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USA KUMPI(2)NA JOHN ADAMS’ TANGTHU. Agelh - Laibusaal (Zomi eLibrary)

JOHN ADAMS’ TANGTHU:
Agelh - Laibusaal (Zomi eLibrary)

John Adams’ thu tom lakna: 
U.S. President nihna : March 4, 1797 – March 4, 1801
US Vice-President a masa pen: April 21, 1789 – March 4, 1797
Pian ni: October 30, 1735
Sih ni: July 4, 1826
A pianna: Quincy, Massachusetts
A sihna: Quincy, Massachusetts
Siam sinna: Harvard University
A SUNGA THU OMTE:
·         Thupatna:
·         A neu lai thu
·         Politics ah a lutna thu
·         President a letna thu
·         John Adams’ thu tawh kisai tom kim

THU PATNA:  John Adams pen October 30, 1735 in Massachusetts state sunga om Quincy khua ah piang hi. US President nihna len a, tapa John Quincy Adams in US President a guk veina len hi. Harvard University ah pilsinna sangzaw kipan a, hih munah undergraduate leh master buai a ngah khit ciangin 1758 in thukham (law/bar) sin dingin lut kik hi. 1774 kum in  First Continental Congress kici khawmpi ah kihel a, America ten a suahtakna uh pulakna dingin ‘Declaration of Independence’ kici gelhte huh hi. America in gamkeek Mikangte (British colonialists) khut panin suahtakna hong ngah tak uh ciangin US President len masa pen George Washington nuai-ah Vice-President hong len a, tua khit in US President nihna hong hong len hi.



A NEU LAI THU:  Adams’ pianna khua min pen Braintree kici hi (tu-in Quincy kici hi). A pa min John Adams Sr. hi a, lo kho mi ahi hi. John Adams Sr. in Congregation pawlpi sungah siampipa’ nuai a za ‘deacon’ kici a let banah Braintree khua adingin vaihawm ulian ‘councilman’ kici len a, 1638 kumin Wales, Great Britain gam panin Massachusetts Bay Colony kicihna a peem Puritans kici biakna zui Henry Adams’ suan ahi hi. John Adams Sr. pen US ah deacon len ahih hangin Britishte ukna deih lo-a kiphinna ah kihel in, galdo dinga kipiakhia galkapte ‘militias’ kicite lakah kihel hi. John Adams’ nu pen Massachusetts sunga gamkeekte teenna leitang sung panin mihau mahmah a kigen ‘Boylstons of Brookline’ kicite’ suan hi a, a min Susanna Boylston Adams ahi hi. Kum 6 a cin’ ciangin numei leh pasal kahkhawna ‘Dame School’ kici ah pilna sin ding kipan a, ‘The New England’ Primer kici sin uh hi. A sangsiate a muhdahna hang leh phalna om lo pi-in sang kah loh nak ciin’ mahmah a, “Laisim sangin lo nasep ut zaw ing,” ci-in a pa kiangah gen hi. Ahih hangin a pa’n,“Kei deihna bang bek tawh na gamta thei ding hi,”ci-in a sangkahna laihsak a, Joseph Marsh’ khut nuai-ah koih hi. Tua khit nung sangkah nuam loin kiphin nawn lo hi.Kum 16 hong cin’ ciangin Harvard University ah siamsinna kipan a, Harvard University panin graduate buai ngah hi. Kum 20 a cin’ (1755) in a pa’n Pasian nasem dingin deih napi a pa’ awi loh pi-in thukham (law) sin dingin Worcester khua-a thukham siam-a minthang’ James Putnam’ zum ah kipan hi. 1754 kumin French and Indian War hong piang a, khangno khat ahihna tawh, a sum deihna teng gawmkhawm hong lian lua ahih manin a sunmang tawntungthukhen/sitni (Lawyer) hih ding sangin galkap tum nuam zaw ing ci hi. 1758 in Harvard University panin Master buaih man a, tua khitin thukham sin theihna ding ngah a, Law sinna zom in, A.M. (Law) buaih ngah hi.

