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ZOKAM LE ZOLAI ZOLAI SIMBU KUM 100 (1913-2013) CIN CIAPTEHNA. A gelh: Khoi Lam Thang

ZOKAM LE ZOLAI
ZOLAI SIMBU KUM 100 (1913-2013) CIN
CIAPTEHNA


A gelh: Khoi Lam Thang
General Secretary
The Bible Society of Myanmar

A hawmkhia:
Zomi Christian Literature Society
Kawlpi: October 2013

Khatvei bawlna
A hawmkhia: Zomi Christian Literature Society
Hawmkhiat kum: October 2013
Hawmkhiatna: Kawlpi
Laibu bawlzah: 500
Zolai simbu kum 100 cin ciaptehna

ZON-OLNA
Thulu
 Laimai Thumasa
Thupatna
Khen 1 Zomi le Zokam
1.1  Zomi
1.2  1 1.2 Zokam
1.3 Zokam Khanggui sutna
1.4 Tedim pau hong piankhiatna

6 Khenpi 2 Zokam kilamzia
2.1 Awmal gawm  
2.2 Laimal gawm

Khenpi 3 LAI neihna thu
3.1 Zotual lai
3.2 Mangtual lai
3.3 Zomite lai neihdan

Khenpi 4 Cope topa le i Zolai
4.1 Cope topa i cihcih
4.2 Zolai Simbu

Khenpi 5  Cope topa khit i Zolai

Khenpi 6  Laigelhzia
6.1 Laigelhzia thu tawphah
6.2 Laimal gawm
6.3 Kammal gawm

Khenpi 7 ZCLS
Asipna
Laibu etkakte
Kikuphuai thute

THU MASA
Cope topa’ hong patsak Zolai Simbu i neih zawh kum 100 (1913-2013) cin lungdamkohna Centennial Jubilee pi (ZCLS -D- 15/2011) a bawl thei ihih manin Pasian min i phat hi.

Amun dingin Tahan Tuiphum Pawlpi kingen-a Pawlpi-in biakinn lam maban manlahna, sumbeina le thabeina tampi kawmkal pan minam a it manin phalna hong pia hi.

Thubulphuh hong teelsak dingin ZCLS thudotpi le GZA makaipi ahi Prof. Rev. Dr. Simon Pau Khan En tungah huhna kingen-a, amah’n Jer. 1:10; 29:11 siksan thulu ahi, “Puah kawm, Zun kawm-in Mainawt khawm ni” hong teel hi.

Kum za cin pawi ahih hangin, pawi dangte bangin zang loin, thusinna (Seminar) tawh zat dingin kivaihawm a, thu sung dingin a nuaia bangin kiteel hi.

Rev. Khoi Lam Thang
Zolai hong piankhiatna le a khantohzia
Rev. Dr. JM Ngul Khan Pau
A kikhenthang Zomite dinmun le mailam
Dr. Hau Za Cin
Tuhun Nate (Science) pilna le khangno

Tu-in Rev. Khoi Lam Thang (General Secretary, Bible Society of Myanmar) in Zolai a itna le a mipihte hong khualna in ama thulu khuttawi theih ding laibu hong suah ahih manin siapa tungah lungdamna i pulak hi.

Dr. Hau Za Cin le a zi Cingpi te nupa in Zolai kum 100 cin lungdamkohna in Ks. 536500/- hong khak a, tua sum tawh hih laibu a kibawl ahih manin amau nupa tungah lungdamna i ko hi.

Hih laibu in Zomite minam khat ihihna hong kipsak semsem, a kikhenthang Zomite hong gawmkhawm le khua hun tawh kizui-in minam khangto hong suaksak laibu ahi dingin Zomite minam khatin hong siam a, Zolai hong pia tung Pasian tungah a thak-in i ap hi.

