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Democracy Ki-ukna` Mailam le A Hoihzaw Dang (The Future of Democracy and Its Alternative).

Democracy Ki-ukna` Mailam le A Hoihzaw Dang
(The Future of Democracy and Its Alternative)
Gelh ~ Tg. Pau Sian Lian @ Lianpi

          Hih thului sungah democracy ih cihin bang taktak hi a, banglam ah thakhauh-in, bang lamah tha nemna neihiam? Mailam ah democracy ki-ukna ong koicih omin, hih democracy ki-ukna sang a kizang zaw bang ki-ukna dang a omkha dinghiam cihthute kupna kinei dinghi.

1.   Democray ih cih Banghiam?
Democracy ihcih bang hi-in, bangteng kigawm leh democracy kici theihiam? Hih dotna in dotna hiziau khattawh a kibat hangin kammal khat, laigual khattawh siangtak le olno takin kidawng pakziau thei nam hilo hi. Politic lam mipil Gallie in “a bul neng nangawn ki thutuak takin sankhop theih cih a omlo thu paizia khathi” ci in na genhi (Gallie 1955). A tomkim cing penin democracy aki khiatteh mipite` theihpihna le thukim pih taktak hihna (legitimacy) le suakta takin gamvai kihelna kici thei a, ahi zongin Donell in democracy cih mawk pen thugui cingtak le a hilek-in kikhia ziau pakthei ngeilo dinghina cihi (O’Donnell 1973). Woodrow Wilson in, democracy thu kum 20 val bang ka hilhkhin a, tudong mah democracy cih banghiam cih ka gencian theikei a, democracy tawh kibang cihciang bek genthei ing, na cihi. 

Democracy cih kammal pen Greekte laipan kila hi-in demos and kratos cih kammal nih kigawm a hihi. ‘Demos’ cih kammal khiatna-in ‘mipi’ cihna hi-in ‘kratos’ khiatna-in ‘thu neihna’ (power) a hihi. Tua hih manin a kammal pan thakhat-in khiatna la lehang democracy ih cihteh mipi` thuneihna”, “mipi’ vang neihnacih ding a hihi.

Tu hunteh democracy ki-ukna zatna ah a phadiak-in kiteelna hi-in, mipite’n a mau a ukding mi a deih pente uh teel, meetang(vote)khia in mipi meetang tawh ukna khuan ngahna-in democracy hi, a ci omhi. Tua hih manin mi a tam zawzawte’ thu bangbang cih ong thupi-in khensatna khat peuhpeuh ah a tam zawte’thutawh khensatna vive hong suakta hi (Ober, 2007).

Politic tawh kisai mipil Seymour Martin Lipset le Jason Larkte-in: “Democracy ih cihpen politic lam thu neihna(right) a zang kiukna hi.” ci-in na genuh hi. Joseph Schumpeter in, “Mi khat-in ukna thu neihtheihna dingin kiteelna tawh mipite piak meetang ngah zawh nading kidemna gawpna zia khathi.” ci-in na genhi.

 Larry Diamond in democracy na ngawn namnih in na khen hi. “electoral” le “liberal” democracy cihdan-in na khen a, a ‘picing’ democracy le ‘kiteelna’ ciang dinmun omlai democracy cihna a hihi. Kiteelna ciang bek tawh khawllo-in a picing democracy ih tunnop leh gam makai ding ihteel khitteh a picin takin ki-ukna ngeina a hi, thukhunte ukna zuihna (rule of law), suakta tak-in lungsim pulak theihna(freedom of expression) le mipite’ suahpih thuneihna(civil rights)te limtak thakhauhsak ding kisam ci-in na gen hi (Hobson, 2013).

2.   Democracy ki-ukna` Tha Khauhna
Freedom Housete ciaptehna-ah 1970 kum lai-in leitung bupah democracy ki-ukna, a diakdiak in kiteelna a nei democracy gam 35 om in 2015 kum teh democracy min pua ki-ukna a zang gam 125 phata hi. Winston Churchil in bel “Democracy ki-ukna cih zenzen pen a sia mahmah ki-uk ziakhat a hihi. Ahi zongin ki-ukna zia nam tampi a kizang ngei lakah a kizang thei pen ki-ukna hi” ci-in na genhi. Democracy cih zong pau banna tampi neimah naven tua sang a kizang theizaw ki-ukna om naikei veh a cihna ahihi.

