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Gamdang Peemna: Thupha maw Samsiatna? Migration: Boon or Bane? Agelh ~ Suang Khen Pau

Gamdang Peemna: Thupha maw  Samsiatna?
Migration: Boon or Bane?
Agelh ~ Suang Khen Pau

A sunga Om Thute :
Thupatna
1. Gamdang Peemna ih Cih (Defining Migration)
1.1  Ih Khantohna leh Khuamuhna
1.2  Gamdang Peemna Thu (Causes of Migration)
1.2.1 Zawnna (Poverty)
1.2.2 Nasep Neihlohna (Lack of Employment)
1.2.3. Gamsung Buaina (Political Instability)
1.3. Muhna Nam Nih (Two Views on Migration)
2. Lai Siangtho tawh Etkakna (Biblical Perspective)
2.1 Zogam Kinusia Hi.
2.2 Ih Minam Hihna Kikheng ta!
2.3 Ih Ngeina leh ih Kampau Kimansuah ta!
3. Khristian Gamtatna Lampan Etna (Ethical Perspective)

Thukhupna

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Thupatna
Zomite ih minam kalsuan zia ka etpak ciangin hun khen li ka suah aa, paltan tum hun (1916-1960), kumpinu’ nasepphat diak hun leh tembaw zuih hun (1960-1980), sumzong-paiizong aa suang bawl hun (1980-1995) leh gamdang pai hun (1995-tu ni dong) ci-in ka mu hi. Amasa hunpi thum sungah nasemte pen a diakin pasal-ngalhatte vive ahi hi. Ahi zongin tu hun ciangin  numei-naupang, pasal-ngalhat cih tuan omlo-in a teek a khang khempeuh gamdang kipaita hi.Gamdang paina panin gamdang peemna dongah kizomto hi. Sum-le-paii zong ding ahi zongin, pilna sin ding ahi zongin leh gamthu   khatpeuh tawh kinahvawh kha-in gamdang kipai ngeingai tekmah hi. Tu tadinin kimawksak nading a omloh ha’ng  innlelo nusia-in gamlelei taisan-a a neu a lian,  a teek a khang  ih pusuahgawp pen ngaihsuthuai mahmah sa ka hih manin hi thului hong sungkhia nuam ka hi hi.

1. Gamdang Peemna ih Cih (Defining Migration)
Nuntak khuasak  nop nading ngimna tawh mun khat pan mun dang khatah, gam khat pan gam dang khatah lalna pen “peem” kici hi (Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 11th edition).Tua bang aa  lal mite “peemta” kici hi. Cihtheihna  hang leh kumpi nasepna hangin mun dang khatah lalna  pen gamsung peemna (internal migration) kici aa, gam khat pan a dang gam khatah lalna pen gampua peemna(international migration) kici hi. Uttawm thu a hi-aa,  hawlkhiatna hang ahi zongin   mundang-gamdangah kipeem takpi hi. Africa leikhen panin mundang leikhente (continents) ah tu ma kum 5,0000 lai hunin mihingte na peem khin uh aa, Europe leikhen panin 1820-1980 kikalin North America leikhen ah mi awn 20 bang na peem khin hi, kici hi (Britannica Concise Encyclopedia, 1255). Zomite ih gamdang peemna in ih khanthohna leh midangte tawh ih kisuktuahna tungah kinga ahih manin tua thu tawmkhat genloh phamawh ding hi.

1.1  Ih Khantohna leh Khuamuhna
Lungdamna in ih minam nuntakna  bucing takin hong khantosak hi. Sangmangte leh Mangkang kumpi kikopin 1925 kuma kipanin kumpi sang hong honsak hi. Salkhawina leh ukpi ki-ukna beisiang khin hi. Pilna masawn ih hih manin mipil-misiam leh laitan nei kitampah aa, kumpi nasem kikhangpah hi.

Leitung Galpi Masa (1916-1919) beikuanin Tedim mi sinsen 1000 Mangkang kumpi huh dingin Mesopotamia (Araq) ah na pai uh a, namdangte tawh Zomite a lomin kisuktuah masakpeenna  ahi hi. Gam le minam leh kumpi adingin ih pu ih pate in a luang uh na kham uh hi. ‘Japan Gal’ kici Galpi Nihna (1939-1945) sungah  Zomi tampi tak paltan na tum uh a, a bu a mang ciang nangawn na suak uh hi. Hih galpi huhau-in ih theiloh thute kithei-in, ih muhngei loh galvan tuamtuamte leh maivom maikang tampi kimukha ahih manin  ih khantohna leh ih khuamuhna khat  hong suak hi.