Rev. Lian Khen Pau
Executive Secretary
Zomi Christian Literature Society
Kalaymyo Sept. 29, 2013

THUPATNA
Zomi a i pian, Zokam i pau, ei deihtel hi lo a, Pasian hong piak ahi hi.

Leitung ah kampau 6912 om kici hi. Kampau pawlkhat nisim-in kiamkiam-a, mangthang hi. Pawl khatte nungtain khangkhang hi.  Tua kampau i cihte a kipuahpuah a kizunzun ahi hi.

Kampau pen LAI tawh kiciamteh hi. Tua LAI pen minamte kituktehna ahi hi. Pasian in tuma kum 100 lai-in Zolai Simbu hong pia hi. Tua Zolai Simbu in Zomite mit hong keuhsak hi. Pasian min i phat hi.

Hih laibu sungah, Zokam thu, Zokam kilamzia le Zolai Simbu i neihziate tomkimcing takin kiguang hi. Manlahna tuamtuam kawmkal pan kaihkhop ahih manin behlap le zop lai ding tampi om hi.

Hih laibu sungah kicin lohna, khialhna a om leh keima lukhuk ding hi-a, a hoih malkhat peuh a om leh Pasian minthanna ding ahi hi.

Kumzacin pawi a vaihawm makaite Pasian in thupha tampi hong pia ta hen. Hih laibu a sim kha mimal khat ciat Pasian in Zokam le Zolai itna lungtang a thakin hong guan tahen.

Rev Khoi Lam Thang
General Secretary
Bible Society of Myanmar
Yangon: Octobet 2013.

Khen 1
ZOMI LE ZOKAM
Thukong hong Zolai Simbu i neih zawh kum za cin hunpi ah ‘Zolai hong piankhiatna le a khantohzia’ thusung dingin hunpha ka ngah manin ka lungdam mahmah hi. Zomite in lai i neihzia le tua i neih Zolai a khantohzia a sutnuam ka hi hi. Khen 1 thulu nuai-ah: ZOMI, ZOKAM le ZOKAM KHANGGUI SUTNA cih thulu thum siksan in thukong hong ding hi hang.

1.1  Zomi Zomi cih kammal pen
Pasian hong piak ahi hi. Bang hang hiam cih leh eile-ei Zomi i kici a, bang hun-in Zomi kici i hiam cih a mong a genthei kuamah om lo ding hi. Tua ahih manin ‘Pasian in ZOMI kici min tawh hong bawlkhop minamte ihi hi’. Eile-ei i kisapna min ZOMI hi a, tua sangin a khumzaw om lo hi. Tua sangin Zo lungsim a sukha zo zaw min dang om lo hi.
Tua ahih manin:
ZOMI IN KA PIANG HI.
ZOMI IN KA NUNGTA DING A,
ZOMI IN KA SI DING HI. i ci ngam hi.

Tua bang hi napi i Zomi pih dangte le leitung in hong sap nading min kician a nei nai lo tawh kibang hi hang. Min kiphuak nai lo naungek bang hi hang.

Kum zalom 21 sung ei minam citawmte’ phutkhak thu lian khat in: Hihna kantelna (Insearch of Indentity) ahi hi. “Kei kua ka hiam, ka ngeina bang hiam, ka kampau bang hiam, ka mun ka gam koilai hiam, ka min taktak bang a hiam …” cih thute kithupi ngaihsut semsem hi.

David Bradlay kici kampau kansut siampa (linguist) in Tibetto Burma namte minhaute hi a, min thu-ah buai mahmah uh hi, ci hi. Hong cih mah bangin min i hau a, i deihdeuh om in, i deih loh zong om hi.

Mipilte in min kivawhdan nam tuamtuamin na khen uh hi. Tuate in
(1) Ethnonyms:Nammin kitap min
(2) Glossonyms: Kampau kitap min
(3) Allonyms: Nam khat min kilawhna a tuamtuam
(4) Allograms: Min khat laimal gawmzia tuamtuam
(5) Autonyms: Tualsuak min
(6) Exonyms: Minamte’ hong sapna min
(7) Loconyms: Om na mun le mual kitap min
(8) Paleonyms: Min kikhel
(9) Neonyms: Nam tuamtuam kigawm
min cih te ahi hi.