Amartye Sen in a laibu gelhna sung khat-ah democracy ki-ukna phatak le ciantak-in a zang gamte ah kialpi tung cih om ngeikei ci-in na gelhhi. (Sen, 2000)

Politic lamtawh kisai a kan a kua mapeuh in huamkim-in a thukim uh democracy ki-ukna` hoihnate pawlkhat enpak ni.
1.    Mipi thuneihna le suahtakna tam piazaw
2.    Politic vai ah liangko kikimna omzaw
3.    Daihna khangsak in kilemlohna te lemkik theizaw
4.    Ngongtat na zatkullo in thuneihna kikhiat diamdiam thei
5.    Mipite` phattuam nang kisepsak zaw
6.    Thu neite`n vaipuak langam zaw deuh in daihna om zawdeuh, cihte a hihi.

Democracy thu a kigen teh a kilo mun mahmah Abraham Lincoln thugen khat-in “Mipite` sung pan, mipite` ading, mipite` teel” cih ahihi. Tua ahih manin ki-ukna dang tuamtuamte tawh tehkak lehang democracy ki-ukna in “mipite` lunggulhna” kilangkhia sak pen hi. A theory dan hi leh democracy ki-ukna-ah a thunei kumpi khat akl mi tawmno te bekin gambup vai khat peuhpeuh ah ut le deih bangbangin hei gawpgawp cih bang om theilo-in thulela khat peuhpeuh ah mipite tawh kikum liailiai in, thu-le-la kizasak tangtang zawhi. Mipite mahmah zong gamvai, ki-uknai vai te suakta takin pulak khiatna khuan, suakta takin kipawlna phuanin kikholhkhopna khuan cihte pen democracy kiciante ah thu minsa hi pahpah hi (Morton, 2005). 

Ki-ukna luanzia a deidei, a dawldawl, a gualgual in om-a mipite’ aw kiza zaw-in khensatna khat peuhpeuh ah mipite` thu kihel thei zaw hi. Mipi kipawlna’ thuvaihawm nading pan mun dingzong zai zaw semsem hi.

Democracy ki-ukna sung ah thu neihnate a kim-in kihawm linlen hi. A ukte (executive branch) ki-ukna thukhun geelte (legislative) le thukhun zui a thukhente(judiciary branch) cih bangin a thuneihnate uh kihawm dimdiam uh a hih man-in vaihawm na peuhpeuh ah thuneihna kilek kimna (check and balance of power) om zaw-in hihte-in kumpi cih pen a kiciangtan mahmah, utut-in a mawk gamtat theihloh lam kilang khiasak hi.

Khanhun lapna theory (modernization theory) a ki-et teh gam hauhna le democracy ki-ukna pen na tonkhawm den ahih lam kimu theihi. Tu ma kum 40 ciang bang a ki-et kikteh mikhat peuh(akl) galkap ki-ukna gamte pen democracy ki-ukna gamte sang a zah nihin sum-le-pai lamah zawng zaw cih na mukhia uh hi.

Larry Diamond in gam gina lo (failed state) ahihkeh, gam cinate a tamzawte encian le hang mikhat thuneihna(authoritarian) gamte hi ci-in na gen hi. Asia nisuahna lamgamte’ hauhna le khantohnate ih etteh paihtuam-ittuam omlo kikim takin khuan pia a kidemna, gam tuamtuam tawh sumlei sumbawlna, sang laipilna khansakna, leitang zatdan hawmsiamna, tangpi kikepkikhoina, gamsung gampua pan sum tuhna, cihte hang vive hi-in, tua thute cian takin en lehang democracy ki-ukna tawh kikel ki policy khat mahmah omlohi(Sen, 2000).

3.   Democracy Ki-ukna` Thanemna
Winston Churchil mahmah democracy pen paubanna neilo ki-ukna hi zenzen kei a cih mah bangin, a lunglut huai tha nemna honkhat om veve in, a picing sa democracy gamte na ngawnin thanemna hon khat mah nei mawkhi. Pawlkhatte genna ah, Abraham Lincoln thugen “Mipite` sung pan, mipite` ading, mipite` teel” cihna-ah ‘mipi’ cih-in kuate taktak cihnop na hiam?, ci-in kicing a sa zo taklo zong omhi.

