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Panlong Thukimna ( Laidal tung leh Lungsim takpitawh thukimna ) leh Mualtung Mite’ thu. A gelh - Khup Lian Thang

Panlong Thukimna ( Laidal tung leh Lungsim takpitawh thukimna ) leh Mualtung Mite’ thu
A gelh - Khup Lian Thang

Dear Zomi U leh naute aw,

1947kum, 12th Feb in Kawl, Shan, Kachin leh Zomi makaite in Shan State, Panlong khua ah, Panlong Thukimna suaikai uh hi. Tua hunpan kipan in Union of Burma cih gamthak khat leitung gamlim ah kibehlap a, tu in ahih leh kum 69 bang acing hita hi. Mi bang hileh akhangcing lua mahmah leh muan leh suan tu leh ta tampi neikhin ta ding hi mah leh, Kawlgam aa dingin bel khangcing theilo in apat pan akipan kik ding leuleu ding hiphot hi. Panglong thukimna bawl hun laitak in a kihel lo Karen, Kaya ( Karenni), Rakhine leh Mon mite zong Kawlgam sunga a teng minam pi mah hi in, Kawlgam sunga om minamte mau gam leh thuneihna ciatna aom hun, a kigawmna leh gam khatin dinna thute a tomin in en suk pak dih ni.

Zomite
Kawl mite tangthu thukan siam Dr. Thant Myit-U in “ Zomite leh Kachin te pen cikmah hun in Kawlte ukna, thuneihna nuaiah om ngeilo hi” ci in gen hi. Zomite in Zogam lam a tungkhit pan kipan mangkangte a lut dong ( AD 1300 pawl- AD 1896 ) dong, amau leh amau kimakaih kipan tah uh aa, a hunhun in beh leh upa makaiten uk in tua bangin na khangkhia na khuasa uh hi. Mualtung ah kizopna haksa leh kizopna tawm ahih manin pau leh aw-kaih nam tampi in kikhen uh hi. Mangkang ten Kawlte gam alak khit 1888 pan Zogam lakding hanciam uh aa, gam makai hausa upa ukpi te in nakpi takin na do uh ahih manin Mangkangte in zong haksa sa mahmah uh hi. 1896kum taktak ciangin Mangkang kumpi Chin Hill Regulation Act tawh uk zo taktak pan hi. 1947 kum ciangin Panlong ah Kawl makaite tawh thukimna suaikai in Belpawl Gam phut uh hi. Suaktak na ngah khit teh Zomi makai ten State dinmun langam nailo uh ahih manin Special Division in ding phot aa, 1974kum pan in State khatin din kipan hi. A thudik mahmah minamte hi in, minam khempeuh in  Kawlte deihlo in thau atawi ngeingai laitak nangawn kumpi te bangmah nawngkai sak lo in 1988kum buai hun panin thautawi kipan pan uh hi. 

Kachinte
Zomite mah bangin Kawlte khan laitak nangawn in Kachin mualtung na ban kha lo uh hi. Mangkangte in Kawlte gam alak khitteh Kachin gam zong  va sim uh hi. 1892kum pan kipan in Kachin Hill Regulation Act tawh uk hi. Mangkangte lutma hun sungteng, amau leh amau akhua khua ah upa , beh makaite mahin uk aa, amau pau in “ Duwa” te ci uh hi. Zomite tawh unau hi kici in, Zomite in “Behte” ci-in sam uh hi. Kawlgam ii leilu lam ah teng uh aa, a gam uh hoih mahmah ahih manin, leisung sumpiang tam mahmah hi. A diakin suang-eng ( Jade ) hoih mahmah pian hi. Dolsing, leh sing manpha tuamtuam tam mahmah hi. Kawlgam ii Mualsang pen Khakaburazi om in 5881 meter sangin South East Asia ah sangpen in zong kiciamteh lai hi. 1947kum in Panlong thukimna ah kihel in, Kawlte tawh Belpawl Gam phut in suahtakna lakhawm hi. A gambup in thu-um mi hi in, Kawlgam aa dingin Zogam leh Kachin gambek thu-um mi atam zaw a tenna gam ahi hi. 1961, 5th Feb in kumpi langpang in thautawi kipan uh in Kachin Indepedence Organization/Army ci uh hi. Mualtungmi thautawi lakah Wa te khitteh hahat pen dingin kiciamteh hi.