POLICTIC AH A LUTNA: Mikang ten American tungah thuman lo tawh a uk khumna hangun Adams in Mikang gamkeekte thuman lohna hakkol panin America sutkhiatna ding nakpi takin veina hong nei hi. A gam itna leh leh veina hangin a min hong kithei kawikawi pah hi. British Parliament in American thukham bawlte (legislatures) dong masa lopi in 1765 kumin America gam sung khempeuh-ah Stamp Act of 1765 kici kizang ding a, stamp document adingin siah pia nuam lo khempeuh in thukhenna thuak ding hi cih hong tangko uh hi. Adams in hih Stamp Act in America gam sunga tengte’ thukimna lopi tawh gamkeek ten thukham bawl a, American palai (representatives) dingin hong pangsak kei uh leh hi bangin aana tawh thukham a bawl uh pen US mite hamphatna leh suahtakna (rights & liberty) palsat hi ci-in a langpan’na thu 1768 in True Sentiments of America” (“A Dissertation on the Canon and Feudal Law’’ zong a kicikici lai hong gelh a, a laigelh pen Boston Gazette news laipaih (articles) ah li vei kisuaksak hi. A laigelhna ah ama’ min zang ngam lo-in a laikungmin (penname) dingin "Humphrey Ploughjogger" zang hi. A lai gelhna hang leh Mikang kumpite’ thuman lohna a pholak ngam manin hong minthang khia mahmah hi. “A Dissertation on the Canon and Feudal Law’’ kici a gelh khit kha nih khit nungin Stamp Act pen America mi ten kipalsal ding a, hih bang thukham pen a kimanna om lo hi ci-in hangsan takin Massachusetts governor (gam uksawn) pa kiang leh a uliante (governor’s councils) kiangah a thugenna a pulak hi. Thukhensiam khat ahihna tawh 1770 kum in British galkap ten nautang nga a kaplupna thubuai vai (Boston massacre kici) ah mipi ten galkapte nakpi takin a mawhpaih lai-un Adams in British galkapte gum dingin thukhensatna hong la mawk hi. Adams in mipite lungphona sangin khut khial/mawh nei lote pen gup ding kisam zaw a, mi khempeuh in thukhenna mai-ah thukhen ding a neih uh kisam hi cih a ngaihsutna paipih hi. Thukhenna hong kineih ciangin thukhenna innpi (court) sungah Adams in mipi lungphona nei a kikhawm ten galkapte a nawk dek manun galkapte a gamtat ding bang mahin gamta uh a, mi kap masa pen in zong ama’ nuntakna a hunbitna dingin a thau khah hi ci-in gum hi. Tua ahih manin galkapte nawk gawp dinga kithawi mipi sosangte zong mawh hi ci-in gen hi. Thukhenmangpa in khut khial kha hi ci-in galkap 8te suakta sak a, mipi lam ngat in thau kap galkap nih tualthat hi ci-in mawhpaih hi. Adams in galkapte a gupna hangin nakpi takin mindaina ngah hi. Ahih hangin huh ding kisamte thukhenna mai-ah a gup ngamna hangin a hangsan’na, a mi hoihna leh a thumanna mi tampi takin thupi sa mahmah uh hi. British galkapte thukhenna mai-ah a gup kum mahin in Massachusetts Assembly kiteelna ah hong cing a, 1774 kumin gamkeekte ukna (colony) nga zaa len dingin First Continental Congress ah hong cing kik hi. 1775 in Congress in Continental Army hong phuankhia a, tua-ah Adams in Virginia mi George Washington ‘commander-in-chief’ in teel hi.