1.2  Gamdang Peemna Thu (Causes of Migration)
1.2.1           Zawnna (Poverty)
Ih gamdang paina thumasa khat in zawnna hang ahi hi. Ih Zogam ah zinghuan-nitakhuan  kiningcing zo nawnlo ahih manin ankhing kikham nawnlo hi. Zawn manin sang kikahzolo hi. Ih cinat ciangin ih kibawlzo kei hi. Zawnna ih sihpih takpi hi. Ih sumlut 70% pen anletui leina-in  beimawk hi. Zawnglua ihih manin ih cihtakna ih khahsuah ta aa, lungsim gina (good morality) ih neizo nawn kei hi. Mihing khat ii phatmawhsap (basic needs) anletui (food), silhleten (cloth) leh innlelo (shelter) ih neizo kei takpi hi. Ih kumpi in zong  tua zawnna  panin hong dalzo tuanlo ahih manin sumlepaii zawnna (material poverty),  mipawlkhat ii zawhtawhna hanga zawnna (social poverty), thumuhna lamah zawnna (intellectual poverty) leh  lungsim-kha ngaihsutna tawh kisai zawnna (spiritual poverty) galpi ih doden hi ( Mission in the Context of Endemic Poverty, 45). Zawhna ih cih pen ei teeltawm thu leh utthu hi sam lo-in ih gam kimakaihzia ginatlohna hang, sumbul neih masak loh man, sum bawl siamlah man, thadah man-aa  piang a   om mah bangin huihsia-gialsia  ( natural disaster) leh gallesa (war) hangin zong piang pha mahmah hi. 

1.2.2        Nasep Neihlohna (Lack of Employment)
1997 kumin South-east Asia gamah  sumbawlna thakhat thu-in hong kiat gawp ciangin Kawlgam zong tampi tak mah hong sukha hi.Tham lo-in ih kumpite in nasep hong guanzo lo hi. Sum thalawh nading omlo ahih manin muh bangbang sem dingin Mizoram,Thai leh Malaysia gamte ah kilompai mang hi. Tua kawmkal ah kumpi sangte kikhak zelzel ahih manin  sangnaupangte in gina takin pilna zong  theilo hi. Pilna degree khat ngah mahta le’ng kumpi nasep in hong vakzolo ahih manin gamsungah nasep ding pen a haksapi khat suak hi. Pilna degree a san hangin pilna taktak kingah loh ahih manin gamsung-gampua-ah nasep gina zong kingahzolo hi. Pilsinna ah (quality) sangin gualzawh ding (quantity) thupisak zaw ihih  manin pilna gina kingah lo hi(Collapse of University Education).

1.2.3. Gamsung Buaina (Political Instability)
Suahtakna ih ngah khit 1960s ciangin U Nu in Buddhism pen gam biakna dingin hong tangko ahih manin  biakna thu ah gamsung buaina piangsak hi. Biakna thu pen minam thu zong hong suakpah hi. Kawlmite in Buddhism bia aa, mualtung mite in Khristian biakna zui ih hih manin tua thu pen minam thu hong suak hi.Tua manin BSPP min tawh 1962-1988 ciang ih ki-uk aa, SLORC min tawh 1988-1997 ciang galkapte in hong uk hi. 1997-2010 ciang SPDC min tawh galkapte mah in hong makaih leuleu  aa, 2010 pan Democracy paizia-in ki-uk ding a kihanciam laitak ahi hi. Hih bang min tuamtuam tawh ki-ukna hun sungah gam leh minam vai-in a kinahvawh gam it mi pawlkhat om ahih manin gamdangah tailoh phamawh hi.