 Shante
Shante pen Thai minamte tawh kinai uh a, AD 200 kim in Sen gam Yunan lam panin  Shan gam lam ah lal uh hi. A picing a khangto minamte hi-in, AD800 kim in gam kician mahmah khatin dingzo uh hi. Sente in khat veivei na nawkzel ahih manin a thakhauh zah dingin hat lo uh hi. Kawlmite tawh a thahat kilaih zel uh aa, AD 1300-1500 ( Pagan akiat khit ) sungteng Kawlte sang bangin thahat zaw uh hi. Amau pat khuapi Inwa ( Ave ) pen minthang penpen hi, leitaw gam lam Pegu ( Hanthawaddy ) ciang dongah thuneihna neizo uh hi. Mangkangte a lut laitak in amau leh amau aki uk laitak hi in a ukte pen “ Sawbua” te ci uh hi. Zomite tawh aki naipen ahi Kalay-Kabaw kuam ah zong na mangngei uh in, Kawlpi bang zong Shan khuapi khat ahi hi. Mangkang kumpi 1887kum in Shan gam la in, India panin direct in uk hi. 1922kum pan kipan The Federated Shan States Act tawh uk uh hi. Minam vai, gamvai ah apicing mahmah minamte hi in gamvai ah adang mualtung mite maiah amadawk amakaih minam te hi in , Panlong thukimna bang zong amau makaih hi in, Kawlte tawh Belpawl Gam phut ding cih thukimna tawh , suahtakna lakhawm uh hi. 1961kum thukhunpi puah dingvai zong amau mahin makai hi. Tun dongin gamvai ah thumu pen leh mualtung mite lakah vangnei pente ahi uh hi.

Kawlte
Kawlzang kuam sunga minam khempeuh lak ah mimal tampen hi in, a pilpen ahih loh hangin ukna thu sauvei a neizo pen minam te ahi hi. Anawyatha kumpi ( AD 1044 ) pan a tawpna Thibaw Min ( AD 1885 ) dong, kum 850 sung bang kumpi a nei uh hi in, Shante leh Monte tawh a thahat kilaih zel ahih hangin amau ukna mah sauvei pen dingin kiciamteh hi. Mangkang kumpi in thumvei sim in ( 1824-1826 ), ( 1852-1853) leh a tawpna 1885kum in Kawlte ukna thuneihna khempeuh lak sak uh hi. Hih Kawlte gam sungah Mon mite, Karen mite, Karenni mite, Rakhine mite zong a om ngeingai hi in, Mangkangte lut hun in Kawlte’ ukna nuaiah na om kha uh leh leitang tungah thu neihna neilo uh hi. 1886kum, 1st Jan in Mangkang ten Kawlte gam khempeuh ka la khin uh hi a cih khit , 1887kum in Shan, 1894 kum in Kachin leh 1896kum in Zogam cih bangin a uk a thuneihna tangko uh ahih manin Kawlte leh hih minam lian 3, gam lian 3 te a tuamciat ahihna kilang mahmah hi. Mangkangte uk hun sungin  mipil mitei tampi na om in, sum leh paibawl na lam ah na khangto mahmah uh hi. Muaimite ( Shan, Kachin leh Zomi ) tawh Panlong Thukimna nei uh in, suahtakna lakhawm uh hi.

Kawlte ukna nuai aa om Minampi 4 te
Kawlgam tangthu, Panlong thu, Kawlgam belpawl thu sut ding hileng, helloh aphamawh adang minampi 4 te thu tawmta enpak dih ni.

Karen Minamte
Kawlgam sunga om minam khempeuh lakah mimal a tam thumna or nihna hi. ( Amau pen mun khat ah omkhawm lo ahih manin aphazah kician data omlo hi.) Kawlzang kuam sungah alut masa pawl minam dingin kiciamteh aa, Kawlgam leitaw lam ii nisuahna lam, leh Irrawady Delta, Yangon leh Pegu Region lamah tam pen uh hi. Tanglai Kawl kumpi thahat lai in mau khutnuai ah Karente na koih mang uh a, tuiphum missioanary te Kawlgam alut hunin a kikhel masate zong na hi uh hi. Mangkang kumpi a tunciangin Kawlte khutnuai ah aom laitak hi in Kawlte tawh aki bangin uk khawm uh hi. Gen. Aung San’s makaih Kawl galkap leh Japan gamkekte Kawlgam alut ciangin a phengtat Kawl gamkap honkhat hangin Kawlte tawk minam tualthatna lianpi om in, tuni dongin a kihua penpen minamte hi kha ding hi. Kawlgam suahtakna ngahkhit 1949kum pan in langdo kipan pah uh in Mualmi thautawi teng lakah a sauvei pen thautawi te hi uh hi. 1952kum in Kawlgam belpawl gam ii State dinmun ngahin, 1954kum in District munnih ngahbeh aa, tu laitak Karen State aki ci gam ahi hi. Karen khempeuh tenna teng a mau gam dingin ngen uh aa, tuni dongin ngahlo uh hi.

