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US KUMPI 3NA, THOMAS JEFFERSON’ TANGTHU

 THOMAS JEFFERSON’ TANGTHU

A sunga thu omte:

·         *Thu patna
·         *A nei lai thu leh pilsinna
·         *Politics ah a lutna thu
·         *Declaration of Independence ki-atna thu
·          *Minister to France leh Secretary of State a letna thu
·         *Sally Heming tawh a kinaina/kizopna (relationships) thu
·         *Vice-President a letna thu
·         *President a letna thu

THU PATNA: Thomas Jefferson pen US Vice-President nihna (1797-1801), US Governor, Government Official, Diplomat, Secretary of State masa pen (1789-94), US President thumna (1801-09) hi a, April 13, 1743 in Shadwell, Virginia ah piang in, July 4, 1826 in Charlottesville kianga om Montecello, Virginia ah a lupna tungah si hi. A minneu dingin "Sage of Monticello", "Apostle of the Constitution" leh "Long Tom" ci-in zong kisam hi. Declaration of Independence gelhte lakah a makaipi len a, US khangthu ah a poimawh mahmah in a kiciamteh ‘Louisiana Purchase’ kici Francete’ khut sung panin Louisiana state leina dingin mapang in, ama’ thugensiamna hangin kilei hi kici liang hi.


A NEU LAI THU LEH PILSINNA: Charlottesvile kiang lo lianpi kibawlna Shadwell plantation kicihna mun-a gam golpi nei mihau mahmah Welsh mi leh British gammi hihna nei Peter Jefferson’  tapa sawm lak panin a thumna ahi hi. A nu pen minam hausa mahmah England leh Scotland gam-a kumpi’ suan Randolh beh Jane Randolh ahi hi. Jefferson’ pa Peter Jefferson pen lo nasepna lamsangah lawhcing mahmah a, gam teh siam leh gam lim gelh siam (cartographer) hi a, Virginia Province gam lim man takin a gelh thei masa pen ahi hi. A neu lai-in Jefferson in a hun ngah peuh ciangin singkung leh gamlak khawnga kimawl peuh nuamsa mahmah se a, violin tum leh laisim uuk mahmah hi. Kum kua a phak ciangin private sanginn nei Rev. William Douglas kiangah sang kah kipan a, Latin leh Greek sin hi. Kum 9 a cin’ kum 1757 in Rev. James Maury’ kiangah sang kah in classical language (pau upa leh kammal kilawm paute) leh math sin kik hi.  Jefferson in Rev. James Maury pen classical pau siampa hi ci-in thupi a sakna thu lim gen mahmah hi. Rev. James Maury’ tung panin a sin ding teng a sin khit ciangin Jefferson in a khua leh inn kinusia in Virgina state-te’ khuapi Williamsburgh ah pilsinna sangzaw sin dingin College of William and Mary ah kah hi. Tua hun lai-in College of William and Mary pen Harvard University khit zawh a lianpen nihna in US ah kiciamteh hi. A college kahpih ten college pen gualnopna mun in zang uh a, phe kap, sakol tai kidemsakna ah sum kikham leh numei tawh kikhawl in a hunte uh beisak den uh ahih manin hih college ah a kah khak a lungkia mahmah hi. Ahih hangin laisim a ukna leh hanciamna khahsuah loin amah sangin a hamzaw leh lai lamsang a uuk mahmah Professor William Small, Lieutenant Governor Francis Fauquier leh thukhamsiam (sitni/lawyer) George Wythe tawh hong kimeltheih kha uh a, hihte tung panin pilna leh thuthuk tampi  hong ngah hi. William and Mary panin master buaih ngah hi.

