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HUN ZUI-A KAWLGAM OM ZIA (AD 1044- Sep 2007) KAWLGAM TANGTHU.

HUN   ZUI-A   KAWLGAM  OM ZIA (AD 1044- Sep 2007)
Gelh ~  Sia Khup Khan Thang (Kaptel) 
Kawlgam lim.

Kawlgam omzia pen Kawllai  Manglai  tawh a kigelhna  tampi  omkhin  a hih manin  thuthak hi peuhmah lo hi. Kei’ batkhop ciang  ka kaihkhop  hi a, kicing  kim  zo peuhmah  lo ding hi.

 Pagan ah Anawratha ( Anuradha ? ) kumpi a suah 1044 CE kum pan ki panin gam zapi hong gawm zo ahih manin ama hun panin i pan ding  hi. Tua panin Kawl kumpi in gam uk toto hi.

Mangkang kumpi in 1924 kumin Kawlgam hong sim a, February 24, 1826 ni-in kilemna bawl a, “ Yandabo  Treary “ kici hi. 1852 kumin hong sim leuleu a, Kawlgam khanglam teng la uh hi. November 14, 1885 ni-in  a thumvei na sim ding hong kipan a, November 29, 16/885 ni-in  Kawl kumpi nunung Thibaw manin  December 3,  1885 ni-in  “ Kawlgam pen  Mangkang kumpite’  khut nuai tung hi” ci-in tangko khia hi. 1896 kum in Zanggam ah gal a bei hangin  Zogam, Kachin gamte ah do phasan lai  uh hi. 

 Gamdang mite ukna nuai-a om  pen noplohna  tam lua ahih manin gammite’ thutheihna  hong khang a, 1906 kum ciang in Yangon  khua-ah U Ba Pe, Dr Ba Yin, U Maung Gyi, U Sein Hla Aung, U Hla Pe leh Khangno mipil  hon khat in YMBA ( Young Men’s Buddhist Association ) hong phuankhia hi. Gam ading  phattuamna hong sem uh a, 1911 kum pan a hawmkhiat uh Thuriya tadensa tung tawnin mi tampi hong lunglut uh hi. 1918 kumin zin ling a, Pegu khuapi-a tattung ( pagoda ) khat a kisia pen kumpi Sir  Reginald Craddock in khedap suah lopi-in  a va etna panin gammite phun gawpin, Yangon  Jubileee innpi-ah kikhawmin lungkim lohna pulak uh hi. 

 Leitung Galpi  khatna sungin  gam ki-ukna  lam puah phatna thugen dingin India ah Mangkang vuanzi Montagu a pai ciangin, YMBA panin U Ba Pe, U Mau Aung makai-in tangmi pawl khat zong India-ah pai-in vuanzipa leh kumpi Chelmsford tawh va kimu uh hi. India leh Kawlgam a ki-uk khawm pen a tuama ki-uk nading a nget uh hangin vaihawmna-ah Kawlgam thu kihel kha lo hi. 1919 kum ciangin U Ba Pe, U Tun Sein, U Pu-te London khuapi-ah pai-in va ngen uh a, ngah tuan lo uh hi. 1920  kum ciangin U Ba Pe, U Puh, U Thein Maung-te London vapai kikin a nget uh ciangin, vuanzi Montagu in 1919 kuma kibawl India upadi pen kawlgamah zong kizang hen, ci-in na kamciam pan hi. 

 1920 kum YMBA kikhop a giatveina-ah YMBA pen GCBA ( General Council of Burmese Association ) ci-in laih uh hi. GCBA in ei leh ei ki-ukna  ( Home Rule ) ngah nading in  hong hanciam uh hi. Tua zawh ciangin Mangkang kumpi in ki-ukna a zat Dyarchy  hangin GCBA phelnih suak hi. ( Dyarchy= Kumpi’ seh leh mipi’ teel kigawm )  Tua pawl nihte pen Home Rule a deih U Chit Hlaing pawl leh Dyarchy a deih U Ba Pe pawlte ahi uh hi. Dyarchy ki-ukna puahpha dingin Whyte Committee te leh Prince Wales hong pai ciangin Home Rule a deih U Chit Hlaing pawl  in  nial  uh  hi. Tua nung  ciangin phungzite pawl, U Chit Hlaing pawl, U Soe Thein pawl, U Suu pawl ci-in GCBA hong kitam lailai hi. Tua ahih manin 1930 kum pan kipan GCBA in sepzawh bangmah nei nawn lo hi. 

