khollo a gamzang zapi lopa omna tengah sial leh bawng a za a tul a simin khah uhhi. Tuate a cinh ciangin sakol tung tuangin cing kawikawi uhhi.


American Sialcingbu khat
   Tua bang a sakol tungtuang kawmsa tawh bawng leh sial acinh kawmkal uah, aman hun uh ciangin cim thoihna in sakol tungtuan siam khawng hong kidem uhhi. Bawngte a tai lai sakoltawh delh in khauhual tawh atuun siam hong kisin uhhi. Tua banah bawng tai lai, sial tailai sakol tungtuang kawmsa in delhin a naii a tun ciangin sakol tungpan tuakkhia in bawng/sial a ki pan manpah lianin bawh pah lianlian cih khawng hong kisin uhhi.

    A sawtsawt ciangin tua bang siamnate hong kidem bawl ta uhhi. Sakol kituang ngei naii lo tungah sakol tan siamna hong kidem uhhi. Bawng gilo sial gilote tungah tuan siamna hong kidem toto uh a tua bang siamnate “Rodeo” ci in hong minthang mahmah hi.

   Hih ci bang a hong khantoh uh ciangin pasalte bek hi lo in numeite zong kum zalom 19 akipan Cowgirls kici in bawngcinh sialcinh hong kisin uhhi. Tua tawh kizomin pasalte mah tawh liangko kikim a siamna aneih theih ding uh hong kisin hong kidemta uhhi.

   Tua bek tawh lungkim zo lo in American Cowboys min tawh Cowboy movie khawng hong phuang uh a, cowboy kineihsiam John Wayne, Clint Eastwoodte bang, tua hang’ mahmah tawh  minthanna hong ngah  uhhi. Hih movie sungte ah tanglai pekpek a native Americante (Red Indians)te tawh gal kisimnate bulphuh in Cowboy movie hong kizaih uh a, leitung mun khempeuhah kizeel in minthang mahmah hi.

American Cowgirl
    Hih bang a sakol tungtuan siam kidemna, bawng leh sial tungah tuan kidemna cihte pen Americante phuak masak muh masak hi zenzen lo hi. Ih gensa mah bangin, USA ah innteek Red Indiante lo buang atung masate lakah Europe pan  peemta vive ahi uhhi. (Red Indiante mahmah zong a tung a pat in Asia pan piang hi in, tua pan Russia gam lam pan kipanin Alaska State lam zuanin a tung masa pen pawl hi dingin thu kan siamte in upna na nei uhhi. Alaska State mahmah zong hun khat lai in Russia gam ahihi.)

American Cowboys

American Cowboys ( Rodeo te)’ siam dan
    Adiakdiak in Spain pan na tam pha mahmah a, tua bang a sakol tuan siam kidemna cih khawng pen tua lai pekpek pan a, akikeng suaksuak hi zaw dingin upna na nei uhhi.

    Bangzah takin a khantoh mahmah uh hangin, Cowboys siamna tawh kisai kidemna a tuamtuamte’ a mangthang ngei lo dingin,  ahunhunin kidemna pawi bawl uh a limkep mahmah uhhi. Papi puteek pawl khat leh khangno pawl khatte bang inh, fashion khat in ngaihsun in nisa lak guah zu lak hi ta se kei leh, vahna ciahna khualzinna ah cowboy lukhu khu kawm leh American jean pant khawng teng in a pai a khawl, khat leh nih kimu kuaukuau thei a, aduang kikhai ngiingeii leh meel hoih athuah khawm lailaite’ bang nak etlawm thei pha mahmah uhhi.
 

Native American horse riders

American Sialcing/Bawngcing kineihsiam minthangte


Chapter Forty One
America Kua’n Mu Masa Pen
   America tangthu pen tom gen pak leng Italy gam a suak Spain gam a khangkhia Christopher Columbus muhkhiat masak hi ci-in tudong mahin kiciamteh hi. Ahi zongin  anung kankan uh ciangin atuampi khat hong suak hi. Christopher Columbus pen Spain gam tembawkhawlna Palos pan, Pinta, Nina, Santa Maria kici tembaw thum tawh hong paikhia uh a, nipi 10 a sawt khitzawh October 12, 1492 zingsang tungin ama tuanna Pinta kici tembaw tungah a khuadak leh tuipi nawlah akimu khia ngei lo gamthak khat mu hi.

   Amah pen India gamnawl East Indies kici Spice Islands a tung gige mah kisasa mawk a, a mi muhte pen Indiante mahin minphuakin tudong a paisuak ahihi. Ama okhialhna mah zompaihin kisailopi takin North America a, a na tengsate pen tudong mah Red Indian kici hi. Columbus pen Kum 1451 kumin Genoa, Italy ah suakin 1506 kumin si hi. A sih dong mah India gam a tung mah kisasa hi. Ataktakin East Indies hi lo a Bahamas tuikulh tung hi zaw hi. Tua tuikulh a tawmvei a vak khitteh cidam phalo in a sawtlo in ciahkik hi.