William and Mary college ah kum thum hong kah khit ciangin thukham sin dingin khentatna hong nei a, American colony sung teng-a thukham siam mahmah a Wythe tung pan hong sin hi. Tua hun lai-in America ah thukham sinna sang om nai lo a, a sin nuam ten thukham ki-atte a thu bekin sim in, sin tangtang uh a, a siam ciangun thukhenna innpi in sitna nei a, a siam ten sitni sem thei uh hi. Jefferson in Wythe’ tung panin thukham kum nga sung (a hunciam zah nih) sin hi. Virgina bar ah thukhenna sin theihna ding a ngah in Jefferson pen America sungah thukham lamsang siam pen hi khin zo hi. Virginia ah thukham 1767-1774 sung sin a, thu buai tampi ah thukhen na sem in, a tamzaw zo hi. Virginia ah thukham a sin sungin Virginia khua adingin mihau pen pawl-a kigen leh meigong khat Martha Wayles kci tawh hong thei uh a, a sawt loin hong kingai pah uh hi. Jefferson in Martha Wayles January 1, 1772 in teenpih a, ta guk a neih hangun a tanu nihna Martha leh a lina Mary bek dam uh hi. Mary zong a pa’ sih ma-in si sawnsawn lai hi.   
POLITICS AH A LUT NA THU: French and Indian War, 1763 bei khit lianin politics ah hong lut hi. Hih gal hangin Great Britain in leiba hau lua mahmah ahih manin Britain Kumpi in American colonies sung tengah siah khan’sakna dingin Stamp Act (1765) kici hong pankhia a,  laidal tuamtuam leh laikhetna khawl tawh a kikhen laidal khempeuhte ah siah lak ding thukham hong koih hi. Hih thu hangin Americate thangpai mahmah uh a, America panin Mikangte hawlkhiatna dinga kiphinna nei ten British kumpi’ siah deih lohna lahna in “US palai kihel loin siah kipia lo ding hi” ("No taxation without representation") cih nasia takin tangkopih ngeingai uh hi. Tua khit kum giat nungin British kumpi’ siah don’na leh ukna deih lo ten December 16, 1773 in Boston Harbor tuipi sungah Britishte’ niangteh koihna bungpi (chests) 342 paihsak uh hi. Hih pen Americate’ khangthu ah “"Boston Tea Party" ci-in kiciamteh hi. Tua khit April 1775 in galdo dinga kipiakhia ‘American militiamen’ kicite leh British galkapte  Massachusetts sunga om Lexington leh Concord khua-ah kikaptuah uh a, hih pen American Revolutionary War adingin Britishte leh Americate’ a kido masakna pen uh hong suak hi. Great Britain’ ukna hakkol panin suahtakna dingin Jefferson in suahtakna ding deih-a kiphinna neite nakpi takin gum hi. 1768 in Virginia House of Burgesses kici dingin kiteelcing a, British kumpi deih lo a kiphinna Patrick Henry leh Geoge Washington’ makaihna 'radical' pawl ah hong kihel hi. Virginia House of Burgesses a let sung sila-a neihna (slavery) tawh kisai thukham tampi puahpha hi. 1774 in Jefferson in gamvai tawh kisai amasa pen dingin "A Summary View of the Rights of British America," kici hong at hi. Hih thu pen Americate suahtakna ding deih a kiphinna neite nakpi takin tha pia hi. 1775 in Second Continental Congress khawmpi ah hong kihel a, hih khawmpi ah ‘Continental Army’ kici hong kiphuankhia in commander-in-chief dingin Virginia mi George Washington kiteel hi. Ahih hangin Congress tavuan a tamzaw pen Jefferson’ liangko tungah kinga hi.

DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE KI-ATNA THU: June 1776 in Congress America suahtakna tangko khiatna dingin ‘Declaration of Independence’ kici draft at dingin committee khat kibawl a, Jefferson, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman leh Robert Livingston kiseh hi. Declaration of Independence committee in Declaration of Independence draft masa pen at dingin Jefferson tavuan pia uh a, leitung khangthu adingin suahtakna leh mi khempeuh liangko kikim hi cih thukham hoih pen pawl-a kiciamteh ni 17 sungin Jefferson in hong gelh khia hi.  Jefferson’ Declaration of Independence draft ah preamble kici tuang masa pen a, tua-ah mihing khempeuh in suahtakna ding leh hamphatna kikim kinei hi cih leh British Kumpi Geoge III ukna hanga America mi ten gentheihna, haksatna lianpi a tuahna thu leh America ten British Kumpi’ tungah gupna thu leh kamciamna a pulak ding a nolhna thute tuang hi. Declaration of Independence pen Congress in July 4, 1776 in pom kipna nei a, Jefferson’ draft at masakte pawl khat a kilaih hangin a tul ngei lo ding Jefferson’ khutma tawh a ki-at – “Mihingte a piangsak Pasian in mi khempeuh a kikim in bawl a, kuamah in a laksak theih loh ding leh nial theih loh hamphatna – Nuntakna, Suahtakna leh Lungnopna ding zon’ theihna pia hi cih thu pen kician mahmah hi ci-in ngaihsutna ka nei uh hi” cih tuang hi. Hih thu pen US upadi sungah tu dong kituangsak den hi. Declaration of Independence gelh a man khit ciangin Virginia khua-ah Jefferson ciahkik a,  1776 – 1779 sung Virginia House of Delegates member in kihel hi. Declaration of Independence sunga tuang bangin Jefferson in Virgina ah mi khat a sih ciangin a neihsa khempeuhte go a luah ding pen in a luah ding hi cih ‘doctrine of entail’ kici leh mi khat a sih ciangin a gam neih khempeuh a tapa upa pen in luah ding hi cih ‘doctrine of primogeniture’ kici phiat hi. (Tua hunin gam nei ten gam gol pipi nei in, sila tam pipi nei uh hi). 1777 in  Jefferson in Virginia adingin biakna suahtakna vai tawh kisai thukham ‘Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom’ kici at a, hih thukham in mi kim in biakna a ut bang tek uh a zuih theihna ding suahtakna leh biakna vai leh state a kikhentuamna ding hong piangsak hi.  ‘Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom’  pen Virginia state in thukham dingin 1786 in thukimna pia a, Virginia state law suak hi. Hih pen Jefferson’  nasepte lak pan in a ciamteh thamcing pen pawlin kingaihsun hi. June 1, 1779 in Virginia thukham bawl ten (legislature) Jefferson Virginia governor nihna dingin teel uh hi. Kum nih sung hong let ciangin Jefferson’ politics maban nakpi takin hong niam kiat hi.  Continental Army in galdo dingin Virginia panin galkap a cial hangin Jefferson in Virginia humbit ding deih ahih manin nolh hi. Hih thu hangin kuamah lungkim lo hi. American Revolutionary War hong nasiat semsem ciangin Jefferson in Virginia state khuapi Wiiliamburg panin Richmond ah laih hi. Ahih hangin British galkap ten Williamsburg sangin Richmond sim mun zaw uh ahih manin Richmond khua kinusiatsan hi. Jefferson in governor zaa a let hun term nihna a bei ding ni khat lianin a sap in a teenna khua Monticello (Charlottesville kiang, Virginia) kisim ahih manin British sakol galkapte matna tuak ding panin a suahtak theihna dingin a khua taisan hi. A tai sim loh phamawh napi politics lam-a amah langpang ten a meidawina kilahna hi ci-in elna dingin nei uh hi. Governor thum vei tuh nawn loin June 4, 1781in kitawp a, Monticello ah ciahkik in a innkuanpihte, a laibute tawh kikhawl in, a lo (farm) ah teng hi. 1781 in Jefferson in Virginia ngeina, tangthu leh gam thu tawh kisai (history, culture and geography) ‘Notes on the State of Virginia’  kici laibu bawl a, hih laibu sungah minam leh sila-a kineihna vai tawh kisai kiseelna thu, America ah lo khawhna lamsang thupi bawl-a America pen cihtakna, suahtakna leh kiniamkhiatnate mei let-a ‘agricultural republic’ suahsak ding a deihna thu, leitung vai leh politics tawh kisai ama' ngaihsutna thute tuangsak hi. Hih laibu in minam leh sila vai kiseelna (debates) nasia takin piangsak hi. Jefferson in a pa’ tung panin a luah/ngah sawn silate a nuntak sung kem den a, lo lianpi nei in lo kho mi ahih manin silate tungah kinga suak hi. Tua hun lai-a Mikang tamzawte ngaihsutna bangin Jefferson in zong mivomte’ ngaihsutna leh thatang hatna pen mikangte  aa sangin niamzaw in koih ahih manin a ngaihsutna pen minam deidan mi (racist) ci-in kituat hi. Ahih hangin sila-a kineihna vai pen leitung ngeina bangin mihingte hamphatna (natural rights of man) tawh kituak lo hi ci-in langpang hi. America ah minam buaina pen sila-a kineihna hang hi ci-in gen hi. Sila-a kineih ding vai a deih lohna thu hi bangin gen hi, “Ngia banga bilneite (silate a genna) kikem a, ahih hangin lah kikhah khong thei lo hi. Thuman i cih pen tehna (scale) khat hi a, ei leh ei kidopna zong ahi hi,” ci-in gen hi.