Karenni ( Kaya )
Kayate pen Karen minam khat mah hi in, amau kizepna ngeina vante puante hangin Karen a sante( Red) ci in kiciamteh ahi hi. Kawl kumpite khut sungah aom laitakin 1875kum pan kipan in Mangkangten Kaya gam , Kawlte khutsung pan sut in amau leh amau kiuk sak in, suahtakna pia uh hi. A mau tungah Mangkangten thuneihna nei lai veve hi. Mualtung miten Panlong Thukimna abawl hun lai in, amau zong na kihel uh aa, a pualam mi( lengla ) in na kihel hi. Kawlte, Shan, Kachin, Zomite in suahtakna alak khawm uh ciangin amau zong Belpawl Gam dingin khensat uh aa, Belbawl Gam 5 kigawm Union of Burma akipan khia ahi hi.

Mon Minamte
Kawlzang kuam alut masa minam liante mah hi in, Kawlgam alut ma Combodia lam ah aom lai pekpan un a khangto mahmah khin minamte ahi hi. Tuipi gei ah tengin sum zon paaizon zong siam mahmah hi. A khuapi minthang Suvarnabhuni ( Thaton ) pen nidang lai khua thupi mahmah hi in, tu laitak Yangon zong amau lamsa khuapi hi in, tua hun lai-in Dagon khuapi kici hi. Kawl Kumpi te a khan ciangin Monte gam vasim in amau tungah ukna va nei uh hi. Tua kawmkal ah Monte zong na hat zel uh in Kawlte ukna nei ki laihzel uh hi. Kawl kumpi Pagon Emperior hun lai in Pagan ah Monte lai leh pau kizang hi kici hi.  Mangkangte a lut hunin Kawl kumpi ukna nuai ah om uh ahih manin Kawlte tawh aki bangin ki uk khawm hi.  Tu hun in Kawlte tawh kihel khawmmang, biakna leh ngeina zong kibang ahih manin aminam in khenhak pianpian ta uh hi. 1974kum pan kipan in Kawlgam Belpawl gam ii State khat dinmun ngah hi.

Rakhine Minamte
Kawgam nitumna lam ah teng uh aa Kawlte tawh apau uh kibang phial in aw-suah dan bek kilam dang hi kici thei hi. Amau leh amau ki ukin, kumpi gam lianpi leh khua thupi zong tampi nei uh hi.Kum zalom 18 pawlin Kawlte khutsung tung uh hi. Mangkangte lut hunin Kawlte khutnuai ah om uh ahih main Kawlte tawh aki bangin Mangkangten uk khawm uh hi. 1974kum in Kawlgam Belpawl gam ii State dinmun ngah uh hi.

Mangkangte uk hun ( 1824 – 1947kum )
A tunga minam pi 8 te sungpan Zomite ( 1896 – 1947kum ) dong Chin Hill Regulation Act tawh, Kachin gam ( 1894 – 1947kum ) dong Kachin Hill Regulation Act tawh, Shan gam ( 1887 – 1947kum ) dong pen Mangkang kumpi in direct in uk in, 1922kum pan Federated Shan States Act tawh uk uh hi. Kareni gam zong 1875kum panin Kawlte khut sungpan Mangkangte’ panpihna tawh suahtakna ngah in 1922kum pan Federated Shan States Act tawh ki uk hi. Kawlzang ( Kawlte, Rakhine, Mon, Karen ) ( 1824 – 1947kum) , India Governor uk in, 1937kum pan kipan in Burma Act ( 1935 ) tawh kiuk hi. Mangkangte a lutma in amau leh amau atuam ciatin a ding ahih mah bangin amau uk sungin zong a tuamciak kiukna tawh uk uh hi.

Galpi nihna khit Kawlgam
1942kum , Japante in Kawlgam khempeuh la a, Mangkangte India gam dongah gal tai uh hi. Zomite tampitak zong Mangkang galkap te tawh tai khawm uh aa, a tailo Zomi galkap te zong, amau hih theihna tawh Mangkangte panpih uh hi. Tedim Road pi tungtawn ahi zongin Mangkangte in Kawlgam lam lakik uh a 1945kum, 1stMay ciangin Rangon lakik zo uh hi. Tua hun pan kipan in Mualtung mite ( Shan, Kachin, Zomite ) The Frontier Areas Regulation 1946 tawh uk in, Kawlzang lamte ahih leh Burma Act 1935 mah tawh uk suak uh hi. Mangkang kumpi in bel galpi hangin a vanpuak uh giksa lua  ahih manin hithei hileh aneih uh gamte tungah suahtakna a pianuam mahmah in, tua hun mah in Labor Party makaih kumpi te na kah hi.

A khat veina Panlong kimuh khopna
1946kum March 26-28 ,  Shan makaite hanciamna mah tawh Mualmi teng akhat veina Panlong kimuhkhopna nanei thei uh hi. Zomite tangin Pu Pum Za Mang ( Tedim ), Pu Kio Mang ( Hakha ) leh Pu Hlur Mung ( Falam ) te na kihel thei uh in, Kawlte in zong a sawtlo in Mangkangte tungpan suahtakna la ding ahih manin Mualtung mite’ mailam kalsuanzia ding kikupna a nei uh ahi hi.

