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ZOMITE NUNTAKZIA LEH NGEINA. ~ Rev.Dr. G.K. Nang

- Rev.Dr. G.K. Nang

 Zomite hong kipat khiat dan, min kilawh dan leh a pem kawikawi dan tawh kisai-in tangthu tampi om hi. Mikangte hong khan ma kum 1895 dongin Zomite pen kuamah in thei nai loin, kum 1895 a Mikangte hong khan’ ciangin Zomite nuntakzia hong kikhelin khua hong mu pan uh hi. Tua ahih manin hih sungah Zomite hihna (identity),  a pem kawikawina thu, beh leh phung tawh kisai thu, Mikangte ukma hun leh uk zawh a Zomite nuntakzia, Zomite kivai puakzia leh a khuahekziate uh i gen ding hi.

                Zomite Ngeina tawh Kisai Thu
Zo minam tuamtuamte in a hong pianna uh pen 111-221 BC hun laia China gama “Jo/Zhou” kumpi sep hun lai pek a kipan hi dingin sutna nei uh hi (Gin Za Tuang 1973:2). Zhou kumpi khit zawh ciangin Chin kumpi hong khangin (221-207 BC), tua panin “Zo” leh “Chin”  minte hong piang hi kha thei ding hi. Kawlpau a “Chin” cih pen “bawmpua” cihna hi a, tua zong a nung pek cianga kivawh kik pan hileh kilawm hi. Tua ahih manin “Chin” cih pen China paua “mi” “mihing” (man) cih pana kila hizaw kha ding hi.
            1948 kuma Chin Special Division ong pian a kipanin,  “Chin” cih pen kumpi theihpih min hi a, 1974 kum ciangin Chin State ci-in kilaih hi. Ahi zongin, a sunga tengte in “Zo/Zomi” kici uh hi. Kawlgama Mikang kumpi nasem a om J. George Scott in:
            “Kuki” leh “Chin” cihte pen amau minam min hi loin, a kim le pam a om namdangte sapna hizaw hi. Kuki cih pen Assamese leh Bengali-te in a kim le pama om khamtung mite genna-in zang hi. Tua mah bangin Chin cih pen Kawlte in Kawlgam leh Assam a om khamtung mite khempeuh genna-in zang hi. Ahi zongin amaute in Zho/Shu/Jo/Lai kici uh hi. A hong piankhiat dan uh pen genin kinei lo bilbel zaw hi ci hi (1921:106).

S. T. Hau Go (L) in zong a tunga kigen mah bangin, “Ka minam min dingun Chin cih ka zang ngei kei uh a, Tibeto-Burman suante ka hi zaw uh hi” (1998:559) na ci hi.
            Mizogam sunga omte in Mizo kici-in, Manipur a omte in Kuki-Chin kici uh hi. Vanlalchhuanawma in “Mizo” cih tawh kisai a genna-ah, “‘Mizo’ cih zah a deihhuai pen ‘Zomi’ hi-in, ahi zongin ‘Zomi’ cih pen Kawlgam a om Mizo omte in zang uh a, ‘Mizo’ cih tawh a khiatna kibang hi” ci-in gen hi (2006:16). Vumson in ahih leh, Kawlgam a om Zomite pen Suahlam Zo minamte (Eastern Zo) ci-in, Mizote pen tumlam Zo minamte (Western Zo) ci-in nagen hi (1986:21-25). Vumson gen mah bangin Lian Sakhong in zong Kawlgam a Chin State pen East Chinram ci-in, India a Mizogam pen West Chinram na ci hi (2000:22-51). Ahi zongin hih thu pen sansiam haksa hi, bang hang hiam cih leh East Chinram leh West Chinram pen koimun mahah kimu ngei nai lo hi.
            Ahi zongin Vumson leh Lian Sakhongte lai gelhna panin Zomite in hihna kician (common identity) a neihloh zia hong lak hi. Bang hang hiam cih leh, Mikang kumpi tung pana suahtakna a kingah ciangin Mikang kumpi in gam phel khamin Zomite khenzak gawp hi. Tua hun a kipanin tuni dongin haksatna kituak toto lai hi. Lian Sakhong in Chin State tuilu lama omte pen Zomite ci-in, tuitaw lama omte pen Chin mite ci hi. Amah in Kukite pen Zomi lakah kihel sak hi. Zomi cih ciangin India leh Kawlgam sunga om khamtung mite khempeuh banah, Bangladesh a Chittagong Hills a teng mite zong huam hi. Vumson (1986) leh M. Kipgen (1996) in “Zo” cih ciangin khamtung a teng mite khempeuh huamin, amaute pen khatvei leh Kuki, khatvei leh Chin, khatvei leh Lushai ci-in kigen kawkawi zaw hi, na ci uh hi (J. Shakespear 1912:8). “Chin” cih min pen Kawlte leh Mikangte sap dan hi-in, “Zomi” ahih leh khamtung a teng mite genna ahi hi (Gougin 1984:12). Tua ahih manin hih sungah zong “Zomi” cih tawh kisai a kigen peuhpeuh ciangin India leh Kawlgam a teng khamtung mite genna-in kizang hi. 