MINISTER TO FRANCE LEH SECRETARY OF STATE A LETNA THU: Virginia governor panin pensen a lak khit in politics ah Jefferson hong kibual kikna pen ama’ mimal tuahsiatna hang ahi hi. Lo kho in, laibu sim leh laigelhna in hun sawtpi a beisak khit nungin a it mahmah a zi, Martha Jefferson kum 34 bek a phakin (September 6, 1782) hong sih san hi. A zi it lua ahih manin zi nei kik lo dingin kamciamna nei a, a zi’ sih khit nung pen ka thawmhau pen hun hi ci hi. Tua khit June 1783 in Jefferson in Confederation Congress khawmpi-a kihel dingin Virginia palaite Philadelphia ah makaih hi. 1785 kumin Benjamin Franklin' zaa laih dingin Confederation Congress in US minister to France len dingin Jefferson sawl hi. Jefferson in Europete’ ngeina tuamtuamte – inn leh lei geel leh lam dan (architecture), lai lam tawh kisai (literature), nasep siamna, khut siamna, pil siamna, limsuaih siamna (arts), an leh zu cihte a thupi sim mahmah hangin mizawng leh mihaute nuntakzia kinak khiat lua ahih manin nopsa thei mel lo a, “Mihingte kamsiatna leh hamphatna Europe ah siahuai mahmah hi,” ci-in a laikhakna khatah gelh ngei hi. Europe ah a om hun sungin Jefferson in tua hunin US minister to Great Britain leh John Adams leh Adams' zi Abigail tawh a kitheihsiam lohna teng lem kik a, tua khit nung a sih dong Adams tawh thu kizasak den uh a, Abigial zong pasal mipil mahmah in a ngaihsutte bangin thupisim mahmah hi. Jefferson in minister to France a let sungin Paris leh Armsterdam khuapite ah ulian leh mihaute tung panin US ading leiba leh sum bawlna lamsang ah kizopna a pian’ theihna dingin palai na sem hi. Paris khuapi ah kum nga a hun a beisak khit ciangin 1789 kum bei pawlin US ah hong ciahkik a, a lawm hoih mahmah ahi  James Monroe kiangah US gam nuam a sakna thu hih bangin a laikhakna ah gelh hi : “Ala, ka Pasian! Leitungah kuamah in thupha a ngah ngei lohte uh ka gam mipihte in a ngah lam uh a thei tawm tak ei maw?” ci hi. Virginia ah November 1789 in hong tung kik a, a lawm hoih mahmah George Washington in na ngak in, US President masa pen dingin a kiteelcingna thu Washington in na ko pah samsam a, secretary of state len dingin nang kong guang hi na ci seisai hi. Washington in amah hanthawn dingin a muan mahmah Alexandar Hamilton zong Treasury Secretary dingin a sehna thu na hilh thuah lai hi. Alexander Hamilton pen Jefferson leh Hamilton sangin kum 12 val bangin dawng zaw a, mizawng mahmah innkuan sung pan-a khangkhia ahih hangin American War of Independence sungin a hangsanna hangin ulian a suak hi a, New York khua mi ahi hi.