I minam min ‘Zo’ maw, ‘Chin’ maw, ‘Tedim’ maw, ‘Ciimnuai’ maw? Khangthakte in thukhualtak a ngaihsuthuai thu ahi hi.

Hih laibu sungah ‘Zo’, ‘Zolai’, ‘Zokam’ cih ka zang a, mun tuamtuam a om Zomi dangte tawh kikhen teltheih ding a kisapna ah ‘Tedim pau’, ‘Tedim kampau Zomite’ cih bangin ka zang hi.

1.2. ZOKAM
Tedim Kampau Zomi innkuan sungah kamphen kul lo, min kitap Zomite sungah Zokam i cihna thu tawm kikum ni.

Mangkang hun lai a, Tedim sub-division sunga om minam teng kigawmin ukna khat, kampau nam khat i zang hi. Tua kampau pen Kamhau Dialect na kici ngei hi. Tua ban-ah Kampau lam a kan mipil masate in Sukte cih zong na zang ngei hi.

Hun hong sawt tohtoh ciangin kamphen a kullo pau tuamtuamte kigawm khawmin taangkam khat kizanga tua in TEDIM KAM i cihcih pen ahi hi.

Eile-ei ‘ZOMI’ a kicite in Tedim kampau pen taangkam dinga i zatna thu a nuaia bangin kiciamteh hi. Tua hunlai a Tedim gam a kici pen, tuhun Tedim, Tonzang le Cikha gamkhen (Myone) teng huam hi. Hih gam sung tengah Sihzang, Thado (Kuki) Vaiphei, Guite, Khuano, Losau, Phaileng, Saizang, Teizang, Val le Vangteh paute kihel hi. Tua hunlai ukpite in amau bangkua sung kampau pen gambup pau dingin na vaihawm hileh, tu in ‘Teizang’ kam i pau ding hi. Sangmangte in a mau theih masak kampau mah na bulphuh tentan hi leh ‘Sihzang’ kam i pau ding hi. Ahi zongin makai masate in thupi khual-in vaihawm siam uh a, Tedim gamsung a mite in a zattaang theih ding kampau na vaihawm uh hi.

1919 kum Tedim vuandok zum ah Tedim gam a phualphual a hausa teng kikaikhawm in, gambup ah Zolai tawh a kigelh masa pen ahi Sihzang lai zat dingin thu kisung hi. Tua laitakin Thado kampau Hiangzang khua hausa Pu Zam Khaw Thang, Zo Kampau Phaitu khua hausa Pu Khan Thawng, Salzang khua hausa Pu Zaang Khaw Lian, Paite kampau Tuimui khua hausa Pu Mang Za Thang, Haiciin khua hausa Pu Tual Pum-te in Sihzang kam a teltheih loh lam uh pulak hi. Ahi zongin Tedim, Ngennung, Haupi, Gawngmual, Leilum, Lezang, Tongsial, Lamzang, Laitui, Mawngken, Kahgen, Taklam, Tonzang, Tungtuang, Anlang, Gamlai, Khuaimual le Seitual khua hausate kuamah a pau a ham om lo uh hi. Tua hun a kipan hong uk kumpite le sangmangte kopin Zolai sinna, sang pilna sinna khempeuh ah ‘Tedim kam’ kizang a, a nung ciangin ‘taangkam’ hong suak hi.

Tuin kampau tuamtuam i zat hangin i tutkhop ciang, i kimuh ciang Tedim kam tawh i kiho ta hi. I khua pau i bangkua pau mah a ci tentante in minam bup huam khin zo nawn lo hi. ‘Zomi’ taktakte in ‘Tedim pau’ pau hi. Tua pen i minam pau hong suak hi. I khua pau, i bangkua paute sim-mawhna hi lo hi. Tuate a kisapna mun-ah i zang dinga, ahih hangin ZOMI khempeuh a huamkim vai khempeuh ah ‘TEDIM KAM’ kizang hi.