                                                Zomite Kipat khiatna Thu
Tangthu siam  Wilhelm Klein in, Mon mite pen Kawlgamah kum zalom 3AD in lut-in, amaute zomah Pyus mite kum zalom 8 ah lut-in, Chin-Kachin mite pen kum zalom 9-na ciang lut leuleu uh hi, ci hi (1983:41). Mizote tangthu a thei Liangkhaia in Mizote pen Chhinlung suanghawm panin 750AD pawlin paikhia-in, tu a Kalemyo tuitaw lam gamah teng uh hi, ci hi (2002a:13). Vumson in zong Liangkhaia genna tawh kizui-in, “Kawlte in Kawlgam zangsung teng kum zalom 9-na huna a lut lai-un, Chin mite pen Gunkhawm (Chindwin Vallley) ah teng khinzo uh hi,” ci hi (1986:35).
            Chindwin (Gun) cih zong Chin mite tenna sa ahih manin hih bang min kivawh ahi hi (Sing Khua Khai 1984:36). G. H. Luce in Zomite pen China tumlam gam panin paikhia-in, Tibet nisuahna gam tengah teng danin gen hi. Amaute in tuitaw lam zuanin, Hukong Valley tawnin pai uh hi (1959:75-109). Tuitaw lam zuanin pai-in, Irrawady Valley tung uh a; tua panin mun tuamtuam a zuat masiah Gunkhawmah teng uh hi. Tangthu a kigenna panin, Zomite pen Khul (suanghawm)[1] sung panin hong paikhia hi, ci-in la-in kisa hi. Vanlalchhuanawma in zong, Chhinlung pen Great Wall of China a suanghawm mah tawh kibangin (ca. 1200AD), tua suanghawm panin a guallel zaw deuh minam teng paikhia uh hi (2006:16), ci hi.
            Mizote tangthu siam ahi B. Lalthangliana in zong AD 1250-1400 kikal hun sung pen Gunkhawm a khamtung mite  ten hun hi dingin ngaihsutna nei hi (2004:77). Zomite pen Kawlgam tuilu lam a om Kale Valley leh Kabaw Valley kuam tengah lungmuang takin kum 100 sung bang na teng uh hi. Kabaw Valley a om Khampat pen Mizote khamuang leh lungmuang taka a tenna mun ahi hi. Khampat a ten hunlai pen Mizote adingin a vanglai hun ahih manin, ciamteh huai mahmah hi, ci hi (2004:87-89).
            Kale Valley pana Zomite a paikhiatna hang pen, Ava muna om Shan Kumpi in Kalemyo’ kulh (fortress) lamna-ah nakpi takin na a sepsak hang hi dingin kigen hi. Kum 1920 pawla Tedim a Assistant Superintendent sem L. B. Naylor in tangthu  a ciamtehna-ah, Shan kumpipa in mipite a bawlsiatna pen thuakzawh ding bang hi loin, “nasem pawlkhatte khutme kitante pen bawm sung dim liang hi,” ci hi (1925:42). Tua ahih manin, a paikhia masate in Yazagyo tawnin Zogam lut uh a; Meitei gun (Manipur River) kantanin khamtung lut uh hi. Amaute pen Lushai (Mizote) ahi uh hi. Amau zawh cianga paite in khamtung lam zuanin, Thangmual dawn-ah tawlnga uh hi. Thangmual dawn panin pawlkhatte in Ciimnuai zuan uh a, a dang teng in Zangpitam zuan uh hi ci hi (Naylor 1925:42-43). Vum Kho Hau in zong a tunga kigen mah bangin Kale Valley kuam panin dawl thum in kipaikhia hi ci a, tua thu pen sanhuai pen dingin kingaihsun hi.
          Pawlkhatte khe tawh pai-in Kawlte tenna khua Yazagyo tawnin pai uh a, amaute pen tu a Zangpitam kianga Sihzang kuam a om Thuklai khua-ah teng uh hi. Tua panin Sukte-te omna Saizang khua gei Ciimnuai tung uh hi. Ciimnuai panin a suante un mun tuamtuam zuan uh a, amaute pen tuhun a Sihzang, Sukte, Kam Hau, Zote leh Thado minamte pianna pupi hi dingin ki ngaihsun hi. A omlai teng in Myitha luikuam panin Chin mite bitna mun zuan uh a, tu a Falam gama om Zanniat, Zahau, Tashon leh Haka  minam tuamtuamte pianna pupi hidingin kilamen hi (1990:2).