Aung San – Atlee thukimna
General Aung San in Shan makaite na zawl bawlin Kawlte tawh aki bangin suahtakna lakdingin na hanthawn hi. Gamvai ah General Aung San te pen a tei mahmah khin uh hi in, leitung pilna lam mahmah ah zong Oxford University dekphial aa hoih Rangoon University pan sangmante hilai ahih manun na lianpi sem ding leh makaih dingin muanhuai thei mahmah bilbel uh hi.

1947, 4th January in London zuan dingin Gen. Aung San kipan khia in lamkal ahi India ah zong bang kawm uh in makaipi Jawaharlal Nahru tawh zong kimu thei uh hi. A sawtlo aa abawl ding gambup thukhunpi bawlna dingin ngaihsutna tampi tak zong ngah uh hih tuak hi.
British Emperior Prime Minister Mr. Atlee te tawh akimuh ciangin kum khat sungin Kawl mite in Mualtung mite tawh suahtakna lakkhawm dingin ngen hi. Tua kawmkal ah Shan ukpi te in Gen. Aung San pen amau ii tangmi hilo hi ci in sikkhau( Telegraph ) sat hi. Hih thu Gen. Aung San tungah akikoh ciangin,“ ko pen Mualtung mite hamphatna dingin a gensak hi ung” ci hi. Tua kawmkal ah Shan makai pawlkhat in mipi na khawmin Gen. Aung San cih bangbang ka thukim uh hi cih sikkhau( Telegraph ) khat tung leuleu ahih manin hih sikkhau siksan inAung San – Atlee thukimna suai akai thei suakin mualmite tangmi zong na suak ziau pak hi. Hangsan leh ngengam cih ding hi.

Mualtung mite ( The Frontier Areas ) leh Aung San – Atlee thukimna
Aung San – Atlee thukimna ah thu nam 10 om in, a No.8 na pen Mualtung mite tawh ki memat thu ahi hi. A tom in en pak leng (1) mualmite leh kawlte kigawm in suaktakna lak ding thukim pih (2) Mualmite leh Kawlte ki maingap ki zol theihna dingin suakta takin ki zom kiho thei ding (3) Panglong Confernce bawlin maitang kimu tuah in kikum khawm dingin tua tungtawn in ahoihpen in vaihawm ding (4) Thukan ding Commission khat phut dingin, tua Thukan Commission ii muhkhiat nate khemepeuh Mangkang kumpi lamte, Kawl makaite leh Mualtung mi makai khemepuh tungah Thukhunpi bawlding mipi tangmite kimuh tuahna ( Constituent Assembly ) aneih ma in  zak sakna nei ding cih te hi. ( A deihna bek ka at hi in a kicingin na sim beh na dingin ong hanthawn ing ).

Shan, Kachin leh Zomite’ Lunggulhna
1947, 6th Feb , Shan leh Kachin makaite Panlong ah thu kikupna nei in anuai aa bangin thukimna nei uh hi.      
1) Democray ngeina bangin Kawlmite tawh aki bangin hamphatna ngah ding           
2) Minister panmun khat ngen ding ( tua hun laitak Mangkang leh Kawlte kigawm kumpi ukna ). Amah in maulmite vai, gamdang midangte tawh kizopna tuamtuam a vaihawm diing                                                             
3) Kachin te ngetna ahi Kachin State thukim pih                                
4) Aung San – Atlee thukimna pen mualmite tawh ki sailo                                  
5) Suahtakna ngahkhit teh Mualtung mite in inn a tuan nop leh tuan thei ding cihteng pulak dingin thukimna nei uh hi.

6th Feb, nitak lam in Zomi makaite zong Panlong khau tunguh aa, 7th Feb ,9am in Kachin , Shan leh Zomite thukimna neih beh uh hi. A tunga Kachin leh Shan makaite thukimna sa ban ah                        
1) Shan te ngah bangin kumpite’ ngah siahte tungtawn in hamphat nate khempeuh Zomi leh Kachin ten zong ngah ding                                                                        
2) Zogam aa dingin khantohna akisam sum leh paaite Gambup sum bulpi pan huai ding                       
3) Shan, Kachin leh Zomite kigawm in “ Mungtung mite kipawlna” khat phuan ding cih teng thukim uh hi. Hih thukimna tungtawn in 11th Feb in tangpi 6 ta, akigawm mi 18 tawh Mualtung Mite Kipawlna phut uh hi.