British ten America gam sung pen gam/teenna (colony) tuamtuam in khen uh a, Adams in hih colony ten independent government a neih kimtek ding uh hi cih a tangkopih den pen May 1776 in Congress in thukimpih hi. Declaration of Independence’ thupatna (preamble) hong at a, Congress in US Declaration of Independence tangkona ding a kipat theihna ding lampi sialna dingin Preamble pen zat ding hi ci-in May 15, 1776 in Congress in thukim hi. June 7, 1776 in Richard Henry Lee US in British ukna panin a suahtak theihna dingin ‘resolution of independence’ kici neih ding vai hong tangko ciangin Adams in a thukimna lahna in na nung thuap (seconded) pah a, Congress in July 2, 1776 in a thukimna a piak dong na gum den hi. Congress in Adams leh Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, Robert R. Livingston leh Roger Sherman-te ‘Declaration of Independence’ draft bawl dingin seh hi. Thomas Jefferson in a first draft hong at a, Congress in July 4 in thukimna pia hi. Congressman dangte tawh kibang loin John Adams in tavuan hau mahmah a, committees 90 ah tavuan letna nei hi. 1777 in Continental army a encik ‘Board of War and Ordinance’ makaipi zaa hong len hi.  America ah Britishte ukna panin kiphinna leh gal a bei theihna dingin Congress in ulian tuamtuam 1779 in Treaty of Paris ah kihel dingin a sawlte lakah Adams zong kihel hi. Treaty of Paris hangin Revolutionary War kici kiphinna hong dai thei hi. Gal hong bei khit ciangin Europe ah om suak in, 1784 – 1785 sungin Europe gam tuamtuamte tawh sum bawlna lamsangah kitanauna leh kizopna a om theihna dingin palai in pang a, thukimna suai kai kawikawi hi. 1785 in US minister to England zaa len masa pen dingin England ah kisawl hi. Europe ah kum 10 val bang a om khit ciangin 1788 in US ah hong ciah kik a, 1789 in US President kiteel masakna pen a tuh hangin kua peuhin a lamet bangin George Washington in vote tam pen ngah ahih manin President dingin kiteel a, kia hi. Presidential election vai tawh kisai Constitutional provision sunga tuang bangin vote tam pen nihna ngah ten Vice-President len ding cih ahih manin Vice-President hong len hi. 1792 presidential election in zong amasa bangin Geoge Washington in amah sangin vote tam ngah zaw ahih manin Vice-President hong len kik leuleu a, a zaa tawh lungkim meel lo, upadi nangawn laih phat ding a ut liang hangin George Washington’ thuneihna hangin bangmah piang thei tuan lo ahih manin lungkiatna lianpi tuak hi. A zi, Abigial kiangah kiangah vice-president nih vei a let lai-in a lungkiatna leh lungkim lohna thu hi bangin gen hi. “Ka gam mipihte in a pilna uh zangkhial in, let dingin a deih huai lo, kei adingin a let tak lo zaa nih vei tak hong lensak uh hi,” ci ngaungau bek hi.
JOHN ADAMS IN PRESIDENT A LETNA THU: 1796 kumin Federalist Party ten president tuh dingin Adams dingsak uh hi. Democratic-Republican Party ten Thomas Jefferson president tuh dingin dingsak uh hi. A lawmta uh president ding hong kituh uh a, Adams in vote tam lo tawh Thomas Jefferson zo ahih manin US president nihna dingin hong cing hi. Adams in president zaa a let hun sungin French leh British ten gamkeekna nasia takin nei zom zel uh ahih manin a gam kituhna hangun France leh Britain kumpi hong kido hi. Hih gam nihte kidona hangin US adingin gamvai lamsang (political) haksatna lianpi tuak hi. Adams in France tawh gamvai leh kilawmtatna hoih nei ding nakpi takin hanciam a, ahih hangin France in US tawh sumbawlna lam US tawh kizopna khawlsak in, golhguk nong piak kei uh a ngeina bangin kilawmtatna om thei nawn lo ding hi ci hi. Hih thu hangin Adams in France ah ulian (commissioners) thum a sawl hangin golhguk (bribe) nong piak kei uh sum bawlna kizopna kikhawlsak den ding hi na cih san uh hi. Tua khit France tawh a kilang tangin US a kido lian loh hang a sim in kido (Quasi-War) den uh a, tua hun sungin Adams in lei galkap leh teembaw galkap ding bawl a, ‘’Alien and Sedition Act’’ suai a simin a kaih manin Fedaralist Party sunga makai Alexander Hamilton tawh kitelsiam lohna lianpi hong piang hi.  Hih thusim teng US mipi ten hong theih uh ciangin France tawh kido ding a tamzaw in deih uh hi. US leh Francete’ teembaw galkapte a kikap zel hangun Adams in France tungah gal pulak khum lo hi. Hun sawtpi sung a simin kido thei zel uh a, 1800 kumin kilemna hong piang thei hi. Ahih hangin Adams in minsiatna tampi thuak lawh in, mipi a tamzaw in gum nawn lo hi. 1800 in President ding kiteelna hong om a, a tuh kik hangin Thomas Jefferson’ in vote tam kikhia lua loin zo hi. Adams in president a let sungin a sepkhiat thupite lak panin a kiciamteh  khat pen Alexander Hamilton in France tawh kilem ding a deih loh hangin France tawh kilemna neih pih thei hi. US gam bitna ding lamsang (defence) thupi sim mamah ahih manin “Father of American Navy” cih min ngah hi. US presidentpa’ teenna dinga kilam ‘White House’ sunga teng masa penpa ahi hi.