Bawl siatna thuak zo loin mipite in khamtung lam zuan uh a, Tedim a Ciimnuai leh Falam a Locomah giahphual sat uh hi. Ciimnuai panin Saizang, Geeltui, Dimpi, Dimlo cih munte zuanin, tua panin Tedim tung uh hi. Akitheih danin minam 9 peuhmah pen Ciimnuai panin kipanin, tuate pen Sihzang, Thado, Zote, Teizang, Saizang, Dim, Guite, Phaileng leh Hualngo cihte ahi uh hi. Locom mun a omte in Ramthlo zuan leuleu-in, Ramthlo khua a satpa pen khamtunga siah (tax) dong masa pen suak hi. Haka minamte  pen Ramthlo suante ahi uh hi (Khamtung Mite Tangthu 1985:3).
            Hih banga a pemna hang uh pen, a pu a pate uh akipan  tenna ding munhoih zaw, nek leh dawn a kicin zawkna mun zuanin na peem kawikawi uh hi dingin tuatna om hi. Ahi zongin, a kicing zaw-a i sutsut ciangin, amau sanga hatzaw leh vanglian zaw ukpite in a bawlsiatna hang uh hizaw leh kilawm hi. Sente Kulhpi (Great Wall of China) gim le tawl a cian lai-un a bah, a thanem zawte in pem ding ngaihsun hi kha thei ding hi. Amaute tuitaw lam zuanin pai-in, Irrawady leh Gunkhawm  tung uh hi. Shan kumpi in Kalemyo khuapi kulh haksa taka a lam sakna  hangin, tuni-a a tenna mun uh na zuan uh hi kha ding hi. Tu-in Zomite pen Kawlgam, North East India leh Bangladesh gamte-ah teng uh hi.
                                                                       
                                                                Zo Minamte
Zo minamte pen Tibeto-Burman pau a zangte hi-in, amaute’ pen China, Tibet, Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bhutan leh Bangladesh gamte-ah  kithehthang  uh hi. Kawlpau banah, Tibeto-Burman pau a zangte lakah Jingphaw, Zomi (Chin), Naga, Kachin leh Shan paute kihel hi. Chin Hills Special Division sungah hih bang pau a zang pen 350, 000 dektak bang pha-in, tua pen 1931 kuma kisimna pana a kituat ciangin Kawlgam mipi za a 3 (3%) bang in Tibeto-Burman pau a zang suak cihna ahi hi (Frank N. Trager 1971:546-547). Kum 1931 a kisimna panin India leh Pakistan (tun Bangladesh) gama khamtung mi om khempeuh pen 850, 000 bang pha hi (Census of India 1931:182-193). 
            Vumson in 1986 kum donga India leh Kawlgam a Zo minam om khempeuh pen tulza nih pha dingin gen hi. Mizogamah 180, 000 omin; Tripura-ah 50, 000; Chin State ah 400, 000, Kawlgam zangsungah 300, 000; Naga gamah 50, 000 bang om dingin tuat hi (1986:2). Ahi zongin hih pen “man mah hi” ci a kantelna bangmah om thei lo hi. Tua banah, Tibeto-Burman pau a zang mite kithehthang lua ahih manin a milip zah lian pen tuat zong haksa mahmah hi. Zo minamte pen beh leh phung tampi in na kikhen diudeu-in, hih beh leh phung tuamtuamte in pau tuam ciat zang leuleu hi. Tua ahih manin, Zo minam sunga beh leh phung tuamtuam lakah pau nam a kinai cikcik 40 bang om hi (F. K. Lehman 1963:6).
             