 Kawlgam ah 1920 kum dong sangpi om nailo hi. Calcutta sangpi nuai-a om Yangon College leh Judson College bek om pan hi. Mangkangte in a kicingin pilna ong sinsak loh ciangin December 5, 1920 ni-in sangnaupangte in deih na pulakin kitom uh hi. Tua huhau-in mun tuamtuamah sangpi sangneu hong piang khia hi. 

 GCBA hong kitap gawp ciangin Yangon khua, Bahan vengah  Thakhin Ba Thaung leh khangno pawl khat in May 30, 1930 ni-in Kawlmi kipawlna phuan uh hi. 1930 leh 1935 kikal teng a makai Thakhin Ba Thaung, Thakhin Tun Oh, Thakhin Ba Sein,Thakhin Lay Maung-te ahi uh hi. 1935 kum bei kuan lamin College sangnaupang Thakhin  Aung San, Thakhin Nu, Thakhin Ba Thein-te hong lutthuah uh a, hong pisuah semsem hi. Kawlgamah Nasemte’ Ni (May Day) pen hih pawlte makaihna tawh May 1, 1928 ni-in kibawl masa pen hi. 1938 kum ciangin kipawlna pen Thakhin Ko Daw Hmaing pawl leh Thakhin  Tun Oh- Thakhin Ba Sein Pawl ci-in phel nih kisuah leuleu hi. Tua ahih manin Mangkang kumpi in 1941 kumin a thuman lo kipawlna ci-in gensia gawp hi. 

1921 kum ciangin Company tuamtuamte kipawl khawmin buhlei buhzuakna (Bullinger Pool) phuanin kawlgama buh piang khempeuh amau khut sungah zeek uh a, lokhote in bangmahpi lawhtak lo uh hi. Tua bangpi mah tawh lokhote tung panin siah tampipi dong lai uh hi. Lokhote in thuak zo nawn loin Saya San in lokhote omdan a muh bangin GCBA ah U Soe Thein  pulak sak a, a ngetna bangin kimang lo ahih manin Saya San paikhia-in Mangkangte langpan ding geelsim hi. 

 Kumpi sempak Sir J.A. Maung Gyi in December 21, 1930 ni-in Thayawaddi  khawmpi-ah lokhote ading noptuamna vaihawm  sak zo kei ning, a cih ciangin December 22, 1930 ni-in Saya San makai-in kumpi langpan uh hi. Tua ciangin a gam vuah a khuanciah Sir Charles Innes, Kawlgamah hong ciah mengmengin lokhote noptuam nading hong vaihawm hi. 1931
August sungin Saya San leh makai pawl khat kimanin Thayawaddi ah khailum uh hi. 

 Mangkangte in namgimtui  a deih zahzah uh la napi, nasemte in thaman gina sanglo, meivak ding nangawn nei lo, a omna uh inndei toilua, zum khakni kikhiam  ahih manin 1938 kum kipat lamin namgim khuk nasemte’ langpan na hong piang hi. January 8, 1938 ni-in Chauk namgim  khuk panin hong kipankhia a, November 30, 1938 ni-in Thakhin Po Hla Gyi makai-in namgim khuk nasem 2000 valte khe tawh pai-in tai 400 a gamla Yangon ah January 8, 1939 ni-in tung uh hi. February 10, 1939 ni-in zong Mandalay ah phungzi te kikhawmin deihna lak uh a, galkapte in kapin mi 17 si hi. 

 1939 kumin Europe gam sungah leitung Galpi Nihna hong ping hi. September  1, 1939 ni-in Kawlmi kipawlna kikhop kibawl a, suahtakna a deih khempeuh kigawm khawmin kipawlna neih ding hoih kisa a, October 1, 1939 ni-in Burma Freedom Bloc phuan uh hi. Dr Ba Maw in secretary sem hi. A simthamin Communist pawl, Thakhin Mya makaih PRP ( People’s 
Revolutionary Party ) zong kiphuan hi. 

