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Khuahunluan leh Khangthakte. Agelh ~ Nok Kam

Khuahunluan leh Khangthakte
Agelh ~ Nok Kam


Hun Kikhelkhel
Mihingte khang tangthu sutna tung tawnin hun kikhelzia anuaia bangin kigenthei hi.

(a) Ak banga phiattawm nek hun
Gam sunga a omsa nate (singgah theipuam) leh ganhingte a nitawmin zonga matna tawh nuntak khuasak hun ahi hi. Gilpi khap khat ading na sepnain ni khat nai thum sung bang zang uha, hun dangteng pen hunawngin zang uh hi kici hi. Khuakip tuikip om thei nailo in anteh theipuam omna mun zuana taikawikawi hun ahi hi.

(b) Khuata nuntak hun
Gam sunga a zon uh anteh theipuamte pen a cii lain ciintheih hun hong tungta ahih manin khuasat tuikhuatin tual sung nuntakna tawh khuasak hun ahi hi. Hih hun pen anteh theipuam ciinna dingin a kisam hiaam (tool) a kizattheih hun hia, tu (hoe) hong kizang hi. Khawhsa ankhing kham hun zong kici thei hi. Ulenau, behlephung tawh tual sung nuntak a nop mahmah hun ahi hi.

(c) Khuapi nuntak hun
Lokhawh singpuakna ah mihing tha bek hi nawn loin ganhingte thatang zanga nasep hun ahi hi. Lokho mite’n nekval takval ding hong neih theih uh ciangin khuapi nuntakna hong kipan hi. Makai thuneihna(kumpi) tawh akikalsuan hun zong hi ah hi. Van lei vanzuak hong kipana palai (medium of exchange)dingin sum hong kibawlta hi. Ahau aliante thuneihna hong khan hun ahi hi.

(d) Set tawh nasep hun
1769 kumin James Watt in tuiso tha zangin set hong hawltheih ciangin leitungah nuntakna tampi hong kilumletta hi. Set nuntakna dingin a kisam an (fuel)dingin singlesuang, namgim tuite lakna-in leitang hong sia mahmahta hi. A tam theithei a kithupi sak hun hia, pengpelep bangin tungnun kituh hun ahi hi. Tua hangin sun kimlai-in sanggam melmak hun ahi hi.

(e) Khuak tawh nasep hun
Thatang hat thu tawh kimazang nawn loin ngaihsutna tawh kopa nasep hun ahi hi. Nasepna khempeuhah sialpi lo kuan tawh hi thei nawnlo a, sialek tam tawh zong kikhuangkho zo nawn loa, cihtakna leh thumanna tawh a kimanawt hun ahi hi. Khuak tawh nasep hun ahih hangin khuak hoih (mipil) khempeuhte a lungsim hoih khin tuanlo zel hi. Tua hia mipil leh mipha a kithuah ding hun ahi hi.

Hih a tunga hun khennate pen hun thumin kikhenkik thei hi.

Hun Lui (Premodern)
Hih hun pen tanglai I pipute’ tual sung nuntakzia ahi hi. Ki-it kikhualna tawh nuntak khop hun hia, kiim le paam ( mihing, ganhing leh singkung lopa) tawh kithutuak hun ahi hi. Leitang leh kiimlepaam kithupisak ahih manin hun sau nuntakna dingin kikem kipuaha nuntak a ol hun ahi hi. Tumaa zung khat tawh nasep hun hi tamah leh hauta mang pian khua ka ngai lo e a na cih hun uh ahi hi.

Hun Thak (Modern)
Set tawh na sepna hangin neih lelam khang semsema, a sangtheithei kidem hun ahi hi. A sang nailote in zong san ding bek ngimletup-in nei uh ahih manin a tung lam bek kimit suanta ahih manin anuai lam kien man nawn lo hi. Tua hangin


(a)Leitang kinualsuat
Ahih manin i tenna leitang kisia-in tuite ninkhina, huih siangtho om nawn loin natna tama, khuahun kikhel-in natna satna tuamtuam hong piang hi. Huntom lawhcin nadingin hun sau hamphatnate tan lawh liangin kumpi eklei, lungno zate kizang ahih manin thallam cilsiat bang lel hi.

(b) Lokhawh kineu-et
Ahih manin thadah zualzangna lam kimanawhta hi. Nulepa neihsa lociing gol pipite kineusekkhin kipei mangkhin ahih manin Zozaang khua pen lobuk suakkhinta hi (Pu Dai Suan Thang). Tuktun ngeina pen kingak zo nawn loin kiallap (sapa pay) anpal tawh kikhuasa ta hi. Ganbukte zong hawmkhinta ahih manin lokho mite aa dingin eklei om nawnlo hi.