George Washington in President a let hun sungin thusanzia leh ngaihsutna kibat lohna hangin American government thak uliante sungah pawl nih sungah kituah lohna nakpi takin buaipih hi. A lang khatah Federalists partyte Alexander Hamilton in makaih a, US phualpi kumpi hatna ding, US upadi/thukham a tangzaizaw in lek uh a, Europe buainate ah US a kigolh lohna ding deih in hih thute tangkopih uh hi. A lang khat lamah Republicans partyte Jefferson in makaih a, State government a hanta ding, US upadi khau mahmah in lek uh a, French Revolution, 1789 gum uh hi. George Washington’ muan mahmah leh amah hanthawn dinga a seh advisor ten buaina tuamtuam -  national bank phuatkhiatna vai, federal judges ding sehna tawh kisai leh French Revolution vai-ah ngaihsutna kibang lo vive tawh hanthotna Washington pia uh hi. Hih bangin Republicans leh Federalist partyte kituah lohna cimtak lua in January 5, 1794 in Jefferson in secretary of state zaa tawpsan a, a teenna Monticello farm ah ciahkik in politics nusiatsan leuleu hi.
SALLY HEMINGS TAWH JEFFERSON’ KIZOPNA/KINAAINA/KITANAUNA THU (relationships): Jefferson in Monticello farm ah a hunte lo khawhna, sum bawlna leh a gam keek letna dingin a hunte zang hi. Hih hun sungin Jefferson in sila numei khat Sally Hemings kici min nei khat hong kitheihpih hi. Sally Hemings pen Jefferson tanu’ Martha Jefferson’ a dingin a sanggam lang (pa kibang nu kibang lo) hi a, Sally Hemnings’ nu pen Jefferson’ sungpa John Wayles’ sila zi Betty Hemings ahi hi. Thomas Jefferson leh Sally Hemings kingai in, France ahih kei leh Monticello ah hun sawtpi a zat khawm hangun ta nei uh cih thuciam tu dong kimu lo hi. Jefferson leh Sally in France ahih kei leh Monticello ah hun na zang khawm uh a, tua hun pen Jefferson in ta gukna a neih ma kiim hi kici hi. Khangthu kiciamtehna ah amau' kizopna leh kinaina thu pen Hemings’ innkuan ten kam-a gen sawnna panin kithei hi ci uh hi. Tu nai in amau’ kinaihna thu a kan ten DNA panin a muhna uh-ah Jefferson innkuanpih pasalte' sisan Hemings’ tate tunga baang a, Jefferson’ kinaihpih Samuel ahih kei leh Peter Carr in Sally Hemings tawh ta nei uh hi cih kitel hi. Ahih hangin Jefferson in Sally Hemings tawh ta a neihna thu tu ni dong kithei zo lo hi.

VICE PRESIDENT A LETNA THU:  Jefferson in politics a nusiatsanna thu a pulak khit hangin 1797 in Republicans party ten George Washington zaa laih ding leh president tuh dingin teel uh hi. Tua hun lai-in vote (mee) zon cihte om mel lo ahih manin Jefferson a inn ah om hithiat ahih manin Vice President John Adams in President hong ngah a, thukham om bangin vote tam pen nihna ngah ahih manin vice president dingin kiseh hi. Vice President in Senate a makaih (presided) cih lo buang tavuan dang len lo hi. Adams pen Federalists ahih manin vai lian khat peuhpeuh ah Vice President len Jefferson thu dong ngei mel lo ahih manin hun sawtpi sung a kilawmtatna uh hong sia hi. Vice president a let kum lina kumin Jefferson in "A Manual of Parliamentary Practice," kici laibu khat hong bawl a, hih pen thukham bawlna vai adingin a zat tak mahmahte lakah khat leh US president-te’ American Philosophical Society dingin hoih mahmah hi ci-in kiciamteh hi.