 1940 Kumin suahtakna a deih makai pawl khat kimanin thongah khumin nakpi takin kibawlsia hi. Zalone khua ah Zogam thu tawh kisai-in a genna hangin Thakhin Aung San, matdingin a sawm uh hangin man zo lo uh hi. Khangnote in thauvui thautang zat ding hoih sa uh ahih manin  Thakhin Aung San leh Thakhin Hla Myang 1940 kim August in meel kiseelin Norway tembaw Hailee tawh Sengam Anoy ah pai uh hi. Anoy ah a om sungun Kawlgam-a PRP pawlte leh Mr  Minami kithuza kha uh hi. Mr Minami i cih pen Japan gam Tomiuri tadensa-a gamdang thukan kineih, Kawlgam thukan Japan bu Suzuki ahi hi. PRP te genna hangin Suzuki leh Thakhin Aung San, Japan gamah kimu uh a, Kawlgam suahtak nading thu kikum uh hi. 

 1941 kum kipat lamin Thakhin Aung San, Kawlgamah hong ciahsim hi.  PRP te tawh kikumin Khangno 30te khen 4 kisuahin Japan ah sam a, Hainang leh Taiwan  tuikulh ah kha 5 sung galkap dan sinsak hi. 

 Tua hun laitakin Japante in December 7, 1941 ni-in zasak khol lopi-in America te omna Pearl tembaw khawlna bomb tawh denggawp uh hi. Tua thu hangin Galpi Nihna in Asia gam zong hong lawhsuak hi. Galkap  30te Thailand gam Bangkok ah kituah uh a, tua lai-ah sisan tawh kiciamin tuisia dawn uh a, December 27, 1941 ni-in BIA (Kawlgam Suahtakna Galkap) phuan uh hi. 

 BIA pawlte PRP tawh kizom dingin Bu Ne Win leh galkap 7te hong maciah in 1942 February kipat  lamin Yangon hongtung uh a, Mangkang kumpite do dingin hong sawmsim uh hi. Boyoke Aung San makaih BIA te 1942 kum kipat lam mahin Japan galkapte tawh Kawlgamah hong lut uh hi. Japante in suahtakna hong piak loh banah hong tatsia zawsop uh hi.  Mangkangte India gamah nungkin uh hi. Japante  in July 27, 1942 ni-in BIA pen BDA (Burma Denfence Army)ci-in a mimal 23000 panin  3000 khiapsak hiau hi. 

 August 1, 1943 ni-in Japante in Kawlgam suahtakna a minin pia pong hi. Kawlmite ki-uk loin amau mah in hong uk uh a, a ututin hong bawlin hong that uh hi. Kawl galkapte pen BIA- BDA panin BNA (Burma National Army) ci-in laihsak toto hi. Japante hong luta kipan Thakhin Thein Pe, Thakhin Tin Shwe leh makai pawl khat India-ah pai-in  Mangkang galkap ( Allied Forces ) makaite tawh va kimu uh hi. 

 1944 kum August  ciangin Japan langpan kipawlna AFC ( Anti-Facist Organization ) kiphuan a, Party tuamtuamte kigawm khawm uh hi. 1945 kum kipat lamin Mangkangte tung panin galhiam kingah a, Rakhaing leh Gunkhawm lamah honglut uh hi. Tua hunin Kawlgamah Japante ukna  mah kizang lai a, Boyoke Aung San makai-in Japante hawlkhiat ding vaihawm sim leuleu uh hi. Boyoke Aung San makaih galkapte in March 17, 1945 ni-in Japante do ding khensat uh hi. April 12, 1945 ni-in Kawlgam bupin a kituakin do ding ci-in a kiciam uh pen Mangkang galkapte gamgi panin hong lutkhin uh ahih manin Bohmugyi Ba Htu March 8, 1945 ni-in Japante do na kipan hi. Tua ahih manin kiciam ni malepin March 17 ni-in Japante kido a, Kawlgam pan kihawl khia hi. 