   Kum 1502 ciangin Amerigo Vespucci (alias) Americus Vespucius adang khat zong neilai Americo Vespucio kici sum bawl sumzuak siam mahmah khat leh, kuamah phak nailohna teng a pha nuam masa a, khualzin kawikawipa (explorer) in Columbus pen East Indies a tung ahih loh lam leh Bahama tuikulh ciangbek a tung ahih zawk lam teltak in va mukhia hi. America amah a mu masa pen atung masa ahi nuam ei leh mi tampi na teng khin zaw lai hi.

   Atung masa taktak pen Italy te mah ahi, a tung a minthum neipa mah ahihi. Ama min zompaih in Americus pan America akici ahihi. Amah pen Republic of Florence, nungsang ciangin Italy kici gamah March 9, 1454 in suak a, February 22, 1512 ni in kum 57 a phak in si hi. Sente ommuang na tawm in ko tung masa zaw ung a ci nuam vive ahi uhhi. Ahih hangin tudong mah Columbus min mah in pai suaksuak sak lel uhhi. Bawng pen khui ih cih a, sakol pen siphu ih cih bangdan mah in a kithei khialpi, a maan hetlopi  mah a maan bang a kizuizui suak ahihi. (Source: Internet)

American te’ Galsim In Nitum
   Mikangte (British) te’ih cih pen a tei mahmah uh hi kei leh America mu masa a teeng masa taktakte pen Spainte mahmah tam pha diak hi. Khua khempeuh ah om hi. Mun min gam min, khua minte zong Spanish pau vive ahihi. San Francisco, San Diego, San Jose (pronounced San Ho’Se’) USA a taw lamah Santa Fe, Louisiana, a laizang lamah Cincinnati, Indianapolis cih khawng a tam zaw hi mai e, mikang min taktak om meel lo in Europe gam lam pan hong pai minam tuamtuamte min phuaksa vive tam hi.

   Americante in Red Indiante tawh gal kisim, Spanishte tawh kisim, a mau leh amau Northern leh Southern kisim, British te lah na do cih bangin haksatna khempeuh aban aban in a na paltan in na gualzo den uh ahihi. WWI & WWII in lah gualzo, Korean War lah nei, Vietnam War ah guallel, tun Iraq leh Afghanistan tawh kisim leuleu, tu nai mahmah teh Libya gam va sai-na (sai-la) kawikawi cih bang hi in USte pen galsimin nitumin leitungbup a uknuam gawp uh hi mai hi.

America Uthuai Takpi Maw..Lo?
   Hih atung a thulu tawh kisai in a masa in kong gen nop ah, anneek tuidawn khamlah liang leh ih ci ih lu na leh kikhoi kikeem zolo liang a, khangluite pau leng ‘ngal thaldo’ a pum thuak bingthuak liang dinmun ah ih om man hi kei leh ih gam ih lei kankan a nuam om lo hi.

   Zangkong ih tun ma in Zangkongah ki-om nuam in kiteng nuam mahmah hi. Ih om taktak ciang in lah a Kawlte lakah a neipente zong kihi lo pah phot malam zel in haksapipi a ih omteh lah ih pianna ih Zogam mah kiphawk ngeungau zel hi. Zogam ciah taktak leng lah sawtveipi ki-om zo tuan lo leuleu hi. Zangkong a omsate Zogam kua mah ciah kik nuam nawn lo ta leuleu uhhi.

   Hih lamah zong a mau kiangah a nuainung pen pawl mah kihi veve hi. Pianpih liangko kikimna/pianpih suahtakna (human rights) ngiat in hong lung nuam sak hi kei leh kumpite leh mihaute sila takpi mah kihi veve hi. A taktak kumpi ih cih te zong mihaute leh taangpite sila hi kik bilbel hi. Kawlgamah khasum kikhom hetlo hi kei leh kumpi nasep pen a nuam mahmah cih ding ahihi. Kawl gam bek hi lo in mundang gamdang khempeuhah zong kumpi nasemte mah hampha zaw deuh hi. Suakta zaw deuh uhhi.

   Hih lamah company te khutnuai hi mawk tek uh a, nasep a om kei leh ki-khawlsak ziauziau hi. Uliante mai-et zong a kul veve kawikawi ahihi. Ei Zomite a tamzaw thatang vive mah tawh na kisem ahihi. A mikang a mivomte sepnop loh teng, a teel masak loh tengmah akisem ahihi. Tua bang nasep ngah nading zong, a sem nuam tektek ih hih hangin, Mikang khitteh mivomte’n mun ngah a, mivom khitteh Hispanic kici Mexican, Spanishte pawl in zom hi. A nunung penah Asiante cih ding ahihi.

   Tua bang ka cihteh a upadi a gen ka hi kei hi. Mihing ih hih mah bangin ei leh ei kinaipih teng mah kideihsakin nasep kipia nuam ahih manin, nasep siauhna ah nasep ngah zawh nang a haksa leh a ol zaw dan ka gennopna ahihi. Mihing ih hih mah bangin a lungsim sungah neu-etna simmawhna lungsim kinei veve  hamtang ding ahih hangin, kuamah in a langhtangpi in hong nenh niam ngam lo uh hi. Kam pau lu hek a khialh khak ding na leng kidawm pha mahmah uhhi.