Gam khat-ah gamtatsiatna(corruption) khiapnop leh suak tatak le dik tak-in makai kiteelna, thu neihna ki-lek kim sakna, politic lamah zong vai puakngamna cihte, a diak-in democracy zia-le-tongte ih zat kulhi, kici hi. Ahi zongin leitung bup huam ki pawlna Transparency International te muhkhiatna-ah party khat bek-in uk gawpna a zang Sen gam in gam 170 lakpan 70-80 kikal ah om veve mawk hi. A nambat tam semsem, gamtat siatna uang semsem cihna hi-in, Sen gam-in democracy a zat zenzen loh hang leitung gamte lakpan gamtatsiatna sazian ah a laihawl pawl ah om veve hi. Democracy zatna-ah picing mahmah-in a kiciamteh India bang pen Sente sang gamtatsiatna-ah uang zawin a 94 na-ah om uhhi. Sen gam sang a uangzaw gam za val omin tua za val pan a lang sang a tam zaw pen democracy ki-ukna zangte a hihi (Xli, 2011). Joseph Stiglitz in, US te democracy pen ‘mihing 1 vote 1 ding kimlai, dollar khat 1 vote 1 ong suakta hi’, ci-in a lungkim lohna genkhia hi.

Martin Jacques gelh ni tumna lam a om democracy gamte’ thanemna honkhat a nuai a bangin pulak khiahi.    

         - Mipite’ metang(vote) ngah nang deihluatna tawh, hun saupi ding ngaihsut geelna nei manlo-in, hun tom sung mingah nangtawh buaizaw;
         - Gam ading vai lianpi geelna (strategic plan) cih lam thanem mahmah-in, a lem pakpak dingin vai hawm zaw. Gentehna, mipite kisap taktak a bulpite(infrastructure) vei masa lo;
         - Mainawt mukholhna(forward-looking) lamah nang;
         - Dinmun kepnop luatna le ngeina lui zuihna, khanglui vailuatnate lamnaih zaw;
         - Nasepna lamah kiva tak-in gualzawhna(competency) lam thanem-in na sepna-ah picin na, siamna kician taktak nei khollo;
         - Ki telna tawh ulian sepna (elected official) hihna le mipi lam vaihawmna zum (public administration) lamte` dinmun kikhai lua ahih manin, khangthak mipil, siam, kivate hih mipi lam vaihawmna zum-ah sepding zol zo nawnlo-in, tangpi ading nasepna ah thanem tuam mahmah. (Jacques, 2013).

Tua bek thamlo-in Latin America gam le Africa gamte` sum hauhna khannate a ki-et kik teh 1990 khit democracy a zat uhsang 1980 kum laipawl-in mikhat kia pum-ukna(autocratic) nuai-ah a om lai-un, hauzaw le khangto zaw cih kimu khiahi (Morton, 2005).

John Mearsheimer in, “Democracy cihmawk pen gamsung ah buaina  ong uang pianleh thuhoih tawh zawhsiam zolo thei denhi. Tua banghun teh mipite suahtakna, ki-lek-kimna cihbang peuh phawk nawnlo thukhun tawh kituak takin tang thei nawnlo hi.” na cihi.

Democracy ki-uk na lam a cingtak mahmah khin, a picing sa-in minthang gam a hi Italy, Greece, Spain le gam tuamtuamte mahmah zong 2008 khit sumbawl na kisiat mang(economic crisis) khitteh a democracy ki-ukna tungah lungmuang lua nawnlo uhhi. Ki-ukna hoih cih-in mipite’ kisapna te a sikzo, mipihte nopsak na a piazo a hih kul hamtang a , thanem nemnum detleh democracy dinmun ong patauh huaihi. Francis Fukuyama in bel democracy pen ki-ukna hoih pen mah hi-a, ahi zongin democracy ki-ukna a zang gamte’n zatsiam taktak lo bekhi, ci bilbel hi. (Fukuyama, 2014)

Ni tumna lam gamte’ sum bawlna kisiat mangkhit tu laitak lian hun paizia a bat suak leh 2018 teh Americate’ sum hauhna zah sang Sente’ sum hauhna tamzaw tadingin mipilte’n tuatta uhhi. Tua khit kum sawmnih bangkhitteh a zah nih phial-in khangto zaw lai dingin a tuat omlaihi. Kum 2000 khit lam a kipan leitung sum bawlna ah Sente’ dinmun thupitna ong khang mahmah ta a, globalization om dan zia-le-tong hei kawikawi theihna-ah US bang Sen gam-in thu neizaw ta ci-in, a thukim tam mahmah tahi (Jacques, 2013).

4.   Democracy ki-ukna Mailam
Democracy ki-ukna mailam thutawh kisai Francis Fukuyama in a genteh mailam democracy luanzia a heithei thunih gen a, tuate a nuaiah ih ensuk dinghi.