 Suahtak ngahna ( 1945-1949 )
Mangkang kumpi Kawlgamah hong lutkik ciangin galkap ki-ukna mah tawh hong uk phot uh hi. May 17, 1945 ni-in lutang khat thuneihna tawh ki-uk ding thu pulak hi. Tua pen Dyarchy
dinmun bang bek hi-in gam mite lungkim loin sa ngeingai uh hi. August 12, 1945 ni-in galkapmang teng kikhopna kibawl a, AFO tawh kipawl ding thukimin August 19, 1945 ni-in  Boyoke Aung San ma-kai in khawmpi bawl a, geelnate a gen ciangin gammi khempeuh thakhat thu-in lungkim pah uh hi. August 18, 1945 ni leh 1946 January kha sungin khawmpi om kik a, AFO pan in  AFPFL ( Anti-Facist People’s Freedom League ) - Phah Sah Lah, ci-in a min laih uh hi. 

 Asia khang nisuahna lam galkapmang Lord Mountbatten in Kawlgam galkap phuat nading thu kikum dingin Boyoke Aung San leh makai pawl khat  Ceylon ( Sri Lanka ) ah sam a, September  7, 1945 ni-in thukimna  letmat thuh uh hi. 

 Kumpi Sir Dorman Smith, England ah ciah a, ama munah Sir Hubert Rance hong tung hi. Amah in AFPFL te tawh kigawmin kumpi hong phuan hi. Mangkang vuanzi Attlee sapna bangin  Boyoke Aung San leh a pawlte London ah pai uh a, suahtakna piak dingin letmat thuh uh hi. Aung San-Attlee thukimna pen Galone U Saw leh Thakhin Ba Sein te in nialin kipawlna panin paikhia uh hi. Vuanzilui Dr Ba Maw, Sir Paw Tun te tawh kipawlin langpan uh a, langpan zo loin lungham den uh hi. Zanggam leh mualtung gam teng kigawmin suahtakna ngah khatin ngah khop nadingin February 9-12, 1947 ni 4 sung Shan gam Pinlong khua-ah khawmpi kibawl a, gam khata dingin thukimna February 12, ni-in gam makai 23 te letmat thuh uh hi. Tua 23  te in:

                       1)  Boyoke  Aung  San
                       2)  Saohpalong of  Hsamoghkam   State 
                       3)  Saohpalong  of  Tawngpeng   State
                       4)  Saohpalong  of   Yawnghwe  State 
                       5)  Saohpalong   of   Laihka 
                       6)  Saohpalong  of   Mongpawn  State  
                       7)  Representative  of  Hsahtung  ( Saohpalong  Hkun  Pung ) 
                       8)  Saohpalong  North  Hsenwi  
                       9)  Labang  Grong-----------------------------Bhamo
                     10)  Zau La---------------------------------------Bhamo
                     11)  Zau  Lawn-----------------------------------Bhamo 
                     12)  Dingratang----------------------------------Myitkyina
                     13)  Zau  Rip -------------------------------------Myitkyina 
                     14)  Sinwa  Naw---------------------------------Myitkyina
                     15)  U  Tin  E
                     16)  Sao  Yape  Hpa 
                     17)  U  Kya   Bu 
                     18)  U Htun  Myint
                     19)  U  Hkun  Htee
                     20)  U  Hkun   Saw
                     21)  U  Hlur  Hmung-------------------Falam
                     22)  U Thawng  Za Khup ------------Tedim 
                     23)  U  Kio  Mang ----------------------Hakha   ahi  uh hi. 

1947  kum  April  kha sungin  gambup  kiteelna  om a, AFPEL te in zo hi. Boyoke Aung San leh a pawlte gam ki-uk  nading upadi bawl a, Secretariat  zum  sungah a om laitakun  U Saw  sawltakte  in Boyoke  Aung San  te pawl  july 19,  1947 ni-in  va  kaplum  uh hi. Tua  a si mi 9te in:
              1)  Boyoke  Aung  San 
              2)  Thakhin  Mya
              3)  U  Ba  Ohu
              4)  U  Rajah 
              5)  Mann  Ba   Khine
              6)  Sat  San  Tun 
              7)  U  Ba  Win 
              8)  U  Ohn  Maung  leh
              9)  Yebaw  Maung  Twe ( kongcingpa ) ahi  uh  hi. 