Gen. Aung San leh Mualmite’ Laidal tung leh akimu theilo lungsim takpi tawh thukimna
1947, 9th Feb , Gen. Aung San leh Mualmite in gelna omsa bangin Panlong ah kimuhna nei uh aa, atunga a thukimnate , Gen. Aung San tawh na kikum uh hi. A cilin ki thukim zolo himah leh,a tawpna ah sanggam unau danin kiho kikum khawm uh in thukimna nanngah zo uh hi. Hihpen akhat veina lungsim takpi tawh kitelsiam in thukimna a neihna uh ahi hi. Hih thukimna tungtawn in Panlong Thukimna laipi bawl uh aa, 1947kum, 12th Feb in suaikai thei uh hi. Kawlte makai Gen. Aung San leh, Shan makai 13, Kachin makai 6 leh Zomi makai 3 in kithukim na nei uh hi. Zomi makaite ahih leh Pu Thawn Za Khup ( Tedim), Pu Kio Mang ( Hakha ) leh Pu Hlur Mung ( Falam ) te ahi uh hi. Hih ni pen Union Day in kiciamteh in Holiday thupi mahmah khat in ki thupi bawl hi.

Hih Panlong Agreement sungah thu 9 om in, a vekpi phialin suahtakna ngah dong sepdan bawldan ding hi pian in, suahtakna ngahkhit Belpawl Gam ii kalsuan dan dingte, Thukhunpi bawlding mipi tangmi te’ ( Constituent Assembly ) kikup dingin nusia zaw uh hi. A thupi mahmah ah thukimna a No. 5 na ah, Mualmite in amau mun ah thu neihna neih sak dingin ki thukim hi. A No. 7 na ah, Mualmite khempeuh in zong Democracy gam ii ngeina bangmah in hamphatna, ki zakimna, ki zahtaakna cihte ngah ding uh hi. ( Hih thukinate a kician in avekin na sim nangin ong zawn hi ing).

Suahtakna lakkhopna ding vaiah Thukan Commission te’ mukhiatna
Aung San – Atlee thukimna aom mah bangin Kawlte tawh suahtakna a lakhawm ding, Mualtung mite’deihna taktak a kan ding Commission khat, Panlong Cofference pan kiseh hi. Hih Commission ah Mangkang kumpite, Kawl makaite leh Mualtungmi makaite kihel kim uh hi.

1947, March 19-26 sung, Thukan Commission in Mualmi kipawlnate, ukpi te, gam makaite, dot ding a kilawm khempeuh tungah “Kawlte tawh kipawl in Belpawl Gam phut ding, suahtakna lakhawm ding”cih thu ah amuhna a deihna te uh siangtakin na ki dongthei na kigen thei uh hi. Thu tampi ciapteh ding om in, a diakin Shan, Kachin leh Zomite in 11th Feb aa a ki phut thak “Mualtung Mite Kipawlna” te’ thusunna kician pen leh a dangteng ii deihna khem peuh zong huamkim pen dingin kiciamteh hi. Tua te in ;    

(1)Mualmi te leh Kawlzang mite in aki bangin suahtakna hamphatna ngah ding             (2)Mualmite in amau gam, amau minam ii mailam ding vaihawm thei ding, thu neihna nei ding
(3)A ut nawnkei leh Belpawl gam pan khawl thei ding cih te ahi hi. Hih Thukna Commission te’ muh khiatna khempeuh Mangkang kumpi te kiang, Kawl makaite kiang leh Mualtungmi makai khempeuh tungah zasak kik uh hi.

A cilpek in “Mualtung mite leh Kawlte in Belpawl Gam phut khawm ding” cih ahih manin atuam in “Belpawl Gam hi ding hi” cih pen kulsa nawnlo hi ding hiam, Mualgam Kipawlna ten pulak nawnlo lel hi.                          

Gen. Aung San’ gen Belpawl Gam ii kalsuan zia ding
Laidal tunga kigelh thukimna bek hilo, Mualmite lungsim tawng aa om a deihnate uh Gen. Aung San in tel lua mahmah a hih manin 1947, 16th June in akhat veina thukhunpi bawlding tangmi te’ kimuhna  (Constituent Assembly ) ah gam ii thu bulpi 4 leh, thukhunpi ii tawphah ding thu 7 tangkona nei hi. Gam ii thu bulpi 4 te in                                                                                                                                                 
(1) A suakta sitset gam ( Independence)                                                            
(2)Suakta in thuneihna a nei gam ( Sovereignty)                         
(3)Mipi thuneihna bulphuh aa akalsuan kumpi gam ( Republic )                           
(4) Belpawl Gam hi ding ( Union State) ci in thu bulpi 4 na sungkhia hi      

Thukhunpi ii tawphah ding thu (7)te in                                                                                                               
(1) Belpawl Gam kici dinga thu neihna anei thukhunpi te hi ding hi. 
(2) Thukhunpi sunga ciaptehna aom State khempeuh in, thukhunpi sunga om bangin a State ii zingvai hawmna ah thuneihna nei ding uh hi.
(3) Gambup leh State khempeuh ii thuneihna pen mipi tungpan kipan/kingah bek ding hi.
(4) Gammi khempeuh ki deidanna omlo in, gambup thukhunpi  nuai ah, suakta takin thugen theihna, biakpiak theihna, nasep theihna, etc… te nei ding uh hi.
(5) Mimal tawmte’ aa ding zong a ngaihsut sak tawntung thukhunpi hi ding hi.               (6) Gam akip nangin gam ii leitang tung, vantung, tuitung mun khempeuh ah thu neihna leh thuman thutak bek in uk den ding hi.                                                        
(7) Tangthu hoih anei Gam ahih mah bangin leung gamvaite mun lakik in, mite leh leitung aa om Pasian bawlsa nuntakna nei khempeuh aa dingin na hoih a semkhia, leitung ah kilemna a tungsak, gam khempeuh tawh aki it diamdiam Belpawl Gam ahih nangin a hanciam den gam hi ding hi, ci in thusunna nei hi.