1.3. Muhna Nam Nih (Two Views on Migration)
A tung-a thute siksanin gamdang peem ding tu laitak tha kipia mahmah hi. ‘Khial hi,’ cih nading omlo hi. Tua thapiakna (supportive view) hangin khantohna leh phattuamna tampi ih neitham hi. Gamdang ih pai manin gamdang sum hong lut aa, nuntakna nuam zawdeuh-in pilna ih sinzo zaw deuh  hi. Pawlpi sungah zong 1/10 hong khang ahih manin Pasian na kisemzo zawdeuh hi. Mite’pilna leh khantohna va mu  kha ihih manin ih khuamuh dan leh ih nuntak dan hong sangzaw hiat hi. Ih u ih nau a cihmawhte zong kihuhzo zawdeuh hi. Cimawh-genthei liangvai a om leh zong kipanpihzo zaw tham hi. Ih om omna ih tun tunna ah Pasian’deih bangin ih gamtat leh gamthak (mission) a nawtnawt zong  ih hipah mai ding hi.

Tua mah bangin  hun saupi a ngaihsun,  gamlelei it mi pawlkhat mah na om a tuate in gamdang pai-a sum zon ding leh pilna zon ding bel thapia mahmah napi’n  ih peem pahpah mawk pen tha pia khollo (subversive view) uh hi. A lunghihmawhpih thu uh in, “Tedim mite sungah hih ci bangin khe nei khempeuh gamdang peempeem mawk leng; ih gam ih lei bang suak mawk ding; ih piteek ih puteekte kua’n vui mawk ding; ih minam ih mangthang kha takpi kei tam?, ih pau ih lai leh ih ngeinate ih mansuah kha  takpi kei tam maw,?” cih lunghih mawhna lianpi hang ahi hi. ‘Khial,’ cih nading zong omtuanlo hi. Hih muhnate dik tuak ka sa mahmah hi. A ngaihsut huai mahmah thu hi takpi mawkmah hi.

2. Lai Siangtho tawh Etkakna (Biblical Perspective)
Gamdang peem khinsa pawlkhat in, “ Zogam bel veiitak kei ee, Zomi bel  veiitak,” ci thei bilbel  uh hi. Zogamah hong ciahkik nawnlo ding khat ii dinmun panin enleng ahi ding mah tawh kibang hi. Ahi zongin  thuk ngaihsut zek leng Zomi, Zogam leh ih biak Pasian pen khentheih dingin ka ngaihsun thei mahmah kei hi.  Ih Zomi hihna, ih Zogam leh hong cing hong kem Pasian a kigawmkhop ciang bekin ih Zomi hihna  diktak kilang  thei pan dingin ka ngaihsun zaw hi.

Gamdang peemna hoih lo hi, ih cihpah theihloh hangin  lai siangtho tungtawnin ih enkak ciangin a nuai-a bangin thu pawlkhat kimu thei hi.

2.1 Zogam Kinusia Hi.
Mihing bawl Pasian in minamte’ ten nadingin gamhoih khatta na pia hi. Judah mite zong Caanaan gam a luah dingin na kamciam hi (Pian. 12:1ff). Gamdangah ih peem manin ih gam ih lei kitaisan hi. “Tunnu Zogam: Zogam nuam ih cihcih,” kitaisan takpi mawk hi. Zomite adingin Zogam pen Pasian’ hong piak  ahih lam ih phawkkha nawn ta kei hi. Ih lamkiatna, ih pianna ih mangngilh ta thong hi. Ih gam leitang pen Pasian’ hong piak ih neihsa ahih manin, ih pu ih pate van leh lei tawh na kiciam uh hi. Tua leitang in anletui hong sik hi. Ih nuntakna taktak ahi hi. Gallesa panin hong keem hi. Ih kulhpi ahi hi.Tua leitang in ih Zomi hihna taktak hong  pholak hi. Leitang neilote kisimmawh aa, “peemtate, khualte” kici hi. Leitung gamlim sungah ‘Zogam’ kicih nading mun dang hong omnawnlo ding hi. Ih gam leh ih leitang tungah ciktakna in Pasian’ tung-a cihtakna ahi hi. Bang piang hi ta kei leh ih gam ih lei ih puah ih zuun ding Pasian’ hong  piak tavuan lianpeen khat ahi hi (Dancing with the Land: Significance of Land for Doing Theology, 117). Ih gam ih lei it-a  ih zuunna in innteek lungsim hi aa, gam dangah peem nopna in mikhual lungsim ahi hi. Nidangin ih pu ih pate Mesopotamia panin Zogam mah na ngai ngutngut uh aa, na ciahnuam zungzung uh hi.Tu-in ih gam ih lei ih taisan bek tham lo-in ih khua ih tui nangawn ih ciahnuam nawn kei hi. Tua in ih gam tungah cihtaklohna nam khat ahih manin gamdang peem ding sangin ih gam mahah ciahkik tangtang le’ng Pasian’ deihna tawh a kituak zaw kei tam a cinuam ka hi hi. Nidangin kumpi nasem ih pu ih pate a tawlngak uh ciangin ih Zogam mah na zuan tangtang uh hi.