(1)  Leitung huam Nunna Laihawlte Khanna (Rising of Global Middle class)
Nunna laihawlte ongkahna, adiak-in nunna laihawl khangthak momnote-in mailam ki-ukna ziading huzap zo mahmah ding uhhi. Gamkhat-ah politic lampan a lauhuai pente zong hih nunna laihawlte mah ahihi. Adiakdiak-in mipite nunna laihawl dinmun tungkhin napi, a khantoh beh nading uh lampi kikhakteh gam buai theihi. Gentehna-in pilna siamna nei napi nasep hoih ngahlo cih a kipan, politic lam-ah amau deihna, a lunggulh te-uh ki pulak saklo, pumkham cihdan khauhtak-in kigak cip leh thuak zolo uhhi. Arab Srping zong tuate hang mahhi.

Nuna laihawl cihteh university mankhin, pilna nei, nasep kician neite, cih bangin ahuamin ki ciamteh theihi. Goldman Sachs te`n nunna laihawlte ciapteh na-ah kum khat-in $6, 000 pan $30, 000 in Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) nei na ci uhhi. European Unionte`n 2010 in lei tungah nuna laihawl mi 1.8 billion leitung ah om khin in, 2020 teh 3.2 billion ah kahto ding cih tuatkhol khin uhhi. 2030 teh billion 5 phaham tang dinghi(Goldman Sachs, 2008)

Tua hih man-in ki-ukna lam ah ki patau mahmah khat-in hih nunna laihawl a omte lungkim lohna, hehna, sinso thangpaihnate tawh kitom-in politcal movement ong suahsak khak dinguh ahihi. Patauh huai dang khat-ah twitter le facebook tawh ong khangkhia tuhun khangnote` thanemna khat-in lungphona, kumpi lang panna pan sawtvei a kimang, kikhom politc kipuahphatna(political reform) dong tung zolo thei uhhi. (Fukuyama, 2013).

(2)  Tuhun Picing Democracy Gam Kilamna (State Building for Modern Liberal democracy)
Francis Fukuyama mah-ih, tuhun democracy gam kilamteh a pelmawh khuampi thum ong mukhia hi. Hih thum a khauhnak leh picing democracy gam kisuak ding cih ama upna ahihi.

Tuhun Picing Democracy Gam lamna Khuampi 3
11.    Kumpi Thu neihna (State)
Kumpi thu neihna cih-in a kiciangtan gamhuang sung khat-ah thunei dang omlo mipi thukim pih ukna thuneihna hi . (A state is a legitimate monopoly of power over a defined territory.) (Max Weber)
22.    Thukhunte Ukna (Rule of Law)
Thukhunte ukna ih cihin thuman takin kibawl a ki thukim sa thukhun cihna hi. (Rule of Law is a set of agreed upon rules of justice.)
33.    Vaipuak Ngamna (Accountability/Democratic procedure)

A kicing kizomsuak vaipuak ngamna cihna-in, kician politic zia khat hi-in, gamuk thunei mi tawmnote deihna sang, mipi bup deihna sepkhiatna, vaipuak in neih zawkna ahihi. (A substantive accountability is a true responsiveness above political system to the interest of the whole society as opposed to being responsible to only the interest of the ruling elite.)

State kicih, kumpi thu neihna hihna bulpi-in thuneihna(power) cih hi-in, thuman tak-in angah a thu neihna tawh thukhunte bawl, gamuk, vaihawm na hihi. Gam daisak, kilem sak, cihna hi-in mipite kisap bulpite (pubic good) sepkhiatsak na-ah kizang hi.  Thukhun te ukna (rule of law) le thukhun deih bangin zang ukna (rule by law) kibang lohi. Galkap ki-ukna tampi-ah thukhunte a utut un, zangin mipite uk uhhi. Kumpi thuneihna a uat luat loh nading in thukhunte ukna le vaipuakngamnate-in tua thuneihnate(power) ciangtan kik leuleu hi. Tua thum teng ki lek-kim thei uhhi. (Fukuyama, 2004).

Sente ongkhan mahmahna huzap hangin, ni tumna lamte` kiuk zia kilaih-in mipi thuneihna (democracy) le mikhat thu neihna(meritocracy) ki-uknate kigawm, gam ukna zia khat nitumna gam lamte ah kizang khangel dinghi (Jacques, 2013). Democracy lampi totna-ah ni tumna gamlamte` liberal democracy ki cici pen lam nam tampi tak omna pan nam khatbek zong onghi theilel dinghi. (Zakaria, 1997).