 Gam vaihawmna  pen  AFPFL  te  mahin len  uh  a, Aungust  29, 1947 ni-in  Bo Let Kya  leh John Flaming te in galkap aana  ap  nading thukimna letmat thuh  uh  hi. 0ctober  17, 1947 ni ciangin  vuanzichoh  Thakhin  Nu  le Mangkang  vuanzi Attlee  te in Kawlgam  suahtakna ngah nading thukimna letmat thuh  leuleu  uh hi. Tua  bangin  January  4, 1948 ni zingsang nai 4:20  hunin Kawlgam  in suahtakna  ngah hi. 

 AFPFL  te in  1948 pan  1958  dong ki-ukna  hoih takin len zo uh hi. Ahi zongin  Communist galkapte, KNDO,  MNDO  cih  bangin  gam sung beelin kumpi langpang uh hi. Communist te in do masa pen uh hi. 1946  kumin  thauvui thautang tawh suahtakna ngah a sawm Thakhin Soe pawl leh AFPFL te tawh  panghuan a, suahtakna a ngah nuam pawl, ci-in Communist  te kitam  leuleu hi. Thakhin  Soe pawl  pen dialsan, Thakhin  Than Tun pawl pen  dialkang ci-in kiminphuah hi. Dialsante  1946, dialkangte 1948 kumin gam sung beel uh hi. 1948 kum February kha mahin gammi  galkapte  a kang pawl leh a eng pawl ci-in  kitam leuleu hi. A kangte  Bu Lah Young  leh  Bu Po Kun in makaihin  a engte Buhmu Aung  leh Bu Sein  Hnan  te in makaih hi. A kangte in july 26, 1948 ni-in  kumpi langpan hi. Tua zawh nipi nih ciangin kumpi galkap  pawlkhat in gam sung beel uh hi. 

 Tua  zawh  ciangin  Karente kipan  leuleu  hi. Saw Ba U Gyi  leh Karen mipi in Karen minam ki pawlna  ( KNU ) phuan a, AFPFL panin taikhia  hi. PM U Nu  in a kamciam sa  bangin Karen minam  Boyoke Smith Dun  pen Kawlgam galkapmang lianpen suak sak hi.  Karente lungkim tuan loin KNDO ( Karen National Defence Organization ) phuan a, galhiam tawh kipanin Karen gam a tuamin din’ nading  ngen hi. 1948 july  kha ciangin  gal kipan hi.  Tua ciangin Kumpi in Boyoke Smith  Dun munah  Boyoke  Ne Win koih  hi.  Karen  vuanzi nih zong tawpsak hi. A ma-sa  lamin Karen  galkapte mainawtin Maymyo, Mandalay, Taungoo, Insein  khuapite a lak zawh uh hangin, Zomi galkapte hong kipat petmah ciangin nang zolo uh a, nungkinin a laksa khuapite nangawn khahsuah kik uh hi. Tuni dongin Zomite tungah Karente  khasia lai hi, cih leh Zomi galkapte sisan naisan hangin Kawlgam kumpi a dingkik zo hi, cih  phawkhuai hi. 

Tua banah Mon  te, Pa-oh  te cih bang  kumpi langpang dingin kipan ngeingai napi, pum khat suak zo lo ih ahih manin a gualzo om tuanlo  hi. 1949 kumin Sen gamah Communist  te a gualzawh  ciangin a kidempih Kuomingtang ( KMT ) pawlte guallelin  Taiwan  tuikhuh beel uh hi. Yunan  gama KMT te 1950 kumin Kawlgam sungah hong lut uh hi. May  25, 1950 ni-in  gamgi-a om Kyukoh  khuapi  hong sim hi. Kawl  kumpi in Taiwan ah hong puak nung, ci-in thu a piak hangin utlo  uh  a,  1950-1951 sungin KMT  te hongtam  semsem  ciangin, kumpi in 1952  January kha-in UNO ah khia  hi. UNO in koihkhong  lo ding a cih hangin  sempah lo a, 1953 April kha-in Kawl kumpi in genpha kik hi. Kawl galkapte in nakpi  takin do  a, 1956 kum ciangin  Kawlgam sungah KMT  3000 bang bek  om lai hi. 