1.3  Zokam khangguisutna
Leitung ah mihing awn 7000 val om a, kampau nam 6,912 om hi, ci-in kiciamteh hi. Kawlgam sungah mihing awn 60 val in paunam (minam) 135 val bang kinei a, Zomite in paunam (minam) 53 bang nei hi, ci in Kawlgam kumpi in hong ciaptehsak hi. I Zokam kantel suksuk leng nam 100 val om dingin ka lamen hi. Ethnologue (Languages of the World 1996) in Tedim kampau a zang mihing 344,100 pha ding hi, ci in ciamteh hi.

Leitung kampau tuamtuamte a guigui a behbeh in kikhil diimdiam hi. Kampau lam kansut siam pa (linguist) David Bradley thukanna siksan leeng Tedim kampau khanggui a nuaia bang ahi hi.


Sino-Tibetan
Tibeto-Burman
North Eastern India group
Kuki Chin Naga
Kuki Chin
Chin
Northern Chin
Tedim

Sino Tibetan cih pen Sen le Tibet kigawmkhawm hi a, leitung kampau nampi kikhenna ah nam pi khat ahi hi. Hih Kampau nampi pen a tuamtuam in kikhen suk leuleu a, eite Tibet le Kawl (Burma) bawng Tibeto-Burman sungah hong kiguang hi. Tibeto-Burman kam pau zong a tuamtuam in kikhen thuaplai hi. India gam in North East India ci-in State 7 kigawm gamkhen lianpi khat nei a, tua gam khen sunga om Tibeto-Burman kampau namte North East India Group kici hi. India gam lam pan kampau kansiamte hong khang masa ahih man zong hi kha ding hi. Tua bangin India nisuahna saklam kampau namte sungah hong kihel hi. Tua kampau namte a kikhen suk leuleu ciangin Kuki Chin Naga nam, tuate sung pan Naga namte tuam khen in Kuki Chin kampau ci in hong kiguisut suksuk a, tua ban-ah Kuki le Chin khen-in Chin hong kici leuleu hi. Chin namte lak-ah Tedim kampau pen Northern Chin sungah hong kihelsak hi. Chin State gamlim lupzia zui a hong kisam bek zong hi loin, Zokam khempeuh Northern Chin Central Chin le Southern Chin ci-in kampau lam kansiamte in khen uh hi.

1.4  Tedim pau hong piankhiatna:
Tedim mite pen Zo minam sung pan nam khat ihi hi. Pulepate Sen (China) le Tibet gam lam pan Kawlgam sung a kilut khit ciang Kawlzang-ah kum za tampi na teng uh hi. Tua pan in A.D. 1200 pawlin Khamtung gam (Zogam) Ciimnuai mun na tung uh hi. 1550 kum pawl-in Tedim khua kisat hi, ci-in tangthu kante in gen uh hi. Tua hun lai-in Tedim khua pen sak gal khang gal in sim tawntung hi. Tua ahih manin Tedim khua a kip nadingin thu vaihawm siam, gal hang, sa hang makai kisam hi. 1810 in Tedim khua-ah Mualbem khua mi Khan Thuam’ tapa Kam Hau in ukpi sem hi. Mang Gin, Khoi Lam, Kim Thuam, Tel Khaat, Pau Am, Cin Kim le Pau Vum te tawh vaihawm khawm hi.