2.2 Ih Minam Hihna Kikheng ta!
Gamdang-a peem ka pute khat America gammi suakta  cih thu a zak ciangin ka nunote khat, a khitui hong mualtuangin hong kap ngetngut ngei hi. Hih thu in thu tampi hong gen ka sa hi. Zomi kimlai namdang mi khat ih suah ciangin a taktakin ngaihsun leng a dahhuai  mahmah thu khat ahi hi. Zomi hihna panin namdangte’ gammi khat ih suah ciangin tualkheng ih hi mawk hi. Namdangte’ tual nuntakna in hong thuzawhlua ahih manin namdangte lungsim mah kivompah hi. Unau ki-itna, behlephung ki-itna leh khualetui ki-itnate ih mansuah kha takpita hi. Ni khat ni ciangin ih minam a beitakpi kei tam maw ci-in sunleh zaanin ka lunghihmawh den hi.Kawlgam sungah nidang-a kumpi phut ngei Phyu minamte nagawn tu-in beitakpi ta hi. Zomi hihna in ih teel theihloh Pasian’ letsong lianpen hi aa, ih minam ih kheel mawk ciangin tua Pasian’ letsong a nawlh hi mawk lo ding  ih hiam? cihhuai ka sa hi. Minam kheng ding leh leitang zuak ding pen Pasian in na  deih ngiatlo hi (Siam 25:23). Minam hihna thupi a sa Pasian hi a, Lai Siangtho mai khempeuh ah minam thu mah Pasian in na gen niloh hi.Namdang mi ih suahtak ciangin ih minam tungah cihtaklohna nam khat mah ahi zel hi.

2.3 Ih Ngeina leh ih Kampau Kimansuah ta!
Leitungah minam tuamtuamte’ hoihna in ngeina leh kampau ahi hi. Ih ngeina leh ih kampau a kibatloh manin minam khat-a kiding theih hi zaw aa, tuate mansuah in namdangte aa zui le hang ih Zomi hihna mahmah om nawnlo ding hi.

3. Khristian Gamtatna Lampan Etna (Ethical Perspective)
            ‘Na khat peuh a tawpna ah mitampi phattuam nading ahih nak leh hoih hi,’ a ci, Consequentialist-te’ muhna pan enleng gamdang pai-a peemna pen khial hetlo hi. Consequentialist-te sung panin zong gamdang peem pen a peemnuampa’ thu hilel ahih manin mi’khat ii lungnop nading aa gamtatna a thupisak ethical egoist-te tawh bang kithuhual mahmah kanlai ding hi. Tham lo-in tu tadih adingin a paite in zong nuamsa mai-in, inn-a om a u a naute in zong  phattuampih  ahih manun a kizattheina  bulphuh utilitarians-te adingin zong khial hetlo aa,  gamdang peem pen hoih mahmah hi, cihtheih ding ahi hi.

Ahi zongin a thu tungtawn-a kalsuan  Principle Ethics-te’muhna pan enlehang gamdang paina pen a khialloh hang gamdang  peemna pen khial hi, kici thei ding hi.  Hih principle ethics in  mi bangzah in phattuam cih enlo zawin, mihingte lungsim kuanzia ( moral values)  cih bulphuh zaw uh hi.  Tua lungsim kuanzia (moral values) te pen khinkhai theihna, biakna leh tuah khak thute tung tawnin hong piang, ci uh hi. Hihte’ muhna panin gen lehang gamdang peemna pen khial hi. Banghang hiam cih leh pianna gam nusia ngam cih pen lungsim zulhzauna nam khat kici thei ding hi. Pasian mahmah in zong hong piak minam hihna ih khel mawk ciangin tual khel ih hi mawk aa, ih tual  tungah cihtaklohna nam khat suak hi. I ngeina ih kampaute beisuah lehang Zomite’ tumdanna teng a bei hi mawk ahih manin a dahhuai  pi khat ahi hi. Zawnna, nasep neihlohna leh gamsung buaina paulamin gamdang peem ding ih hih leh ih gam hong hoihkik mawk leh ih ciahkik ding hiam? Tua ahih manin ih lungsim kuanzia leh a paizia thupi mahmah ding hi. I pianna Zogam taisanin, ih Zomi hihna zumpihin ih Pasian hong piak letsongte ih nawlhkhak ding lauhuai mahmah a, tua bang i hih khak leh kikhial mahmah zel ding hi.(Choosing the Good: Christian Ethics in a Complex World, 27ff).