   Kawlgam sung a diakdiakin Yangon khuapi sung khawng a mihau minuamsa mawtaw tawh a vak hialhialte, sumzian hau a sumzon paai zonna kician neite a’dingin pai huai hethet lo hi. Tua lo peuhmah pen, Kawlgamah sum thalawhna ding cih bang om lo mawk ahih manin a diakdiak in ei Zogam pan leh Kawlgambup sung khangno nasep kician nei lote aa’ dingin pai huai mahmah hi. Kawlgamah mailam ah ki-ukna hong kikheel diakduak kei buang leh cih loh na mailam nuntakna ding bangmah gitneihna ding om peuhmah lo hi. Lai na pil na siam mahmah phial zongin Kawlgamah lam et ding bangmah om lo in ih mai lam bin cih tak in bingg hi. A hi zongin hih lamah ih tun ciangin ih nuntakna hong kikhai pah duak hi. Amau hauhna a ciappih pah ih hihi. A hanciam nuam leh khangnote aa’ dingin lam etna tampi om hi.

   Nidang hun pek in Europe pan Spanish, Portuguese, French, German cihte na pai uhhi. Tua zawhteh  Asia pan Russian, Sente leh Japan na pai uhhi. Korea gal khit ciangin Koreante na tung uh hi. 1967 kum zawh ciang akipan Vietnamte bek hilo in Laos leh Cambodia gam pan zong a honhon in na pai uhhi.  Cambodia gam pan Mong kici minamte tampi tak na om aa, na teektang mahmah khin uhhi. Africa pan zong tampi mah lut sansan lai uhhi. Tun ei hun hongtung pan ahihi. Ih lawmte pawl pen luangkham vive a pai uh zong tam peuhmah hi. A pai zozo pai huai mahmah hi. Uthuai zong uthuai mah hi cih ka gen nuam hi.

   Nopsak leh nopsak loh tawh kisai pen ei tungah ki-nga hi. Bangkua sung nuam peuh leh ih omna peuh a nuam ding hi lel hi. Cidam ludam ding thupi pen hi. A lungkhamhuai mahmah khatah hun khatteh ih tu ih tate’n ei pau thei nawn lo in Mikang pau vive tawh hong pau ta ding hi. Ih minam paute leh ih ngeinate mangthang ta ding hi. Ih Zomi khaici pen Kawlgam Zogam ah na om lai bek ding hi. Tua zong ih kepcing mahmah kei leh Kawlgam na leng ah kicimang haklo lai kha ding hi.

   Kawlgamah banghun ciangin sum tha lawhna ol ding cih kigen thei nai lo hi. Tua pen gam makaite’n tuppi pen in zong neihtuak khollo lai hi. Hih lamah pen na nasep leh mawtaw zatloh in phamawh hi. Mawtawte pen a bat in zong ahoih pipi kileithei hi. Athak na leng kilei thei hi. Auto gear vive hi a, sinna kician zong neilo in pasal khangno laite bang hawl pahpah ziau in hawlsuak thei ziau pah lian mawk uhhi.

   Tua bang dinmun pen Kawlgamah ih tun theih ding hun mualmong etmah bang lai hi. Mualmong et hi lo lai in mualpang ettawh kibang lai hi. Tua ahih manin tua lam pangpan enleng nuntakna pen kikhaih cihtak a akikhai vat pah ahihi. Biakna thu kha thu tawh a gente’n Vantunggam ma-leep a cih zong ih Kawlgam ih leitung nuntak dan tawh tehkak leng ahi takpi mah ahihi. (2011 ciangin Kawlgam khantoh nading hong mai nawt uhhi. Hoih tak a manman aa a khan toh phial mah leh zong tu zawh kum 20 lo in gammi khempeuh aa’dingin nasep piang zuahzuah naii lo kha meek lai ding hi.)

   Tenna inn leh lo tawh kisai in sumthalawhna sum muhna kician khat na neih ciangin hong leitawi ding bank ten hong muan nak leh a bat in kilei thei hi. Atam zaw in a tun zawh uh kum khat kum nih khit ciangin inn abat in kum 30 sung piak dingin bat laak uh hi. Mawtaw thak sinsen zong kum 4 kum 5 sung piak dingin kibat laak thei hi. Innsungah a vot a sa aircon: om hi. Kisilna kuangzawnpi (bath tub), tuilum tuivot kicing takin om hi. Puansawpna, ankuang ankeu, mehkuang mehkeu silna zong om hi. An huanna (electric stove), tuikhal bungpi (refrigerator) leh an satsak na ziau micro wave te zong om hi.

   Tho vaii na cih bang om lo hi. Tho in ankuang bawk cih zong omlo hi. Leivui khu phengphang cih omlo hi. Inn gei inn pam namsia in uih seisai den keei cih omlo hi. Veeng leh paam gamlum ziazua in sa ngeiingaii cih omlo hi. Inn khat ah tui beem khatta cih guang tuan lo a, tui zawn pan hong pai in a tuitha khauh mahmah hi. Atomin genleng nuntak zia ahih leh van leh lei bang hetmahin kikhai hi.


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