5.   Democracy a Khekzo Ki-Ukna (Alternative to Democracy)
Kum 30 kikal sungin Sen gam pen lokho a zawng pen gam hihna pan thakhat thu-in leitung bupah a hau pen nihna gam suakta hi. A gammi milip million 600 val (gammi bup gawm lakpan 80%)bang zawnna pan lakhia zo ek uhhi. Tu dongmah nisim-in sum bawlna thakthak kiphuan ngekngek a nunna laihawlte ong khang zuahzuah maihi (Xli, 2011).

Francis Fukuyama in democracy ki-ukna a demzo, a lauthawng sakzo ki-ukna in Sente` ki-ukna zia hikha ngel dinghi, cih gen-in Martin Jacques inzong hih Sente` ki-ukna zia in nitumna lam gamte democracy nangawn kikhel sak zo thei dinghi, ci-in ummawh tahi.

Sente` Ki-ukna Zia (Chinese Governance Systems)
(A)  Francis Fukuyama Muhna
11.    Kipna le Thu neihna zelhzawhna (Steady and Spread of Rule)
1078 pek a kipan Sente` kumpi kilaihna, kiluahnate ih et-teh kiptak le a daithei pen-in semzo hiathiat uh a, gam buaina omlo-in thu neihna kiluah suk diamdiam uhhi. Tua bang ki makaihna ziate hangin kua kumpi kah tase mahleh kumpi` thuneihna-in gambup zeelzo veve mawkhi.   

22.    Kumpite kia Ukna thuneihna (State Autonomy)
Sen gampen Communist party khat kia ukna nuaiah om ahih man-in gam ading na hoih khat peuhpeuh sepna-ah kitot, kiseel, ki nawngkai sakna omlo-in deih dandan lungkim tak-in semthei pah uhhi. Nitumna lam democracy gamte ah hihbang sepding lem ngeilo dinghi.

33.    Etteh huai Ki makaih Zia (Moral Characteristic)
Sen kumpite lungsung ah Confucious thuhilhnate thuk takin teeng a, Confucious in kumpi makai ahih limlim nakleh gammi a kua mapeuh sang etteh tak zaw hamtang ding cih limhilh phadiak hi. Tua ahih manin Sen gamah ah ulian, kumpi makai ding ahih nakleh mi mawkmawk khatpeuh in ut hun in septheih ziauh hi peuhmah loin, gam-ukna pilna, makaihna pilna cian takin sin, ki pantah, ki sit dikdek phot uhhi. (Fukuyama, 2014).

(B)  Martin Jacques Muhna
Confucianism:
1.    Kumpi thu neihna in Innkuan Lutang (State as a head of Family)
Sente kumpi thuneihna ih etnop leh innkuan tawh tehkak lehang siang takin kimu hanhan lel hi. Confucius muhna ah innkuan cihpen gamkhat ki lamna-ah etteh ding lim khat hi pahhi. Tua gam uk `KUMPIPA` pen innkuan makai `PA` cih dinmun hipah lelhi. Tua ahihman-in innkuan khat, pa-le-tate kikal kipattah, zia pen Sente gam ki makaih zia ongsuak hi.

Sen gam ah kumpi le mipi kipawlnate kizopna pen ni tumna lam gamte` kizopdan tawh ki kelki lian hi. Democracy ngeina thugil tampi tak Sente ngeina ah a omloh lam kitel pahhi.

Confucius ngiat-in zong kumpi thuneite`n mipi pum sawlna, tawsawnna cihte sang makaite thugil upna hoihte tawh gam makaih zawkding cih ultuing sakhi. Tua ahih man-in makai hoih tel hamtang ding, ki pantah ngiatngiat, ki sit dikdek khit bekteh panmun kipiak ding deihzaw uhhi..

2.    Kiva tak-in gualzawhna (Competency)
Tuma kum tul malai Han ukpite kumpi sep a kipan kumpi zum a nasem, thunei ding ut peuhmah laivuan sak masa hamtang in tuapan mat hoihin gualzote bek teel cih ngeina hoih mahmah khat neikkhin uhhi. Ni tumna lam gamte`n mipi a tam zaw thu neihna (democracy) zia khauhtak-in alet mah bangun Sen gamah mi tawmnnote thuneihna (meritocracy) zia khauh takin pom uhhi. Tu dongmah a ngeinate uh kizom paisuak lai-in tua mi tawmno ukna thunei nuam peuhmah lah laivuan masa sak ngekngek uhhi. Sen gamah university hoihte ih kahnop leh zong sum ih nei zongin ih pilna ong sit ma dikdek phot uhhi. Sang kah nading, kumpi zum ah nasep ngah nading, cihte ah zong tua bangmah ki sitsit dikdek masa ngiat uhhi.  