Hih banga beh tuamtuam, phung tuamtuam pan uliante kithutuaka vai a hawm manun a langpang ngam ding kuamah om nawn lo hi. Tua bang hun ciangin kampau tuamtuam a zang mi tampi in hong belin hong teng khawm uh a, inn zathum val bang hong pha hi. Tua bangin Teizang, Saizang, Sihzang, Khuano, Zo (India-ah Zou ciin kigelh), Khuangnung (India-ah Simte ci-in kiciamteh), Guite  (India lamah Paite ci-in kigelh), Thahdo (India-ah Kuki kici), Vaiphei, Gangte kampau zang mite khua khat tuikhat suak in tual khat sungah a tenkhop uh ciangin nungak tangvalte hong ki-it uh hi. Hong kingai-in kampau le beh tuam cih banga kideidanna om loin zileta-in kilain na kiteng uh hi.  Tua bangin tawlkhat hong ten khawm ciangun kampau tuamtuamte hong kihel zauin hong kigawm ciangin Tedim pau kici pau thak khat hong piangkhia hi, ci-in khanglui thu theite le thu kante in gen uh hi. Tu hun khangthakte in zong hih thu bekmah siksan ding om hi.

‘Tedim’ kam cih pen mun le gam kitamsak (loconymn) hi-a, eile-ei i kipiak (egonymn) tualsuak min ahi hi. Midangte hong sapna hi lo hi. Tedim khua ah a teng ngei kilkel lo-te nangawn in zong “T = Tedim pau eima pau” ci in a angtan ngam hi hang.

‘Tual’ khat zangin a tengkhawm awsuah tuamtuam a neite unaute in lungsim kituak in a tenkhopna uh pan munmin ‘Tedim’ kitamsak ‘Tedim Kam’ hong piang hi. A neituam om lo a, Teizang, Saizang, Thahdo, Vaiphei, Guite le Zo te neihsa zong hi tuan lo hi. Sangmang hun lai-in ukpi pa min tamsak in ‘Kam Hau dialect’ na kici ngei a, ukpipa’ behmin tamsak in ‘Sukte’ a kicihna zong om hi. Tu hun ciangin, ‘Ei pau’ hi ci khawm loin ‘Koh pau’ i cihnop khak leh lalkuan a manawh hi ding hi hang. Bang hanghiam cih leh Tedim kam in i neihkhop kampau ahi hi.

TEDIM pau taangkam a suahna thu (laimai 3-5) gen khin hi hang.


 KHENPI 2
ZOKAM KILAMZIA
I kikup ngeingei, i zat ngeingei thute mah kaikhawm-in ZOKAM KILAMZIA cih thulupi tawh a nuaia thulu neu 2 kikum khawm ni. Tuate in:
1. Awmal gawm
2. Paumal gawm
Zokam kilamzia tel thei leeng, Zolai gelhzia zong haksa nawn lo ding hi. Hih thukikupna tungtawnin Zokam le Zolai i lunglut semsem ding ka lamen hi. Khatvei kikupna tawh tawntung a kip ding thu kivaihawm thei lo ding hi. Kinial zel ding, kizui zel ding, lemtuah zel ding, puahpha zel ding hi hang. Kampau a nuntak leh kipuahpuah lai ding hi. Minam a nuntak leh laigelhzia kilem thuahthuah ding hi. Tua bangin damdamin a picing ding ihi hi.

2.1 AWMAL GAWM
“AWMAL” cih ciangin kampau (language) khat in a neih awmalte genna ahi hi. “Phoneme” kici hi. Tua awmalte kigawmgawmin kampau a piang ahi hi. Gentehna: Tedim kampau Zomite in “G” aw nei a, Falam, Khalkha, Mizote in nei lo uh hi. Tua ahih manin, “G” aw suaksak thei lo uh-a, Sia Hau Go a cih uh ciangin, Sia Hau Ko ci uh hi. Tedim kampau Zomite in “R” aw nei lo ahih manin Mizo gam singtang vakte tungah Zomi ahih lam a theihtheih nadingin “Ka pu, ar ti rawh” hong cisak hi, kici hi. Tua bangin G group le R group ci-in awmal siksan kibat lohna kiciamteh hi. Khuano kampaute in ‘Ng’ le ‘G’ khen se lo uh hi. Amau adingin ‘Ngasa’ lah ‘Nga’, ‘Gatam’ lah ‘Nga’ hi lel hi. Tedim kampau Zomite in ‘Nem’ a cih kammal pen Sihzang aw in ‘Neam’ ahi hi. Ei bangkua khat sungah hi bangin awmal tuamtuam a kikhentheih mah bangin, Zopau ahi lo pau nam dangte tawh tehkak leng gen ding tampi om hi. Hih banga awmal kilamdanna pen kampau khatlekhat a kilamdanna bulpi ahi hi.