                                         Tanglai Zomite’ Nuntakzia
Zomite pen khamtunga teng a hih mah bangun, kampau kibatlohna leh tenna kigamlat manin kum za  sung phial pen zong kikawm tuah lo uh hi. Khua khat leh khua khat kido-in, a hatzaw ding kituhin hunte beisak uh hi (K. Z. Go 1996:29). AD 1400-1885 kikal sung teng pen khamtung mite in kidona dingin hunteng zang uh ahih manin “Lula minam” (head hunters)” ki ci liang hi (J. H. Cope 1930:1). Hih thu tawh kisai pen a nuai-ah kigen hi.

                                            Khamtung Mite Kidona Thu
Khamtung mite laka kidona hong pianna hang pen khat leh khat kihuatna hang, kampau kibatlohna hang, gam kituhna hang leh minthan’ ding deihna hang ahi hi. Teizang khua a om, Zahlang beh Kawi Hang pen a pilna hangin Zogam tuilu lama om mite lakah minthang mahmah hi. Hih hun pawlin Kam Haute, Zahaute, Manipur a Meitei-te leh Lushai Hills (tun Mizogam) a om Sailote lakah kidona om den hi. Gentehna-in, 1856 kumin Khan Thuam tapa Kam Hau leh Zahau-te in Manipur khamtung gam teng simin, tuitaw lam gam teng zo hi (Stevenson 1970:12-14).
            Tua banah, Mikangte hong ukma 1871 pawlin, Champhai a om Vanhnuailiana in Sukte-te simin guallel-in ciah hi. Amaute pen 1849 kuma Champhai khua a kiciamna abawl zui loin kidona anei ahi uh hi (Liangkhaia 2002:113). ‘Kua in gal tam man thei zaw, kua in sal tam man theizaw” cih kidemna-in nei uh hi. Numei leh naupang a nungta sunsunte peuhmah sal-in kiciahpih hi. 

                                                  Gal Mat Thu
Mi a kithahna hang pen biakna tawh kisai leh minphat ding deihna hang ahi hi. Zomite ngaihsutna-ah gal tam a thatte in sihkhit ciangin a thahte tungah vaihawmin, a thahte to  suak ding hi, ci uh hi. A tomin genleng, mi a thahte uh pen  sih khit ciangin misi khua-ah  a sila uh suak ding cih um uh hi. Gal that takpi hi cih lahna dingin a lu  ciahpih zel uh hi. Tua banga gal ahih kei leh gamsa lauhuai thatte in pahtawina ngah uh hi. Nungakte in gal khat beek a that lote pen pasal dingin zong  deih lo uh hi (F. S. Downs 1983:179). 
            V. Hawla in zong, “Koh pen pi leh pu hunlai pek pana galhang hi-in, kim leh pamte tawh kido-in, koh leh koh mahmah zong ka kido zel uh hi. Tua ahih manin, kua in hong sim kha ding hiam, ci-in kiging tawntung in ka om uh hi….Gal thahna bek tawh lungkim zo loin, a lu tektek mah ka ciahpih zel uh hi. Gamsa lauhuai lu ka lak uh cianga ka cih zel mah bangun ka thahte uh lu tungah zong gualzawhna hanla ka sa zel uh hi”  ci hi (1983:xi). Gal mante  leh gamsa lauhuai a mante pen (adiakin Sahang leh Sai ) mipite lakah pahtawina kipia zel hi. Hih bangin Mikangte hong uk masiah Zomite na nungta uh hi. 
           
                                                 Mikangte Hong Lutna
Tedim khua a om Pi Nuam Dim in mikangte hong pai ding thu 1850 pawlin a genkholh khit hangin, Zomite in Mikangte hong lut ding pen theikhol lo uh hi. Mikangte hong lutna hang pen, Zomite in kim leh pamte manin a thah nawn lohna ding leh nam dangte salin a mat nawn lohna ding uh deihna ahi hi (Lalsawma 1994:19). Tua ahih manin, Mikangte hong lutna hang pen East India Company-te banga sum metbawl nopna lungsim hang hi masa lo hi. Kum 1813 panin East India Company in summet bawl ding deihna tawh gam hong kek pan bek hi. Tua ciangin Kawlgam pen 1886 kum panin Mikang ukna nuai-ah omin, Lushai Hills pen 1890 in la zo uh hi (Vanlalchhuanawma 2006:73-74). Khamtung gam pen 1895 kumin nihvei a sim uh ciangin la zo pan uh hi.