Tua ahih manin Sen kumpi uliante pen kiva, siam in muanhuai thei mahmah a, mipil misiam tengmah kigawm uh suakhi.

Tu dongmah Communist party sung hita le kumpi lam uliante sung hita le kivakna khang semsem a, a diakdiakin panmun hoih neisate zong kum beisim a sepna sate uh khauhtak-in sitkik, lungngai kik, ngaihsun phakik den uhhi. Ki koihkhong ziau cih omlo uhhi.

Kumpi thunei sung a lutkha peuhmah ahih leh pilna, siamna, le tuahkhak tampi tawh picinng suakpah hi. Tu lian laitak Sen gam ah president le Communist party ah general secreaty sem Xi Jinping hih panmun angah nang kum 30 val ngak khahi. Za niam pen pan nasep kipan-in Sen gam sung a om gam neu nih le khua pi khat a uk khitteh hihbang dinmun tungto pan suakhi.

Sen Kumpite` thanemna zong om mah a, ahi zongin amau thakhauhnate pan pilna ihlak kulhi.

Tua thakhauhnate in;
-   - Khantoh nading geelna lianpi neithei, hunsau pi ngim kholsa-in na mukhol, geel, makaihna ah siamna kivak na ultung sak;
-   - Nasep zo;
-   - Na sin-le-sit ukin, a kizang thei le zang theilote khensiam-in, teelsiam;
-   Sen gam khantohna-ah thugil khat ahi, a phamawh tangpina zatkimnate (infrastructural projects) ciantak-in bawl;
-   - Khat-le-khat kinekngaih cih omlo. Gentehna, US bangah mi haute in kumpite thukhensatna-ah thuzawh khinkhian theihi. (Jacques, 2013).

(C)  Eric Xli Muhna
Sente political scientist khat ahi Eric Xli in TED talk ah a thugenna ah Sen kumpi ki-ukna ziate kammal thum tawh suahkhia hi. Tua kammal thum pen Sen kumpite tumdanna nam thum te hipah hi. Ama genna tungtawn-in Sen Communist party in hihna thum nei a, kituak takin uktheihna (adaptability), mi tawmno ukna (meritocracy) le mipi thukim pih thu neihna (legitimacy).

11.    Kituak takin Uktheihna (Adaptability) 
Leitung ah a gol pen gam ahi Sen gam pen Communist party in kum 64 val bang ukta hi. Tua kikal sung leitung thupai zia tuamtuam, gam kikhelna tuamtuam Sen gamah ki tuakto ngelhngelh in Great Leap Forward, privatization, market reform cih dan akipan ki makaihna zia-le-tong a kikhel ngelhngelh hangin Communist party-in tua kikhelnate tawh kituak, lemtang ding policy hoih nono zang theiden hi. Deng Xiaoping' makaih market sumbawlna a kipan Jiang Zemin uksung politic lam kipuahphatna tampi omin tuate khempeuh enle hang atung Mao Zedong hun lai-in a piang dingin a ki-um ngam hetloh kikhelnate a hihi.
 Communist party in a etlawm cih ciang hilo-in ki sam bangbang-in  amau-le-amau kipuah toto uhhi. Gentehna, panmun lakna kumtawh ciangtanna cihte hipah hi. Nidang hileh makai khat-in a sih dongmah ukna thu neihna len tentan thei mawkhi. Mao Zedong mahmah in zong tuacih makaih hi. Ahi zongin khangthakte`n a kilawmlo ngeina hoihlote phiatin tun a hih leh kum 68-70 ciangbek thuneihna neisak laiuhhhi.

Tu ma kum 30 a kipan tuma kum 10 dong leh tu hun ciang dong mahmah in ki-ukna policy lemtuah, puah toto uhhi. Aniam pen veng makaihna kipan tu dingmah a lianpen makaihna dong ki puah toto uhhi.

22.    Mi tawmnote-ukna (Meritocracy)
Ki-ukna lam ah Communist party pen mi tawmnote thu neihna a khauhpai mahmah kipawlna khat ahihi. Sen gam bup vai thu nei pen mi 25 lian om-in tua 25 te sung lakpan mi 5 bek ulian beh-le-phung pan khangkhia-in a dang 20 te pen mi mawkmawk takpite sungpan makai suakte hi veve hi. Tu laitak Sente` president le premier bangbel mi mawkmawk innkuan sungpan khangkhiate uh ahihi.