Lai Siangtho sungah Gilead mite in Sh aw neih uh a, Efraim mite in Sh aw nei loin, S aw suaksak uh hi. Gal kidona ah a mel a sa uh kikhen thei lo ahih manin tuallegal kikhen theih nadingin awmal na zang ngei uh-a:
Thukhente 12:6 amaute in ama kiangah, “Tua ahihleh Shibboleth ci in,” ci uh a, tua ciangin amah in, “Sibboleth,” ci hi; bang hang hiam cihleh a manin ci thei lo hi. Tua ciangin amaute in amah manin Jordan ngahmunte-ah that uh hi. Tua tungin Efraim mi tul sawmli le tulnih tuk hi.

Hih a lungluthuai mahmah awmalte (phoneme) tuamtuamte kigawm-in paumal (morpheme) piang hi. Tua paumalte tawh kammal (word) a kilam ahi hi. Tua kammalte laimal (alphabet) tawh a kigelh ciangin “LAI” (orthography) cih hong piang hi.

Tua ahih manin “Awmal” pen “LAI” i a zung le a bul ahi hi. Lai a kigelh ciangin awmal zui-in a kigelh ding ahi hi.

Tawm genbeh lai leeng:
= Awmal \p\ le awmal \a\ a kigawm ciangin Paumal (morpheme) [Pa] piang hi.
= [Pa] zong khiatna nei Paumal (morpheme) khat ahih banin Kammal (word) zong ahi hi.
= Awmal \s\, awmal \i\, awmal \a\ le awmal \n\ a kigawm ciangin Paumal [Sian] piang hi.
= [Sian] zong khiatna nei Paumal (morpheme) khat ahih banin Kammal (word) zong ahi hi.
= Tua ban-ah Paumal [Pa] le Paumal [sian) a kigawm ciangin [Pasian] cih Kammal (word) piang hi.

Tedim Kampau Zomite’ awmal laimung le Awphei neihzia Roman alphabet ABC zangin a nuaia bangin kimu thei hi.

2.1.1. Laimung (Consonant)
Laimung pen Mangte in “Consonant,” Kawlte in (Asnf;) ci uh hi. Tedim awmal-ah laimung ‘phonemic consonant’ 17 om hi. Tuate a nuaia bang ahi hi.

Gindan le a ginna munte
Tedim laimung 17
Hih laimungte khatciat a kizatzia etsakna a nuai a bang ahi hi.

B = (b)Baibek
C = (us)Cialciak
D = () Doldeng
G = (*) Gam le gho
H = ([)Haihut
K = (u)Kawl le Zo
L = (v)Lawm le gual
M = (r) Muitung muiphei
N = (e) Nehno
P = (y) Pi le pu
S = (p) Sesum
T = (w)Tedim pau
Z = (Z) Zozam
Ph = (z) Phikphek
Th = (x)Thuam mual
Kh = (c) Khuado
Ng = (i) Ngaingaw

Laimung 17 lak pan a tuamkai phadiak awmal pawl khat ban gen ni.