Gen. Aung San in Mualmite tung kamciam pia phapha
Hih atunga thubulpi te ban ah thukhunpi bawl ding Mualtung gam  tangmite tungah anuai aa bangin kamciam pia phapha hi. “ Ni dang pekpan ih kikup tohtoh nate tungtawn in ahi zongin,  Laidal tungah ih thukim khopna nate hangin ahi zongin, Thukan Commission te in no mualmite let-et Belpawl Gam vai tawh kisai ong genna hangin ahi zongin, a Laidal sung bek ah akigelh hilo in , ei leh ei ih lungsim tawgpan lungsim takpi tawh ih deihna te ih ki theihpih ciat hi. Note deihna bangin thu kivai hawm dinghi cih ong theisak phapha nuam ing. Kong piaksa kamciam, ih thukim sa thute , Mangkangte’ thuciam palsat bang hilo in, kong tangtungsak hamtang ding uh hi. Nong muanmawh zenzen uh leh ko kaciam ong piate’ thumanna , ka cihtaknate ong simmawh na hizaw ding uh hi.” ciliang in Mualtung mite lungkim mahmah uh in a khut bang beng ziahziah uh hi. Hih danin  Gen. Aung San in muanhuai takin kam aciam hangin a sawt lo in amah kisuam lum sese hi.

Gen. Aung San kisuam na
1947, 19th July, Gen. Aung San leh a lawmte in mailam kalsuan zia ding kikum in a om laitak in thautawi mipawl khat in na kap gawp aa (makai 7 leh a sawl tangzang 2 ) in a nuntakna bei lawh hi. Ama panmun U Nu in luah to in makaih hi. 1947, 24th Sept in U Nu in Gambup thukhun pi ding, Gen. Aung San anuntak lai in a hampi in akibawlsa, tuateng apuah khit teh, Constituent Assembly ah puakin kipsak uh hi. Hoih takin kikup nawina,  Gen. Aung San deihna tawh bangteng kituak kituaklo cihte et kikna om lo in kipsak mawk uh hi. Gen. Aung San ii ngimna leh Mualmi te deihna pan lampial mangkhin ta hi.

Panlong Thukimna ( Laidal/Lungsim tawng ) pan apial  Gambup Thukhunpi (1947 )
Gambup thukhunpi (1947) ii Panlong thukimna pan nakpi takin apialna thu Kawlgam gamvai mipiltahuampi in nampi 3 in na khensuk uh hi.                                                                                                         
(1) Mualmite, State te in amau gam leh amau mailam vai ah thuneihna neilo uh hi. Parliament a tuamin neilo uh aa, Gambup Parliament in gamvai thuteng vai hawm hi. Tanupi khat ( Minister ) khat bek nei in, amah pen State/Mualmi te a dingin alianpen ahih hangin amah pen Gambup Prime Minister pa in a deih bangin semsak khawlsak thei mawk hi. Ki ukna lam, vaihawmna lam ah thuneihna nei vetlo uh hi. 

( 2) Minam innpi ah palai dingin Shan 25, Kachin 12, Zomi 8, Karen 24, Karenni 3 leh Kawlzang pan 54, akigawm tangmi 125 hi. Belpawl Gam ci napi in Minam tangmi ciangin a tawm a tam in khen hi. Bek thamlo in Panglong Thukimna bawlpawl te ahi Shan, Kachin leh Zomite kigawm sangin Kawlte in tangmi tam zaw nei uh hi. Mipi Innpi ah tangmi 250 om hi in, mimal phazah leh township zui in seh uh ahih manin mimal tam leh gam lianpen anei Kawlte in Mipi Innpi deep mang hi. A thupi penpen, sum zekna tawh kisai khempeuh Mipi Innpi in vaihawm hi. Thukhun bawlna, a dangdang vaihawm na ah Parliament dawlnih in thukim kul aa, a thukim zawhloh te uh, Gambup Innpi ( Minam leh Mipi Innpi kigawm ) in vote pia ding cih ahih manin a tawntungin Kawlte in a zo den dinga kibawl thukhun ahi hi. Kumpi leh Tanupi khempeuh tungah zong Mipi Innpi bekin in thunei ding hi ( Art 115 : The Government shall be collectively responsible to the Chamber of Deputies ) cih hi sawnsawn lai hi.