Tua thunei pen ulian 25 te nuai-ah thunei ulian 300 om leuleu in tua 300 te sungpan zong a tam zawte mi mawkmawk innkuan sungpan piangte na hi-uh hi. Tua hih manin ulian suak Sen makai peuhmah amau siamna kivakna le hanciam tawmna tawh makai a suak uh hizawhi.

Communist party ki-ukna sungah bang mipil mi kician tam mahmah in sumbawl company liante sang bang mipil hauzaw lai uhhi. Tua mi muanhuaite party masuan na-ah a khauhpai mahmah engine uh hipah hi. Party kilamna-ah a thu pipen thum-in kikhen uhhi. Gammite vai sepna (civil service), kumpi makaih sumbawlna (state-owned enterprises), le tangpi kipawlna ahi university, veng kipawlnate sepna cih bangin khen thum suah uh a makaite panpih khawm uhhi. University pan sangmante khawm pahlian uhin za-le-panmun niam penpan kipan to sak uhhi. Panmun niam pen "keyuan" [clerk], kici a, tua khitteh fuke [deputy section manager], ke [section manager], fuchu [deputy division manager], le chu [division manger] cih ga makai pi suah nading za khanna dawl 4 nawk toh masa sak uhhi..

Kumsim nasepna kisit kikna om denhi. A tungsiahte, zum nasep pihte, a nuaisiahte cihbang-in adang tuamtuamte`n mi khat nasepna thangah-in a thukim khit uhtteh gammite` muhna zong kidong hamtangin tua teng khit petpet teh za khang theipan hi.

 Tu laitak Sente@ kumpi  Xi Jinping bang kumpi a suah nading kum 30 vilvel bang hunla hi. Khua hausa pan kipan in a kivakna le kiciatna tungtawn in za khang toto hipan hi.

33.     Mipi thukimpih Ki-ukna Khuan Neihna (Legitimacy)
Ni tumna lam democracy gamte`n kiteelna(election) pan mipite` metang(vote) tawh ulian suakte bekin diktak le lampi mantawh mipih thukim pih thuneihna ngah hi, cih um uhhi. Ahi zongin thukhat-ah, kiteelna lianbek lampi khat om hilo, tua mipi thukimna ngah nading lampi dang om luazen hi. Kiteelna om zenzen lohhang kiva tak-in makaihtheihna in zong mipi thukimna ngah lua hi.

 1949 kumin Communist party in thuneihna la a, tualgal khauhpai mahmah hi. Tua hun lai ahuamin gen lehang Sente mihing khat-in kum 41 ciangbek khansau hi. Tun ahih leh leitung bupah gam hau pen nihna suak-in mipite`n cihtheih nopsakna tawh kidim zihziah hi.

Pew Research cih thu kantelte` mukhiatna-ah Sen gammi buppan 85% in gam mailam manawt zia tawh kisai lungkim mahmah uhhi. 70% in tuma kum 5 laisang tun hauzaw ing ci uhhi. Ka mailam hoih zaw lailai dinghi cih a um 82 % tak hizen hi. Financial Times te’n Sen khangnote’ ngaihsutna dotna-ah Sen khangthak khangno 93% in gam mailam ding hoih dingin um mahmah uh, cih mukhia hi. Hihte en lehang mipi thukim pih ki-ukna hi keileh bang ki-ukna hizen dinghiam? (Xli, 2011).

6.   Sente` Ki-ukna Zia  Mailam (Future of Chinese Governance System)
Larry Diamond inbel Sen gamah ki-ukna lam a kikhel ding a geel kei uhleh sumbawlna-ah thanemin gam hauhna ong kiam zenzen leh Sen kumpi-in politic lawhsapna le mipi thukim pihna lawhsapna tuakin buai ngelngel veve ding hi, cih gen hi. Larry Diamond mahin, Sen gamah tuzawh kum 10-15 teh democracy zang ngelngel hamtang dinghi, cih thusuak neihi. Martin Jacques inbel Sente gam khantohna kizom dinghi, amau ngeina tawh kituak takin democracy ki-ukna lampan a hoihte la-in gawmtuah khathei dinghi. A diakdiak-in Japan le Singapore lamte ki-ukna pan pilna lakbeh laiding uhhi, cih lamet sak hi.

