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ZOMITE HONG KIKHENNA THU TOM KIM. Agelh ~ Thang Khan Lian

ZOMITE HONG KIKHENNA THU TOM KIM.
Agelh ~ Thang Khan Lian


Second Anglo-Burmese war (5 April 1852 - 20 June 1853) in British ten Burma zo uh ahih manin Burma leh Zomite kizopna (contact) hong kinaihsak hi. 1886 in Burma kumpi leitang ten British ten laksak zo uh a, tua khit kum nih sung British ten Burma gam-a khuamite kiphinna leh lehdona leh guta misuamna (local rebellions and stamping out dacoity) beisakna ding betdaihna ding hong buaipih uh hi. 1887 in Deputy Commissioner of the Chindwin district len Captain Raikes pen Chin state a omte tawh kizoptuahna ding lampi hong ding leh Zomite teenna Bangladesh gam-a Chittagong Hills lam gamkeek ding leh enkhia dingin kiseh hi. Captain Raikes in Siyin minamte tawh kiholemna a neih khit in Tashon mite tawh kiholemna nei hi. Chin Hills a Sonpen leh Tashon hausate kiholemna a neihna panin hih khua hausate pen gam suahtakna (independent country) a hausa ahih uh kitel hi. Treaty of Yandabo (1826) kici thukimna suai kikaih hangin British gamkeek ten amau ukna British India gam sungah Assam leh Burma gawm uh hi. Tua thukimna khit 1934 Treaty in Kabaw Valley teng Burma pia kik uh hi.

Government of India Act (1935) in Burma pen British India panin hong khen hi. Gamgi vai thukimna (Boundary Agreement) tawh Government of the Republic of India leh Government of the Union of Burma in 1967 in thukimna nei uh a, Burma-India border a gamgi bawl/ciangtan (delimited) uh hi.


Chin Hills-Manipur boundary:
Survey kician bawl lopi in Captain Pemberton in amasa pen dingin Manipur leh Burma gamgi 1834 in khen/zik hi. First Anglo-Burmese War (1824-1826) pen Treaty of Yandaboo kici thukimna tawh 1826 in hong veng hi. Hih thukimna ah Burma kumpi [King of Ava (Burma)] in Manipur pen Meitei kumpi Gambeer Singh' ukna nuai-ah independent state in thukim hi. Tua khit in thukimna nih vei Manipur state tawh - 1833 leh 1934 in Burma kumpi in nei hi. 1933 Treaty ah Manipur' nitumna gamgi kikhen a, 1934 Treaty in Kabaw Valley teng Burma kumpipa' tungah kipia hi. Hih thukimna nunung pen a khua nungin Manipur leh Burma kilem lohna suak hi.

1934 Treaty ah Manipur leitaw-nisuahna gamgi zong kizik ahih manin tua thukimna ah kihelkha lo Zomite gam nih in hong khen lian hi. Alexander Mackenzie in a gelhna ah:Treaty of 1834 in Manipur leitaw-nitumna lam nisuahna lam a Kubo valley (phaizang) teng (Burma ten Nansawing a cih, Manipur ten Numsaulung) a cih panin Kothi Khyoung (Manipur river) nitumna lam dong Burma in ngah hi. Captain Pemberton in 19th April 1834 in report a piakna ah Numsaulung Lui pen Buma ten Meitei kumpite Kule Rajah' leitang hi ci-in ciamteh uh hi. Captain Pemberton in bang hanga Manipur Lui Namsaulung nitumna dong gamgi va keekto hiam cih gen lo hi. Bang hang hiam cih leh Kule Rajah' leitang in zong tua dong ban lo hi. Gamgi zik sources in a genna Namsaulung nitumna dong gamgi a kikeektohna hang pen Manipur Lui (Manipur River) pen Sukte-te teenna leilu lam dong a huam man hi ci hi. Tua ahih manin Captain Pemberton in gamgi a zikna Treaty of 1834 ah om bangin Manipur leh Burma a Sukte minamte teenna sung teng pen suahna nei leitang (independent territory) ahih kei leh Burma leitang in ciamteh hi.