(c) Khuata kiniammuh
Ahih manin khuata a innmun logam gol pipite kizuakin khuapi ah innmun neu nono kilei zawta hi. Khuata a om hih pen kimai zumpiha, mite lakah gualnek zolo liang uh hi. Khuata nun a siam lote khuapi nun zong siam tuanlo ding hi. Khuapi leh khuata kinuntak pih uh ahih lam kitel nawn lo hi.

(d) Pilna kial laplo kici
Ahau a lian a mazang mite’ totsa lampi kimuhsak nawn loin a tawlngakna mun bek uh kimuhsak ahih manin, gual engin sum ii nung kizuitekta hi.Vai khempeuhah kingak zo nawn loin lamdawt kizuitek ta hi.I  bulkip lo ahih manin daupai hun om mah leh zong tuita khan bang zel hi. Hau nuamlua in kisi masa liang hi.

Hun Piandang (Postmodern)
Kizopna kithuzakna manlang lua mahmah ahih manin tu laitak hun pen hun piandang a cithei ihi hi. Teel ding a tam hun hia, kidop hun zong ahi hi. (A dawp a tam hun ahih hangin, a lei ding a tawm hun zong hithei hi). Akpi bangin leithak nuam tuama kinei leithak zonga a kithapaih hun zong hi thei hi. Tua hia khuak tawh nasep hun taktak ahi hi.Hunthak leh hun piandang i khentel theihna dingin anuaia en pak ni

Hun thak(Modern)            Hun Piandang(Postmodern)
Tangtat hun hia            Kipawlkhop hun ahi hi.
Thatang kidem hun hia        Thatang gawmkhop hua ahi hi.
Kihtak neihloh hun hia        Kihtakloh neih loh hun ahi hi.
Hat hun haia                Pil hun ahi hi.
Khuapi zuat hua hia            Khua nuam zuat hun ahi hi.
Khuapi belh hun hia            Khuata puah hun ahi hi.
Thuneih nop hun hia            Thuneih khop hun ahi hi.
Kiniam koih hun hia            Kiniamkhiat hun ahi hi.
Mite’ hihna pi-et hun hia        Eima hihna pibawl hun ahi hi.
Mite’ ngeina ciin hun hia        Eima ngeina cin hun ahi hi.
Neihna thupisak hun hia        Hihna thupisak huin ahi hi.
Lawhcing ding ut hun hia        Muibun ding lunggulh hun ahi hi.


Khangthakte
Khangthak/ khangno i cih kuate hiam? Kum tawh ciangtan dan a tuamtuam om ding hi.Kum 15-35 kikal mite hi a ci oma, 1990 kum pawlin leitung bup mimal phazah ii 82.4% pha hi kici hi. UNO in a ciaptehna ah khangno cih pen kum 15-24 kikal mite hi ci uha, 18% hi-in, naupang (5-14) pen 19.8% hi ci uh hi. Tua hia a kitel thu in leitung bup pen khangnote khut sungah om hi cihna ahi hi. Khangnote pen leitung kikhelna dingin thahatna (global force for change)ahi hi. Khualetui pawlpi leh gampi hoih nading pen khangnote tungah kinga cihna ahi hi. Abeisa kum zalomte sungah a hong makaih khang masa i pipute, nulepate in leitung pen vutlevai suaksakin, sisan naisan tawh kidimkhin hi. Khangnote in a puah kei leh a puah ding dang om lo hi. Khualetui, gamlelei, minam i puahna dingin sumlepaii khantohna ciang bek tawh hi thei nawn loa, a khuangkho khantohna (sustainable development) hong kisamta hi. A khuangkho khantohna i neihtheihna dingin a kisam pawl khat om hi: mipha, leitang, thatang, pilna-siamna leh sumlepaii.

(a) Mipha
A beisa kum zalom 20 hun lai-in pilna muhzia nam nihin na kikhenkha ahih manin mipil suah ding bek kithupi ngaihsutin mipha (mihoih) kitawm hi.(John Dewey-misiam, Robert Hutchins- mipha). Mihing pen kipattah akul, kiseek a kisam leh kikhal a kisamte ihi hi. Mipha suahna dingin nulepa, sia (biakna, sang) leh khua makaite mapankhop ding a kisam ahi hi. Mipha ding kimlai misia a hong suaksak khangnote gal lian mahmah khat in guihtheih khamtheih ahi hi. Guihtheih khamtheih a hoihlohna tawm enpak le’ng;
Biakna hong susia
Minam hong susia (mipil misiamte hong thahsak)
Ngeina hong palangsak
Pilna lamsamsak
Khantohna hong khaktan
Cidamna hong siasak
Innkuan hong kibuaisak
Meigong leh tagah tampite khitui luangsak