JOHN ADAMS’ MIMAL THU TAWH KISAI TOM KIM:  Kum 29 a cin’ ding ni nga bek in a sap lianin October 25, 1764 in a pute tanu thumna Abigail Smith teenpih hi. Abigail Smith tawh ta guk - Abigail (1765), John Quincy (1767), Susanna (1768), Charles (1770), Thomas Boylston (1772) leh Elizabeth (1777) nei hi. A sepna leh vai tuamtuam buaipih ding a hauh luat manin a innkuanpihte tawh hun tam zangkhawm man lo hi. Hih thu hangin a zi, Abigail lungkim mel lo napi a pasal’ nasepna pen na hoih sem hi ci-in a pasal om loh pen sup ngamhuai hi ci-in ngaihsun hi. President a let hun (term) a bei khit nungin a hun tamzaw a zi tawh zangkhawm uh a, mun simtham khat-a lo (farm) a neihna uh-ah inn lamin teng uh hi. Tua a kipanin a hun tamzaw lai gelhna leh a lawmpa Thomas Jefferson tawh laikhak tawh thu kizasak den uh hi (kum 14 sung). Adams leh Thomas Jefferson  a sih hun uh kibang lian a, US in suahtakna a ngah kum 50 a cin’ ni July 4, 1826 in si uh hi. John Adams in a sih dingin a lawmpa Thomas Jefferson thupi a sakna hi bangin gen hi, “Thomas Jefferson nungta/dam lai hi" ci hi. (A sih hangin a min si lo hi a cih nopna hi). Hih pen a sih dinga a kammal nunung pen hi kici hi. Adams’ tapa John Quincy Adams pen a pa langpang party Democratic-Republicans hi a, US president a gukna hong len hi.
Adams pen  US president nihna leh Vice-President len masa pen hi cih bekin kiciamteh lo a, US gam Phuankhiapa (Founding Father), Great Britain khut panin America’ suahtakna ding makai, Age of Enlightenment hun adingin politics thu lamsang siam (political theorist), republican leh central government hatna ding a tangkopih leh a deih mi, diary ciamteh cinten mi, laikhak tawh thukizak tuahna a lim zat mahmah mi hi ci-in kiciamteh hi. Continental Congress ah Masachusetts state palai in pang a, Congress in Britain gamin suahtakna a tangkona dingin tha pia dente lakah kihel hi. Declaration of Independence, 1776 gelhna ah Thomas Jefferson na huh hi. Europe ah gam khat leh khat kikal a nasemmi (diplomat) sawtpi sem hi. America ten suahtakna a ngah theihna dingin Great Britain tawh kilemna suai – Peace Treaty kici kaih theihna dingin palai in pang hi. US sum leh paai a taksap mahmah hun lai-in Amsterdam bank ah bankerste kiang panin leiba (government loan) US ading tampi na ngahsak hi. 1780 kumin a gelh ‘Massachusetts Constitution’ leh “Thoughts on Government” kici pen mi’n deih in thupi sa mahmah a,  American political theory nakpi takin lawng kha (thuzawh) in, tu dong thupi kisa mahmah lai hi. Holland (Netherlands) leh England ambassor zaa zong na len ngei hi. Adams leh a zi, Abigail in politicians, diplomats leh historians-te kipawlna ding innkuan khat phuankhia uh a, tua pen tu-in ‘Adams political family’ kici hi.
# JOHN ADAM’S KAMMAL HOIH:
“American Revolution bang cihna hiam? American Revolution I cih ciangin American war cihna hiam? American Revolution pen American war ma pekin na kipan khin zo a, Revolution pen mipi lungsim leh ngaihsutna ah na om teng khin zo hi,”.
—John Adams

(June 1755 in Second Continental Congress a neihna uh-ah Thomas Jefferson in John Adams’ laigelhsiam zia a phatna hi  - The Voice of Congress (TV-14; 1:48)

 #(Tongdot dictionary ah Revolution pen “kivialpeina a kiimkot a kipei pualpual a” ci-in lek hi). @Revolution I cih ciangin a lui ngeina khempeuh a thak-a laihna dinga kiphinna cihna hi.

Source : 

History/Wikipedia/John Adams Biography from www.biography.com

 Photo: John Adams, Abigail Adams, Quincy khua-a John Adams' pianna inn, John Adams leh Quincy Adams haan. Quincy, Massachusetts Tombs (family crypt at United First Parish Church).

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Item Reviewed: USA KUMPI(2)NA JOHN ADAMS’ TANGTHU. Agelh - Laibusaal (Zomi eLibrary) Description: Rating: 5 Reviewed By: Cinpu Zomi
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