(3) Belpawl Gam ahih mah bangin minamte in State khat ciat , State kumpi ciat tawh om ding, tua tungah minam kim kigawm in Gambup Kumpi om ding, cih dan ding hi napi in, Kawlzang in State khat in dinglo in Gambup Kumpi in Kawlzang tengzong len hi. Lam khatpan, Kawlte ukna gam ah Mualmite in State a tuamciat ah teng uh hi cih dinmun a tun ahi hi. Hih in Belpawl Gam pan in Mualmite in Kawlte pan abel Gam suakziau uh hi. 

Taungyi Conference, A dang thukhunpi nihte (1974,2008)
1948, 4th January in  suahtakna a ngah khit, a sawtlo in tualgal in zompah hi. 1961, June 8-16 dong, Taunggyi ah Mualtung mi tengin khawmpi khat nei uh aa, thukhunpi puah dingvai kikupna om hi. Hih munah Zogam pan Pu Capt. Mang Tung Nung leh Tg. Chin Sian Thang ( Pu Chin Sian Thang, ZCD ) te zong kihel uh in, Mualmite ki pumkhatna Committee ah zong panmun thupi len uh hi. Thukhunpi puah vai tawh kisai gambup huam khawmpi pen 1962, 24th Feb pan kipan in Yangon ah om in, Party namkim, Gambup makai khempeuh in zong lunglut takin kihel uh hi. Ahih hangin theih ding a thupi mahmah khat ah, Mualmi gamte ( State ) te in a ut hun teh inntuan thei ding cih pen Thukhunpi (1947 )sungah om hi mah leh, inntuan ding nangawn vaihawm nailo, thukhunpi puah ding aki vaihawmna hangin Gen Ne Win 1962, 2nd March in Mualmite in inntuan khak ding launa paulam in thuneihna teng la in galkap ukna tawh na uk hi . 1974kum in Thukhunpi thak tawh, Party khat thuneihna dingin na bawl hi. Tua alemloh ciangin 1988kum in gambup buaina aom leuleu ciangin Galkap tem ah in thuneihna lakik uh hi. Galkap te makai in thukhunpi (2008) bawl leuleu uh aa, tu laitak tua mah bulphuh in Kawlgam (Belpawl Gam) a kasuan laitak ahi hi. 

 ZNC Kalay Declaration, 21st Century Panlong Conference
2010, 24th Oct in ZNC kipat zawh kum 22 cin khawmpi panin tangkona khat nei uh a, tua pen Kalay Declaration ci-in Kawlgam gamvai ah minthang mahmah hi. A diakin 1947kum, Panlong Khawmpi mah bangin Panlong Nihna bawl ding tawsawnna hipipen hi. 2016, 9th May ni in  Kawlgam State Counselor Daw Aung San Suu Kyi in aman lang theithei in kum zalom 21 Panlong Conference neih ding, ki lemna lam a vaihawmte kiangah , genna nei hi. Hih thei hileh kha khat kha nih sungin neih ding lunggulh hi. Tua khitzawh bel tuni dong koici ding cih kiza nailo phot hi. 1947kum Panlong Conference tawh bel a khuahun, leitung gam dinmun, Kawlgam mual mite dinmun, Kawl makaite dinmun, avekin ki lamdang mahmah ta hi. Mualmi thautawi te, Mualmi/Kawlmi gamvai party te, Mualmi minam makaite, Kumpi galkapte , USDP ( Kumpi lui, galkap lui) leh tu laitak gam ukna thunei  NLD te cih bangin akihel thei ding kipawlna tampi pha ngeingai ta hi. 

 2016kum, NLD kumpi leh Mualtung Mite
Tukum 7th May aa kibawl UNA ( The United Nationalities Alliance ), Mualtung miteng (nam 7) kipawlkhopna te kimuhkhopna ah Shante ( SNLD ) makaipi U Khun Htun Oo thu gen en pak dih ni.  2015kum, Gambup kiteelpi ah NLD ngah nangin  mualtung mite in ki bawhhuan himah ta leh, panmun hawm ciangin mualtung mite deihna, adiaikin Rakhine in State Kumpi ding anget hangin pia lo hi. Bangbang hileh, NLD pen Mualtung mite in muangluat theih om nawnlo hi. Mualtung mite ei leh ei kipumkhat in kalsuan ding hita hi ci in khasiat huaitakin gen hi. A taktak in SNLD in zong State kumpi ding ngen hi ci in thu kiza hiauhiau a, tua mun angah loh the Union Level aa mun thupi khat leh nih apiak hangin SNLD in sang nawlo hi cih thu gingsawn zong om hi. NLD in haksatna atuak laitakin a dinpih tinten UNA bek hi in NLD tawh zong aki lawmta mahmah kipawlna ahi hi. UNA pen Mualtung Mite ( The Frontier Areas -1947) tawh aki bang, aki tehkaak thei dinmun hi in, NLD ahih leh Phasapahlah ( AFPFL -1947 ) tawh kiteh kak thei hi. DASSK pen apa Gen. Aung San ( 1947 ) tawh kiteh kak thei hi. 9th May ni in DASSK in agen kum zalom 21 Panlong  sam ding acih in 7th May aa UNA te kimuhna kizopna om kha ding hi. Tutung Panlong Conference dingpen lunglut huai mahmah limliam hi.