Eric Xli tuatna ah tuzawh kum 10 the Sen gam-in America sang hauzaw ta dinghi. Gam haupen suakin mikhat sumlut pen a khangto lai gamte sang tamzaw dinghi. Gamtatsiatna (corruption) bei siang zolo ding a, a hih hang kiam mahmah in Transparency International te tehna ah a 10 na pan 20 na kikal ah tungzo dinghi. Sumbawlna le politic lamah kikhel toto lai-in party khat ukna ahihna zong kiptakin kho suak dinghi, cih genhi.

7.   Thukhupna (Conclusion)
Sen gamte ki-ukna zia pen a tumdang, a tuam ngiat hi-in gam khempeuh zattang theihlah hituan lo hi. A diakdiak in sum bawlna lamah ngaihsutna puahphat kulhi a, makai teelna-ah thugen siampong, minthang pong hilo-in, makaite siamna le a vai zawhsate enin teelkul dinghi. Larry Diamond genna-ah “tu dong mah leitung ah kicing taktak democracy ki-ukna om nailo hi” a cih mah bangin, picin zawk theitheih nading puah huaite kipuah mengmeng kulhi (Diamond, 1999) tua hileh kiteelna democracy pan galkap ki-ukna lam nungkik lo-in a picing democracy gam tamzaw semsem kha dinghi. Democracy le kilemna pen kizop na khat nei-in democracy zang gamte peuhmah khat-le-khat kido ngeilo uh ahih man-in, democracy gam phazah in mailam gam kidona omdan dingzong ong tuatsak thei dinghi. Tu khanghun ah eite` vaipuak-in democracy ki-ukna in leitung ah daihna omin patauh venna ahih nading a hihi(Zakaria, 1997).

Reference
- Diamond, Larry. 1999. Developing Democracy: toward consolidation. Baltimore:                Johns Hopkins       University Press.                                          
- Freedom House. 2015. Freedom in the world Report. New York.
- Fukuyama, Francis. 2004. State building: Governance and World Order in 21    Century. Cornell University.
- Fukuyama, Francis. 2015. Why Is Democracy Performing So Poorly?. Journal of Democracy, Volume 26.  Johns Hopkins University Press Gallie, W. (1955). Essentially Contested Concepts. Proceedings of the Aristotelian    Society,       56, 167-198.                   - Hobson, Christopher. (2013). The Limists of Liberal-Democracy Promotion.    European ResearchCouncil.
- Jacques, Martin. (2013) How China will Change the Global Political Map.         Transatlantic Academy Paper Series. Retrieved from Morton H. Halperin, Joseph T. Siegle, Michael M. Weinstein (2005). The          Democracy           Advantage Routledge.                   - Ober, Josiah. (2007). The Original Meaning of “Democracy”: Capacity to do    things,         not majority      Rule. Standford Working Papers in Classics.
- O'Donnell, Guillermo A. 1973. Modernization and Bureaucratic-Authoritarianism:      Studies in           South American Politics. Berkely: University of California.
- Sachs, Goldman. 2008. The Expanding Middle: The Exploding World Middle Class       and Falling Global Inequality. Global Economics Paper No:170            
- Sen, Amartya. (2000). Development as Freedom, Alfred A. Knopf. Inc. pg 146- 159.                              
- Zakaria, Fareed. (1997). The Rise of Illiberal Democracy, Foreign Affairs, pg              22-43.
Websites:
- Eric X.Li. A Tale of Two Political Systems. TED Talk. 2011. Retrieved from (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s0YjL9rZyR0) accessed on January 10, 2015
- Francis Fukuyama. Building a Modern State in 21 Century. Leadrship Forum 2014. Youtube. Retrieved from (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PRyd6nIo9N8) accessed on January 15, 2015
- Francis Fukuyama. Speaking of Future. Global HR Forum 2013. Youtube. Retrieved from (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xQWWGrs6xGI) accessed on January 15, 2015
- John Mearsheimer. “Will democracy have competitors in the 21 century?”. Retrieved from (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lzqkXhdo0qc) accessed on June 20, 2015.
- Larry Diamond. Democracy Ideas. Larry Diamond Interview. Youtube. Retrieved from (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jkb5PfBgg0Q) accessed on January 12, 2015


Lai Gelh Pa ;
Tg. Pau Sian Lian @ Lianpi
M.A, Ph. D (Political Science), Waseda University, Japan. (2014 kum sin kipan)

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Item Reviewed: Democracy Ki-ukna` Mailam le A Hoihzaw Dang (The Future of Democracy and Its Alternative). Description: Rating: 5 Reviewed By: Cinpu Zomi
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