(b) Leitang
Bang zaktakin khantohna a om zongin mipilpen leh mihaipen, mihaupen leh mizawngpente in a kibangin akisapden ding uh na khat in leitang ahi hi. Leitang loin a nungta thei kuamah om lo hi. Leitang tungah teengin a tung pana piang anletui tawh nungta hi napi, kipuah lo ahih manin leitang zong a tha bei-in ni danga a hong piak ngeizah hong pia zo nawn lo hi. Tua hun ciangin hi bang kici zawlai hi: Ka leitang, ka gam uh hoih kei lua, ka gam uh tul luata ci-in kitaisan ta hi. Koikoi ah tai zongin leitang puah loin nuntakna om tuan lo ding hi. Tua hia leitungah a lung muanhuai pen nasep in leitang tawh nasep ahi hi. A khuangkhopen nasep zong leitang puah hi pah hi.Leitang a puah nuam lote pen nulepa vaak nuam lote tawh kibang ding hi. Leitang leh a tunga om singkung lopa ganhingte kemin puah leng “a nuam khamtung gam Zozaang khua”cih la sa theikik ding hi hang.

(c) Thatang
Khantohna dingin cidan ding, thahat ding kisam hi. Cidam thahat theihna dingin anneek tuidawn thupi mahmah hi. Leii ii khem sain kita ahih manin i nek i dawnte’n hong zawngkhalsak zawsop hi. Anpha i neek theihna dingin ZTC-PED in nisim annek tuidawn lamlak (Diet Menu) kibawl hi. Tua bangin i neek zawhna dingin hanciama sepding, leitang puahding ahi hi. I neihsa thatangte pen guihtheih khamtheihte tepkang sak loin, thahat sak ding ahi hi. Tua thatangte pen mi tungah sum tawh zuak dingin pammaih lua hi. I thatangte eima mun le tual ah nasepna in zang ni. I thatangte(asset)gawmkhawm siam le’ng na lianpipi kisem zo dinga, i khua i tui i tawisang zo semsem ding hi.

(d) Pilna-siamna
Tuhun in pil hun siam hun hi. Pilna siamna dingin i bulpi in sanginn a hi hi.Sang pana sin pilna pen i bulpi ding ahih manin vai khempeuh sangin a masa penin zonding sinding ahi hi. Tua pilna siamna pen sialpi lokuan tawh kingah theilo hi. Na hoih pen haksa se hi. Deihna lungsim,tupna sang tawh zonding ahi hi. Khuata hihna tawh thanem nading om lo hi. Gamlelei makai picing taktak pen khuata panin kipan zaw ding hi. Pilna siamna i cih ciangin sanginn bek kimitsuan leuleu ahih manin sang kah lo khempeuh in a kingah theilo ding bangin kingaihsun khial zel hi. I nuntakna dingin a kisam pilna siamna tampi i kiim i paamah om cih zong khangnote’n theihhuai mahmah hi. Gtna Naangphan, siamgat,lettama, setpuah leh inn sung septheih khutsiamna tuamtuamte sin huai mahmah hi.

(e) Sumlepaii
Na hauh nopleh hau masa in kici zel hi. A taktakin economistte genna ah na sepna dingin i kisap masak penpen in i neihloh sum hi lo hi. Sum pen i zawhlohte a hong huh, hong panpih ding sal hi bek hi. I neihloh sum pen tuni dong i neih nai lohna ahang in i kisap taktak loh man, i kisap masakpen ahih loh man hi ci uh hi. I kisap taktak pen in sep ding ahi hi. I sep ciangin i kisap taktak leh a hong huh dingin hong pailel ding hi. Tua hia khangnote in kipawlkhawmin na i sep khopa, i thuman nakleh sumlepaii hong om lel ding hi. Sum hong om leh i tansa i logam, leitangte kingahkik zo dinga, i khua pana piang buhhum khempeuh eima zeekin hong om theita  ding hi.

Mailam Zozaang khua a khantoh theihna dingin khangnote (ZYA) in vaipuak lianpi i nei hi. Tua hia i khantoh theih nading lunggulhna tawh hih a nuaiate kikumkhawm dih ni e, ci a tha hong cial ka hi hi.
1. Khangnote leh Pilna
2. Khangnote leh Khantohna
3. Khangnote leh Kipawlkhopna
4. Khangnote leh Guihtheih-khamtheih
5. Khangnote leh Kimlepam
6. Khangnote leh Biakna
7. Khangnote leh Ngeina
8. Khangnote leh Kumpi Nasep

Source :
ZYA Magazine.
http://www.freewebs.com/nokkam

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Sum leh paai tawh nasepkhopna ding olno tak in HIH-LAI-MUN-PA'N kipiathei hi.

Hih atung a article hoihnasak na, hoihnasaklohna a hizong in na muhna te anuai a comment ah hehpihna tawh honggelhsak ve lawm. I LAIBUSAAL in article tuamtuam leh panpihna a tuamtuam te nangtungpan' hong lamenden hi.I nasepkhopna te HIH-LAI-MUN-PA'N ki-enthei hi.

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Item Reviewed: Khuahunluan leh Khangthakte. Agelh ~ Nok Kam Description: Rating: 5 Reviewed By: Cinpu Zomi
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