                                  Khamtung Gam Khatvei Simna
Captain Raikes in Deputy Commissioner (DC) sem dinga Kalemyo a tun ciangin minam tuamtuam sung panin Siyin, Kam Hau, Haka leh Tlaisun hausate Kalemyo-ah samkhawmin kam kupna neihpih hi. Tua sanah amah in  Kawl mite sim nawn lo a, salin zong a mat nawn lohna dingin thu vaikhak hi. Ahi zongin Haka hausapa in Captain Raikes deihna thukimlo ahih manin kamkupna-ah zong kihel nuam lo hi. Tua ciangin Captain Raikes in Haka hausa pa a sam dingin mi 6 sawl hi. Tangmi a kisawl 6-te laka 2 pen Haka hausapa in na that a, a dang 3-te manin khat bek suakta hi. Hih thu hangin Captain Raikes heh mahmah hi.
            A kumkik ciangin Captain Raikes in General Sir George White leh General Faunce tawh 42nd Gurkha Light Infantry, Assam galkap leh Punjabi palik tonpihin Khamtung mite sim hi. Amaute in Kale leh Thuklai kikala om Thangmualah kulh lamin, General White min tam sakin “Fort White” phuak uh hi (Gin Za Tuang 1973:23). Galkapte lutna thu a zak uh ciangin Siyin, Kam Hau leh Tlaisun hausate in galhang  teng  kaikhawmin, Siyin panin mi 1200, Kam Hau panin mi 400 leh Sukte beh lak panin mi 30 pha uh hi. Phatzangah tawmvei sung a kido zawh uh ciangin, Mikang galkapte sat gawp uha,  zang lam zuanin tai uh hi. Kum 1888 leh 1889 kikal sungin Mikang-te 36 si-in, 40 tak liam uh hi. B. S. Carey in galphual a Khamtung mite a lauhuai dan hih bangin gen hi:
            Zawhngeu bangin manlang mahmah uh ahih manin, na zong siam baihin; galcingte theihloh kalin kulh sungah na lutsim ziauziau thei uh hi. Tua ahih manin, vawknote zong zansim phialin mangin, gu bei uh hi. Khatvei zong gan hon 70 bang khatvei thu-in mang ziau mawk hi. Khatvei leuleu lah, “nasem” khat a kaplup zawh ciangin kulh laizang san takah a lu kitan sak a, tua khit ciangin galcingte theih loh kalin taimang vingveng man hi.

Moto lam bawlna-ah nasem  dinga akilakna, Mikangte in a dona, Mikangte in thau a khop man leh sal pana suahtakna a piak manin Khamtung mite pen Mikangte tungah heh mahmah hi. Ahi zongin Mikangte in nihvei a simna-ah nang zo nawn sam lo uh hi.

                                             Khamtung Gam Nihvei Simna
Khamtung mite in Mikangte a thangsiahna-in a kipiak  nopna thu lai tawh zasak uh a; saiha, Cinghpi ki leh thau 150 kong pia ding  uh hi ci-in thu zasak uh hi. Ahi zongin Commissioner B. S. Carey a thah nop man uh ahi hi. Carey om loh laitak hi citciat ahih manin, khua sung ukpi (Myo-ook) Tun Win pen Carey tangin kiman hi (Ngulh Khaw Suan 1998:207). Tun Win pen kamphen ding mi 2 leh thautawi mi 30 tawh Pumva a om Zomi makaite leh letsongte a sang dingin kisawl hi. Kihona ding mun Pumva a naih kuan uh ciangin, October 9, 1892 ni-in Mikangte na suam uh a,  khuasung ukpi Tun Win zong that uh hi. Mi 5 bek suakta hi (Vumson 1986:132). Tuni dongin tua pen Myo-ook Suam ci-in kiciamteh hi.
            A thuk dingin Mikang kumpi in Brigadier General Palmer leh thautawi galkap 2,500 sawl hi. Khuate halin, a gante uh a laksak banah, a lote uh susia khin hi (Vumson 1986:132). Siyin leh Sukte-te ahih leh Mikangte tungah ki-ap pah hi. Gamsunga om Khamtung mite a zawhna dingin General Palmer in ngian nih zang a, tuate in: khal nisat hun lai a sim ding, nihna-ah khuate halmang ding ci hi (G. Z. Tuang 1973:27). Tua mah bangin, Mikangte in khal nisat hun laitakin Zomite khua tampi halsak uh hi.
            Kum 1893 in Thuklai pan Kam Lian leh Thuamngo, Buanman pan Dolian leh Kam Cin, Heilei pan Kham Hau, leh Muizawl panin Lal Nangte in a thau uh tawh Mikang galkapte tungah ki-ap uh hi. A kumkik 1894 ciangin Khup Pau, Khai Kam, Vum Lian leh Suangsonte zong Mikang galkapte  khutah ki-ap leuleu uh hi. Tua kum mah October kha-in, Khamtung hausa a sem mi 49 tak salin kimanin, Yangon-ah kipaipih hi (G. Z. Tuang 1973:27). Hih bangin Mikangte in Zogam nihvei a sim uh ciangin ukzo pan uh hi.