2.1.1.a C le T kinupa
C le T kinupa cih ciangin, awmal nih hi loin khat ahi, a ci nuam ihi hi. Tedimte in lai i gelh ciangin /c/ laimal nei napi /t/ tawh kikop a ngaihsut ding ahi hi. Bang hang hiam cih leh /t/ tawh a kiciamteh Zo awmal pen awphei (vowel) /i/ tawh a kigawm ciangin Zo awmal /c/ in kikhel hi. Tua ahih manin t -> c/___i  ci-in kiciamteh thei hi. Tedim awmal in /c/ nei lo-a, ahih hangin /t/ peuhmah / i/ tawh a kizop ciangin /c/ aw suak hi. /t/ le /c/ a kigawm ciangin kopkhat suak pan a, a mau khat ciatciat a tuamtuak hi lo hi. /c/ khit ciangin /i/ bek kizang thei a, ahih hangin /t/ khit ciangin /i/ kizang ngei lo hi.


C le T kinupa lahna
Tua ahih manin mi masate’ gelh laite sim leeng, tu laitak a /c/ i zatna mun-ah /t/ na zang ngei uh hi.

Gentehna in: Lam Za Tin, Tua tiangin, Tingpikot.

2.1.1.b. Laimung bul le Laimung khak
Laimung bul (Initial Consonant)
Paumal khat peuhpeuh a kigelh cianga laimal masa dinga a kizang laimungte Laimung bul (Initial consonant) kici hi. Tedim kam-ah laimung khempeuh laimung bul (initial consonant) dingin kizang khin thei hi. Gentehna:

Baibek Dial, GalHiam, Kuang, Khua, Lawm, Mawng, Nu, Ngen, Pa, Phialphiah, Sansim, Tuang, Ci, Thang, Vial, Zu,

Laimung khak (final consonant)
Laigelh cianga a tawpna a kizang laimungte ahi hi. Laimung khempeuh laimung khak (final consonant) dingin kizang khin thei lo hi. Laimung mal 17 lak-ah laimung khak mal 7 bek om hi. Tuate in p, t, k, m, n, ng le l ahi uh hi. Hih mal 7 teng lo buang a dang laimalte laimung khak dingin ding thei lo uh hi.

Tedim Laimung khak 7
Gentehna: Tuap, Khut, Khuk, Sam, Tan, Kawng, tal

2.1.1.c. /h/ pen Laimung khak hi lo
/h/ pen laimung khak ah a om hangin laimung khak hi lo hi. Awniam- awtawng lahsakna ahi hi. ‘h’  laimal (/[/ banga kizang, Hai, Ha, Hahkat, Hangsai cih bang a kizang /h/) hihna tawh laimung khak piang thei lo hi.

2.1.1.d.Laimung kop (Consonant Cluster) om lo
Laimung kop pen Mangkangte in “consonant cluster” ci uh hi. Consonant nih a kikopte genna ahi hi. Gentehna: Falam kam thlang, Mizo kam-a Tluang cihte pawl ahi hi. Tedim kam-ah tua bang om lo hi. /ph/, /kh/, /th/ le  /ng/ te laimal nihta a kigawm hangin laimung kop (consonant cluster) hi lo hi. Amaute aw nih kigawm hi lo, aw khat ciat ahi hi. Theih baih deuh nadingin: /ph/=/z/, /kh/=/c/, /th/=/x/, le  /ng/=/i/.

2.1.2 Awphei (Vowel)
Tedim Kam-ah awphei 6 om kici-a, limtakin kancian leeng 6 hi loin 5 hi zaw hi. Tua awphei 5 te a nuaia bang ahi hi. Close le Open pen kamcip le kamka cihna hi-a, Front le Back pen mukdawn le dangtawng cihna hi. Gentehna: /i/ i cih ciang mailam (mukdawn lam) pan aw suak-a, kikamcip hi.

Acing akim in hih anuai ah om hi.

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Item Reviewed: ZOKAM LE ZOLAI ZOLAI SIMBU KUM 100 (1913-2013) CIN CIAPTEHNA. A gelh: Khoi Lam Thang Description: Rating: 5 Reviewed By: Cinpu Zomi
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