PRESIDENT A LETNA THU:  John Adams in president a let sungin Federalist Party sunga moderates kici John Adams leh George Washington leh extreme Federalists kici Hamiltonte kikalah ngaihsutna kibat lohna hangin kituah lohna lianpi piang hi. Hih thu hangin 1800 presidential election in Hamiltonian Federalists kici ten Adams gupna pia ut lo ahih manun Republican candidates Thomas Jefferson leh Aaron Burr in electoral votes 73 hong kituh uh hi. Kiseelna hun sawtpi a kineih khit ciangin House of Representatives in Jefferson pen US president thumna dingin teel uh a, Burr in vice president hong len hi. 1800 kiteelna pen US in koi mah a gal nei loin daihna om ahih manin leitung khangthu adingin a ciamtehhuai khatin kingaihsun hi. Jefferson in president a zaa letna muakna hun-a a thugenna ah, “Ngaihsutna kibat lohna hangin I thusanzia leh thuzuihziate tuam hi cihna hi pah lo hi. I thusanzia tuamtuamte hangin min tuamtuam tawh I kiloh ngeingai hangin I vekpi in Republicans kihi a, I vekpi in Federalists ihi hi,” ci-in gen hi. Jefferson President first term pen lawhcing mahmah a, Republicante thusanzia tawh kizui in Europe tawh US president kizopna teng beisak in, galkap leh kumpi ulian –bureaucracy kicite khiam in, a kum nihna in USte' leibat $ 80 million panin $ 57 million in kiasuksak zo hi. Jefferson’ nasepte lak-a ciamteh tham pen a kigen pen ‘Louisiana Purchase, 1803’ kici Mississippi River panin Rocky Mountains kikal sunga om gam France kumpi Napoleon tung panin nakpi in a dek khit ciangin $15 million bek tawh lei a, hih hangin US gam liatna a zah nih in liansak tuam zo hi. Tua loin Jefferson in gam thak zong dingin Lewis and Clark Expedition kici seh a, tua ten America adingin gam thak lianpi muh khiat beh uh hi. Kum za tampi in US in a buaipih ‘Barbary pirates’ kici  Mediterranean Tuipi-a USte teembaw suamte zong nakpi takin do in beisak hi.

1804 president kiteelna ah nuam takin a cing kik hangin a President nihna hun pen thu haksa tampi tuak hi. Federal judge tampi a paih khiat sawm hangin Judiciary Act of 1801 kici hangin Federal judge tampi hong kibehlap zawsop hi. Nepoleon ukna tawh France leh Great Britain nasia takin kido uh a, Britain leh France in USte sum bawlna nawngkaisakna dingin US Navyte na to den uh a,  British Navyte bangin US Navyte na phin mun mahmah se uh hi. Hih thu hangin Jefferson in Embargo Act of 1807 kici Europete tawh sum bawlna khempeuh beisakna dingin thukham bawl hi. Embargo Act of 1807  hangin US sum bawlna nakpi takin kia a, Jefferson in president zaa a nusiat kum 1809 in American economy (export/vanzuakna) $108 million panin $22 million in kia suk hi. Embargo Act hangin 1812 in US leh Great Britain hong kido a, War of 1812 kici hi. Jefferson pen leitung khangthu ah US president thumna lenpa cih bekin kiciamteh lo a, Declaration of America gelhpa,  Statute of Virginia for Religious Freedom gelhpa, University of Virginia phuankhiapa, khangthu ciamtehsiam (historian), mipil (philosopher), lo neipa (plantation owner), Louisiana gam leipa ci-in ci-in kiciamteh hi. America mite adingin kum 50 val na nasem hi.

Source : 
- https://www.monticello.org/site/jefferson/thomas-jefferson-brief-biography
- http://www.biography.com/
- Thang Khan Lian’s Pvt. Library.
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Item Reviewed: US KUMPI 3NA, THOMAS JEFFERSON’ TANGTHU Description: Rating: 5 Reviewed By: Cinpu Zomi
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