Ahi zongin tua kawmkalah mihing hihna a buplhuh Character or virtue ethics panin en lehang gamdang pai leh peemna thu pen mimal khat tungah kinga ding aa, tuapa pen mundangah a peem hangin a gam a lei it aa veii aa, a ngeina leh kampaute kemcingin gam leh minam adingin nasem mipa ahih leh hoih mahmah leuleu ding hi. Khial zong kici theilo hi. A langkhatah ih Zogamah tengin gam leh minam minsiatna a bawl tawntung mi ih hih khak leh tua zong thuhoih hituan lo aa, khial hi. Hih character or virtue ethicists-te muhna danin en ni cileng tua gamdang peempa in bang hih( what he did gtn- a gamnusia, a minam hihna khel) cih sangin amah in a bangci mi(who is he- a gam leh minam it maw, a ngeina leh kampau kemcing aa minam phattuam nading aa  mapang maw) cih danin  en theile’ng gamdang peem tampi  a peemtaak tampi ki-om khin tham hi. Tua mah bangin ih gam ih lei-ah teng napi in, gam leh minam siat nading aa a mindaisak khat ihih leh  a phattuamna om tuanlo hi. Tua hi a, hih  muh danin gamdang peemna ih et ciangin peemtak  a  ombangin pemtaak lo zong om ding hi. Pawlkhatte adingin gam dang peemtak takpi mai ding a, pawlkhatte ading ahih leh peemtak bek thamlo-in  khialna lianpi khat hi maikha zel ding hi. Hih character or virtue ethicists-te’ etdan leh muhdan tawh gamdang peemna ih ettheih ding laisim mimal kong zawnnuam hi.

Thukhupna
Ih thulu ahi, “ Gamdang peemna: Thupha maw Samsiatna?” cih dawngkik le’ng gamdang peemna ih cih  pen samsiatna hi hetkei, thupha zong hi pah zuahzuahh sam kei, kicithei dingin ka um hi. Lai siangtho  leh principle ethicists-te mit tawh en lehang gamdang peeemna a khial tawh a kibatna tamzaw leh kilawm ka sa hi. Ahi zongin Consequentialists-te muhna tawh enlehang gam dang peemna pen khialdeksuai lozel hi. Tua kawmkalah Character or virtue ethicists-te’ et danin en leng gamdang peemte a peemtak mahmah om ding aa, a peemtak hiaulo zong om ding hi.  Hihte’ muhna tawh en thei leng hoihpen dingin ka ngaihsun hi. Nang bangci na ngaihsut? Tua mah bangin ih gam ih lei ah ih ten zenzen hangin ih gam leh minam minsiat nading ih bawl zenzen leh tua zong hoih hi, cih theih nading omlo hi. Gamdang peemna bel hamsiatna ih hetkei tu tadih adingin thupha mah hi zaw. Ahi zongin kial hun laitak in Egypt gam-a peem Judah mite hun khat tak ciangin ‘saal’ a suahna thu zong phawk tawntung ding kisam ka sa hi. Pharoah bel om nawnlo aa, sal bel kikhawi nawn lo kha ding hi. Ahi zongin tua sal hilhna in meel dangkhat hong puathei khangel ding hi.Hi thei hi leh gamdangah  pilna-ciimna leh sumlepai zongin pai mah ni; ahi zongin  ciahkik hamtangin   tuate mah tawh  ih gam ih lei leh  ih minam  khangtosak thei leng cih ka lunggulh penpen hi.

Source :
Suangkhenpau12/wordpress

August 10, 2011

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Item Reviewed: Gamdang Peemna: Thupha maw Samsiatna? Migration: Boon or Bane? Agelh ~ Suang Khen Pau Description: Rating: 5 Reviewed By: Cinpu Zomi
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