Panlong Thukimna(1947) tungtawn in muhna ,ngaihsutna pawlkhat
(1) Nidang lai in Minam leh gam vai ah Shante in Mualmite a makaih den hi in, tu in ahih leh Zomite in amau leh amau ngaihsutna tawh amai lam ding a phul hunta hi.         
(2) Panlong masa lai in, mualtung mite ( innkuan sung, mualmi khat leh khat kikal ) kipum khat lai in, tu in ahih leh Shante aa kipan kikhen thang pianta ahih manin Kawlte pen gal dingin or ki dempih dingin lianlua ta hi. Tua ahih manin 1947kum laidan mahin Mualmite khatvei aki pumkhat loh phamawh ding hi. Ahi thei mah ding hiam? Lampi dang bang aom ding hiam?                                                  
(3) Mualmite lungsim siangthona tungah, Kawlte in amet dok kik lohna dingin Mualtung mite a pilvang ding kisam ta ding hi. Suahtakna ngahkhit Kawlgam abuaisak pen Panlong thukimna abawl Mualtung mite hang hilo hi. Kawlte in Mualtung mite 1947kum thukhunpi tawh a khembawl hangin a ki ciamsa uh Belpawl Gam aki tap lohna dingin aluanguh khamin a Gam na hu uh hi. Galkap kumpi bang kahkei leh Mualmi thautawi bang omlo khaphial thei ding hi. Inntuan sawm hetlo in, kikum khawm in thukhun apuah sawm ( 1962 , gambup conference ) a picing Mualtung mite na hi gige hi.( Karente bel a thutuam hi in, Kawlte tawh minam vai akilemlo limlim hi.) . Tu laitak NLD makai DASSK muanhuai mahmah ta leh, a dang a nungthuap dingte amuan huai takpi mah diam?                                  
(4) 1947kum hun in, Zogam pan makaite’ akihtak pipen in Kawlte tawh kipawl keileng koici nuntak khuasak ding, nek leh dawn , ci leh sathau koipan ngah ding cih hipi pen hi. Mipite’ nuntak nopna ding deihluatna hi. 2016kum  hita, Zogam in amau leh amau kivak zo nailo dinmun hilai hi. Zomite in apianna Zogam leitangah lampi tuamtuam zongin, minam dang kuamah tungah kinga lo in, amau khe tungah a din zawh matengin suahtakna kician ngah ngeilo ding hi. Tua ahih manin, Zogam aa om gam makai, pawlpi makai, minam makaite in thu saupi khual in, Zogam aa om kipawlna khempeuh picing in, ki pumkhat in na asepkhop loh phamawh ta hi. A tenna leitung tungah an khing a kham nangin hanciam in na a sepkhop loh phawmawh ta hi. Khantohna dingin akisam mahmah Pilna mahmah zong nakpi takin a zon ding uh kisam hi. Tua bangin kalsuan hileh, Panlong Thukimna – Gambup Thukhunpite – Minam lian biakna lianpi te’ nawmvalh ding cihte, DASSK om nawn keileh gamvai koi ci ding cihte tawh,  lungkham om nawlo dinga, Pasian piaksa leitang tungah nuamsa in nungtak theihna  ding lampi tampi lakpan a thupi khat hi kha thei ding hi.

Laisim mimal kim in zong, na ngaihsutna te suk inla ,a beisa tangthu tawntawn in pilna lakteih ding, mailam kalsuan zia dingte sungkhia ziahzaih dih in. Tua te in Minam, Gam khantohna dingin kal masa hipah ding hi.

Lai gelhpa Khup Lian Thangte Innkuan.

Khup Lian Thang 
   
Ref:                                           
- The Constitution of Union of Burma (1947)                      
- Lian of Burma, Dr. Stephen Hre Kio                                     
- Gen. Aung San’ Union of Burma, Salai Lian Hmung Sakhong ( Paper )                             
- A ki tamkham theilo ding Belpawl Gam , U Swe Ohn ( Nyaungshwe )                                 
- State 8 leh Gam thukhunpi, Nai Nywe Thein ( Paper )                                                      - Political Change in Burma: Transition from Democracy to Military Dictatiorship (1948-62), Nehginpao Kipgen ( Special Article )

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Item Reviewed: Panlong Thukimna ( Laidal tung leh Lungsim takpitawh thukimna ) leh Mualtung Mite’ thu. A gelh - Khup Lian Thang Description: Rating: 5 Reviewed By: Cinpu Zomi
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