 AFPFL  Kitamkham 
Ngimna  tupna  kibanglo  hi loin Laiatpi  sem ding kithutuah lohna  hangin  1958 April kha-in AFPFL  pawl nihin  kitam  hi.  U Nu leh Thakhin Tin makaih  pawl Nu-Tin kici ( AFPFL siangtho kici ) a, U Ba Shwe  leh U Kyaw  Nyein  makaih pawl Shwe-Nyein ( AFPFL kip ) kici hi. Tua bang in Nu-Tin pawl leh Shwe-Nyein  pawlte nakpi takin kidem uh hi. 1958 June kha sungin  U Nu kumpi muanhuai kei, ci-in Shwe-Nyein pawl in Lotdaw  khawmpi samsakin mee khia uh a,  Nu-Tin pawl in zo veve hi. Tua ciangin U Nu in 1958  November kha-in kiteelpina bawl ding ci-in tangko hi. Nu-Tin pawl in gamsung beelte  hong ciahkik  peuhpeuh suahtak sak nading August  1, 1958 ni-in  genkhia  hi. August 15, 1958 ni-in Communist pawl khat  hong ciahpah  hi. Gam sung daihna  a om loh ciangin PM U Nu in  kiteelpi  ding 1959 April  kha ah khinto hi.  September  26, 1958 ni-in U Nu a zaa pan tawpin General Ne Win  tungah aana ap hi. 

 INNCING  KUMPI  ( 1958-1960 ) 
PM U Nu apna  bangin  Gen. Ne Win in sang a,  October  28, 1958 ni-in  Lotdaw  kikhop sam in inncing kumpi  phuan hi. Gen. Ne Win in vuanzichoh semin ulian  14 kihel in galkap ulian 150 te in huh hi. November 1, 1958 ni panin  gamkee gamkhen vaihawm ding seh a,  gam sung dai-in gamsung beelte zong hong ciah uh hi. 1960 February  kha sungin thuman takin Lotdaw  keteelna bawl a, Nu-Tin  te in zo ahih manin  inncing kumpi in aana apkik  hi. U  Nu in vuanzichoh semin vuanzi 13 seh hi.  Ahi zongin inncing kumpi huna makai galkap bute in zong nuam sa man veve uh ahih manin Bu pawl leh U ( Thakhin ) pawl ci-in kitam kik leuleu uh hi. 

 Gamsung beelte hong thahat kik hi. 1960 November kha-in KMT te Kyaingdung gamah hong  lutkik hi. Tuate US in panpih hi, cih kithei  ahih manin UNO ah kikhia  hi. U Nu in mee a zon lai-in Buddist biakna pen gambup biakna  suaksak ning, ci-in a kamciam tangtung sak nuamin biakna dangte lungkim  lo hi. ( Khristian biakna makaite  vaihawmna tawh pawlpi kimah lai hongkihawm a, 1961 kum sungin, hun kibangin thu kingen hi. Tua i thungetna Topa in hong dawnga, U Nu  pen  kihemkhia pah hi, cih pen kei’ upna ahi hi ).

 1961 June  kha sungin Shan ukpi  Sat Shwe  leh Sat  Hkun  Cho te makai-in Federal suahtakna ngen tek dingin minam tawm teng kaikhawmin Taunggyi khua-ah khawmpi bawl hi. Ahi zongin Zomi, Kachin leh Karen makaite ut lo uh hi. Federal  suahtakna  vai kikum dingin March 1, 1962 ni-in Yangon ah khawmpi kibawl a, suahtakna nongpiak kei uh leh Kawlgam panin kikhen khia nung ci-in ukpi pawl khat in pulaak uh hi. ( Suahtakna a ngah khawmsa pen thudam tawh suakta kik thei nawn lo hi leh kilawm hi).

 Tua bangin  Kawlgam  sung hong hi zelzul ciangin  galkap kumpi in March  2, 1962 ni-in Kawlgam kemkik hi. March 3, 1962 ni-in Lotdaw phiat a, March 30, 1962 ni-in thukhen zumpite phiat hi. Party  tuamtuamte zong phiat a, july 4, 1962 ni-in BSPP ( Burma Socialist Program Party )  phuan hi. July 1, 193 ni-in Nainganzi sangpi kihong hi. 