Carey leh Tuck in a laibu gelh uh "The Chin Hills ( 1896)" ah, "Captain Pemberton in Meitei ten Namsailung a cih leh Zomi ten (Chin) Tuisa a cih uh lui pen Manipur Lui nitumna lam pen gamgi ngaihsutna a kizik (imaginary line drawn) ahih hangin Chin Hills leitang pawlkhat Manipur pia hi. Major Mc.Culloch in leilu lam teng uk ding hanciam hi. Hih bangin gamgi hong kizik manin Zomite kikhen uh hi (a tamzawte Tuisa leilu lam-a tengte). Gamgi pen Captain Pemberton in survey kician bawl lopi a zik ahih manin imaginary line suak hi. Tua ahih manin British ten Chin-Lushai expedition kici a simna leh gamkeekna lawhcing takin hong neih khit uh ciangin gamgi lim takin zik phat ding hong ngaihsun kik uh a, gamgi zikna dingin Manipur-Chin Boundary commission cih hong bawlkhia uh a, 1894 in Manipur leh Chin Hill gamgi zik Captain Pemberton' imaginary line mah zang suak uh hi. British ten gamgi a zik un minamte teenna tawh kituak ding ngaihsun se loin a zik uh ahih manin Zomite Burma leh India gam ah a kikhen i suak hi.

James Monyhan in Zmite hong genna mah mahmah hi. "Zomite pen minam gam nei lote (Nation Without State) ci-in a dictionary ah gen hi. Zomite pen a pau uh kiten napi un amau nambing/nake ciat a ultung sak manun lim takin a kithuzak/kizoptuahna ding uh thanemsak hi. Tu lianin a kizopna uh pen sum bawl paai bawlna, lai lam tawh kisai nasepna, electronic media (audio/visual) leh Khristian evangelistic programs-te hi. Hun khat khit hun khat ah gamgi hanga kikhenna piangsak beisakna ding leh kipumkhatna ding ngimna tawh kilaih gawpna dingin mainawtna (revolutionaries movements) piang zelzel hi," ci hi.

Tu hun pen leitung bup kizopna hun (globalisation) hun hita a, Immanuel Wallestien in World System Theory a gelhna ah sum bawlna pen a meet a sumbawlna (capitalist) model in hong ukkhum ta hi a cih bangin sum bawl paai bawlna leh social media hangin leitung bup pen khuata khat (global village) suak ta hi. Khualzinna ding, kimuhtuahna ding leh thukizaktuahna ding baihlam mahmah ta hi. British ten Zomite thu dong lopi leh Zomite thukimna lopi in gam thum in hong khen mawk uh a, gamgi zik tawm tawh hong khen ziau uh pen thuman het lo hi a, na mahmah hi. A gimgi zik uh pen international boundary suak a, tua in hong khen hangin Zomite pen i sisan, i pau, i lai, i ngeina leh i lungsim ah a kikhen thei dingte i hi ngei kei hi. I mipil i misiam ten hih bawl tawm gamgi pen satsiatna dingin hong hanciam in, mipite kipumkhat peuh leng kipumkhat kik ngei lo ding hi hang kua tua kua ta in ci thei tuan lo ding a, ei kipumkhat nuam peuh in, lawngkhat in ginkhawm in, kithutuak peuh leng Zomite kipumkhat kikna ding pen ziinmang leh leitung thukham/thukhun in zong hong khen zo tuan lo ding hi. Pumkhat ding, ki-it ding, kithutuah ding hong deih i Pasian muang in, i kipumkhat kikna ding hanciam peuh leng ni khat ni teh hong tung peelmawh lo dingin ka um hi. Ziinmang hong khen hi kei, Sianmang hong khen hi kei e, Mikangte leh Ind0-Myanmar gamgi zik tawm hong khen hi e; ei tung bang kigawm kik nuam leng kua'n gibang hong khen zo diam?


[Source: Alexander Mackenzie, The North East Frontier of India; S. B. Carey. & H. N.Tuck., The Chin Hills; Oomen, T.K., 1997, Citizenship, Nationality and Ethnicity (Reconciling competing Identities), Polity  Press; Quora)

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Item Reviewed: ZOMITE HONG KIKHENNA THU TOM KIM. Agelh ~ Thang Khan Lian Description: Rating: 5 Reviewed By: Cinpu Zomi
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