                                        Mikangte Ukna Hanga Thupiangte
Mikangte ukna hangin Chin Hills Regulation Act kici thukhun pen 1896 panin kizang hi. Hih pen B. S. Carey in bawlin, Mikang kumpi in kipsak hi. Hih thukhun sungah Khamtung gam pen ukpi tuamtuam Superintendent, Deputy Commissioner, District Magistrate leh Collector nuai-ah om ding hi (Chin Hills Regulation Act 1896). Carey pen Khamtung gam a Superintendent masa pen dingin kiseh pah hi.
            Mikang ukna hanga meetna tuamtuam omte a nuai-a bang ahi hi:
1. Mikang gamkeekte in Zomite ki-uk dan ngeina omsa hausa thuneihna pen kipsakin, a kiluahsawn  thei ukna “Tribal Feudal Administrative System” cih phuan uh hi.
2. Mikangte ukna hangin Khamtungah Khristian missionary-te lut thei hi.
3. Mikangte hong uk a kipanin Zomite tangthu lai tawh kiciamteh  hi. Mikangte in Zomite’ tangthu, nuntakzia, ngeina leh paute lai tawh na ciamteh uh hi.
4. Khamtung mite laka kidona bei hi.
5. Mikangte  ukna hangin Zomite kipumkhat lawh uh hi. Nidang lai-in khamtung mite pen khua khat leh khat kido a, kisim den ahi uh hi. Ahi zongin Mikangte hong lut tak ciangin Zomite zong pangkhawmin, Mikang galkapte lehdo uh hi. Gentehna-in, Myo-ook Suam pen Siyin, Kam Hau leh Tlaisun mite kipawlkhawmna ahi hi. Tua banah, Mikang gamkeekte ukna pen Zomite adingin Mikangte a kimuhcilna leh leitung a kimuhcilna, khua a kidakkhiat cilna suak hi.  

A hoihna tampi tak a om laitakin, Mikangte ukna hangin supna zong om veve hi, tuate pen:
1. Chin Hills Regulation Act, 1896 pen Zomite in gam a neihna ding leh Lushai Hills tawh vaihawmna khat nuai-a koih ding deihna hinapi, tangtung lo hi (M. Kipgen 1996:142). Zomite lakah kikhenna piang zaw-in, amaute pen India, Burma leh Bangladesh gam thum-ah kikhen thang hi. Hih thu hangin Superintendent B. S. Carey zong lungkim loin tawpna lai khia hi (L. Sakhong 2000:183-186). Zomite sehthum a kisuahna hangin khangthakte in Mikang  gamkeekte ukna pen sansiam haksa sa-in, tuni dongin a lungsim uhah mangthei lo hi.  
2. Mikang gamkeekte ukna nuai-ah Khamtung hausate in a thuneihna uh deih bangin zang thei nawn lo uh hi. Bang hang hiam cih leh, amau thuneihna pen khuakhat sung ciang bekah kizang thei hi.
3. Mikang gamkeekte hangin Zomite in a leitang mahmah uh tanlawh hi. Gam leh leitang pen kumpi aa suak khinta ahih manin, kumpi phalna lo tawh mimal in bangmah cih thei nawnlo hi (L. Sakhong 2000:188).

(Hih thu pen Rev. G.K.Nang laibu gelh “Zomi Christianity and Cultural Transformation”kici sung pan hong kilakhia ahi hi-Ed.)
             
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Item Reviewed: ZOMITE NUNTAKZIA LEH NGEINA. ~ Rev.Dr. G.K. Nang Description: Rating: 5 Reviewed By: Cinpu Zomi
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