 Mangkang te hong uk lai-a kipan i gam’ neihsa innmun logam, hauhna  khempeuh gamdang mite ( Sen, Kala ) te in luah uh a, gammite zawngkhalin midangte’ khutnuai-ah  guallel zaw-in ki om hi.  Buhlei hoih khempeuh gamdang mihaute khut sungah om zaw hi. Galkap kumpi hong khan’ ciangin sumbuk, setzung, company, private sangte leh leitang khempeuh  April 9, 1964 ni-in gammite’ neihsa suak sak  ( nationalized )  hi. 

 1964 April kha-in Myone Party Unit  kiphuanin nasem uh a, May  17-24, 1964 sung teng sum K 100 lai leh K 50 lai kisi sakin a tawmte   ( K 2500/- nuai siah ) kumpi ih lohkik hi. December 4, 1968 ni-in kumpite ngaihsutna a pia ding ulian 33 kiteel a, bangmah phattuam khollo hi. BSPP hong khang semsem a, April 30, 1971 ni-in gambup party suaksak  hi. Tua hun  laitakin  U Thant  (UNO-GS ) a sisa-in Kawlgamah hong kipuak a, a luang vui nading tawh kisai in sangnaupangte leh galkap  kumpi kitelkhialhna lianpi piang dektak hi. Sangnaupangte in U Thant luangpen kumpi sivui ngeina tawh vui ding deih uh hi. 

 1981 kum ciangin Gen. Ne Win gambup lutang hih na panin tawpin, a galkap puan suah a, BSPP Chairman sem suak veve hi. Gam  makai pawl khatte’ khemna tawh U Ne WIn in i gam a khangto mahmah takpi sa kha hi.  U Ne Win bek hiloin ulian khat peuhpeuh a zin nading khuate-ah sumbukte van teng kawmin Canteen ( Procos ) ah a kilawm dingin  na lak uh a, a ciah khit ciangin vanteng a neite tungah kipia kik  tazen hi. Gam sung omzia taktak Brigadier Aung Gyi in laibu-in gelh a, 1987 kum ciangin  U Ne Win tung ah pia hi. Tua laibu  a simna tawh gam omzia a telciangin U Ne Win heh mah mah a, nasep zia puahpha  dingin kimuh khopna bawl hi. Gam sung zawnna leh a khutnuai-a nasemte sepziate  hangin U Ne Win khasia mahmah a,Party khat tawh khangto lo i hih leh, Party tuamtuam ( Multi-Party Democracy ) tawh kalsuan ding i hi hiam, ci kha hi. 

 Tua hun mahin Kawlgam  susia nuam gam sung beelte in Kawlgam  do nadingin sum awn 900 val nei ta hi, cih thu U Ne Win in a zaksim ciangin, gam lutangpi teng zingsapin mee khiasak a, Kawlgam sum K 75 lai, K 35 lai, K 25 lai thakhat thu-in committee thukimna tawh Brigadier Sein Lwin in min thuhin September 5, 1987  zingsangin sisak ziau a, gammi khempeuh kilinglawng hi. 

 1988 kum March kha-in RIT  sangnaupang khat a kikap lupna hangin sang naupangte lungso gawp uh ahih manin sangpi khempeuh kikhak hi. Tua zawh ni 12 ciangin sangneute zong kikhak hi. June kha ciangin kihong kik hi. July 23, 1988 ni-in U Ne Win munah Brigadier Sein Lwin Kawlgam lutang hongsuak hi. August  3, 1988 ni-in Yangon  khua Sule Pagoda  kimah mi honpi kikhawmin Sein Lwin a tawp nading leh nainganzi makai thongkiate khakkhiat nading ngen uh hi.  August 8, 1988 ni-in ( 8.8.88 ) ni-in sang naupangte leh nasem honpi kisosuah kik a, palikte in kham uh hi. Sein Lwin in ni 18 a sep  khit August 12, 1988 ni ciangin, ama taangin Dr Maung Maung gam lutang hong suak leuleu hi. August 22, 1988 ni ciangin , mipite- in Party namkimzat ding ngenin lamdungah awng uh hi. 

 Mandalay ah phungzite makai-in lamdung mah zui uh a, Mergwe, Prome, Sittwe, Taunggyi, Moulmein leh khua tuamtuamte-ah zong lamdung zuih otna om hi. August  24, 1988 ni-in Dr Maung Maung in BSPP khawmpi September 12, 1988 ni-in bawlding leh, tua lai-ah BSPP maw, Party tuam tuam koizaw zang ding cih kikupna om dingin gen hi. Mipite in ngakzo nawn loin kiteelpina bawl ding ngen uh hi. Tua bang zelzul laitak in Daw Suu Kyi in zong Democracy  paizia  tangkona nei  hi. A mun munah kiso suahna om kawikawi hi. Tua ahih manin Dr Maung Maung leh BSPP te mainawt thei nawn lo ta uh hi. ( Dr Maung Maung’ geelna bangin mipi a ngak zo hileh, thuhoih khatpeuh a piang zaw tam, cih pen mi tampite ngaihsutna ahi hi) .

 September 18, 1988 ni-in galkap  kumpi in SLORC ( State Law and Order Restoration Council ) hong phuanin Kawlgam kemkik uh hi. Tua panin Gen. Saw Maung in gam lutang hong sem a, 1922 April kha ciangin Gen . Saw Maung’ munah Gen. Than Shwe in gam lutang hongsem hi. 

 1994 kumin ASEAN gamte in Kawlgam pen pawlhuamin koih a, 1997 july kha ciangin pawlkipin sang hi. Gam sung beel sangnaupangte ( 1948, 1961, 1974 ) te kipawl khawmin November 5, 1988 ni-in ABSDF ( All Burma Students Democratic Front ) phuan uh hi. 

 1990 KITEEL PI NA
Galkap  kumpi  in Party kiphuan thei, a cih ciangin party tampi phazuai hi. Party lianzaw deuh NUP ( National Unity Party ) pen September 24, 1989 ni-in kiphuan hi. NLDD pen Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, U Tin Oo leh U Aung Gyi-te in makaih hi. Aung Gyi paikhia-in aituam party UNDP ( Union of National Democratic  Party ) tawh ding hi. Hih kiteelna pen SLORC mahin makaih hi. A kiteel makaite pen tuni dongin ( 2007 ) kumpi suak tuan lo uh hi. 

 Kiteel na pen May 17, 1990 kibawl a, NLD party in mun 425 lak pan mun 372 ngah hi. NUP in mun sawm khawng ngah hi. SLORC in National Convention neih ding geel a, a masa pen 1993 January kha-in kibawl hi. Tua lai-ah taangmi 700 val kah hi. 

 SPDC ( State Peace and Development Council ) 
Galkap kumpi in SLORC pan SPDC ci-in November  15, 1997 ni-in, a min khel hi.Tua Committee ah Senior General Than Shwe , General Maung Aye, General Khin Nyunt a kihel mi 19 kiseh uh  hi. Gen. Khin Nyunt pen October  18, 2004 ni-in a panmun PM panin khawl a, ama’ mun ah Gen. Soe  Win in sem hi. Kumpi in National Convention a ban banin bawl a, August  18, 2007 ni-in kipanin September 3, 2007 ni a kiman khawmpi pen a nunung pen dingin gen uh hi. 

Mai lamah i gam a nuam zaw semsem dingin hong vaihawm ding uh hi, ci-in i lamen hi. 

Etkak laibu te:
1) Standard  Eight History; Basic  Education Curriculum and Text Book Commitee, 
2) The Exodus Paradigm; Pau Za Khup , 1954 Madarsa Road, Kasmere Gate, Delhi
3) Sukte Chronicle ( Vol. VIII ) 

Interview with:
- Pu Pau Do Nang : Formerly Secertary, Party Regional Committee, Chin State, 
- Pu Kai Do Pau: Formerly Party Cadre, Myone Party Unit, Tedim 

 [ Laigelh pa Sia Khup Khan Thang pen - 
Lai lam tawh kisai tangthu tampi a theih banah tu laitakin Tedim Bethel AG Pawlpi sungah lai lam nasepna tawh Pasian’ na sem hi. Tedim khua TCF (Tedim Christian Fellowship) kipawlna-ah lai-at sem hi. ]

Source : Gamngai 21st Cencury Thanksgiving Magazine Laimai 466-473.

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